Do You Know How to Properly Hydrate? It’s Not as Straightforward as You Might Think

Cropped shot of a young man drinking a glass of water at homeHydration seems like it should be so easy: drink some water, go about your day, the end. Back in this blog’s early days, and when I first published The Primal Blueprint, my hydration advice was simple: drink when you’re thirsty.

Over the years, however, my thinking on the hydration issue has become more nuanced. When I updated and expanded the most recent edition of The Primal Blueprint in 2016, I expanded on that basic advice to include more details about what we should be drinking and how much.

For the most part, I still think that “drink to thirst” is a sound strategy for the average person. Your body has a built-in, well-regulated thirst mechanism that will keep you from becoming dehydrated in normal circumstances. However, some folks, like the endurance athletes in the crowd, would be wise to take a more intentional approach.

Benefits of Proper Hydration and How It’s Regulated

Hydration is a critical component of optimal health. Digestion, muscle contraction, circulation, thermoregulation, and neurologic functioning all rely on having appropriate fluid balance in the body.

Your brain and kidneys are constantly working to maintain optimal hydration status. When you become even slightly dehydrated, several things happen. First and foremost, your blood osmolality (concentration) increases. Dehydration can also cause a decrease in blood volume and, often, blood pressure.

The brain and kidneys sense these changes and release hormones and hormone precursors designed to restore homeostasis.1 For example, the pituitary gland releases an anti-diuretic hormone called vasopressin, or AVP, which tells the kidneys to hold on to water. Blood vessels constrict. Most importantly, a brain region known as the lamina terminalis initiates the powerful sensation we know as thirst.

Pay Attention to Your Thirst!

For most people, proper hydration is as simple as 1, 2, 3.

1) Tune in to your body’s thirst sensations and respond accordingly.

2) Tailor your fluid intake to your individual needs. Rules like “drink at least eight eight-ounce glasses of water” or “drink half your body weight in ounces” are all well and good, but they might not be right for you. There’s not a lot of scientific support for those nuggets of conventional wisdom. Some days you might need less or considerably more.

3) Make appropriate adjustments for exogenous factors like climate and exercise. When it’s very hot, or you’re sweating buckets during some long endurance event, it’s best to stay on top of hydration rather than waiting for thirst to kick in.

Don’t Become Waterlogged

You can have too much of a good thing. While I’m all about the trend of carrying stainless steel water bottles everywhere we go for environmental reasons, there’s never any call to drink literal gallons of water. In fact, drinking too much can bring about the dangerous condition of hyponatremia, where excess fluid compromises the all-important sodium balance in your blood.

Hyponatremia can quickly become debilitating and even fatal. You may have heard the news stories of novice marathon runners losing consciousness after over-hydrating or radio station contestants drinking themselves to death in water-chugging contests.

By and large, your kidneys can deal with you drinking more water than you need within reasonable limits. You’ll just pee it out. Still, there’s no reason to force yourself to drink water beyond your natural thirst.

Salt: A Hydration Gamechanger

Maintaining proper fluid balance isn’t just about how much water you have in your body but also the concentration of key minerals, notably sodium. When you become dehydrated, you may experience not only thirst but also salt cravings.2

Salt continues to get a bad rap, though thankfully the tide of conventional wisdom seems to be turning as more people recognize that salt is not the enemy. Salt—or rather, sodium—is essential in the truest sense of the word. Without enough, and without the right balance between salt and other minerals, our bodies literally cannot function.

Sodium helps transport water through the walls of your small intestines, where 95 percent of fluid absorption takes place. We Primal folks naturally consume less sodium than the average person since a large proportion of most Americans’ dietary sodium comes from hyper-processed foods that we avoid.3 For optimal absorption, I recommend adding a pinch of salt to your water, especially if you’re craving the stuff. You can also make a jar of sole (“soh-lay”) water and add up to a teaspoon to a glass of water.

Do You Need to Add Electrolytes to Your Water?

Sodium is one of the main electrolytes, along with magnesium and potassium. Most Primal folks will get electrolytes by salting their food and consuming a diet containing nose-to-tail animal products and a diverse array of vegetables.

However, keto dieters and hard-charging athletes or other folks who sweat a lot, like those who work outside in hot climates, probably need to add electrolytes to their water to ensure proper fluid balance. Check out my guide to electrolytes on keto. I’ll talk more about considerations for athletes below.

How to Stay Hydrated Without Drinking Water

There’s no question that good ol’ fashioned water is the best, most Primal beverage. Some people tell me they don’t like the taste of water. I can’t relate, but if you’re one of those people, you can also meet your hydration needs with a combination of:

  • Mineral water or any of the sparkling waters on the market
  • Coffee, regular or decaf (no, coffee and caffeine aren’t dehydrating even during exercise4 5)
  • Hot or iced tea
  • Kombucha
  • Bone broth
  • Vegetable or fruit juice, though I’d caution you to limit your consumption of the latter

Still, I’d encourage you to work on embracing water. Maybe you need a water filter to make your tap water taste better. Try adding sliced citrus fruits, berries, ginger, cucumber, and fresh herbs to a pitcher of water to infuse flavor without a ton of sugar.

Remember, too, that we get up to 20 percent of our hydration needs met through food, especially fruits and vegetables. Carniflex enthusiasts, you still get some water from meat and the limited vegetables you might enjoy, but less than an omnivorous diet provides.

Hydration for Athletes

For athletic types and anyone who goes out and works up a serious sweat, the hydration issue is more complicated.

Athletes who engage in endurance sports such as long-distance running, triathlons, or events such as CrossFit competitions put their bodies under considerable physical and metabolic stress. (I won’t lecture you about chronic cardio here, but you know how I feel about it). They have greater-than-average hydration needs because they are losing fluids through sweat and because they need to be adequately hydrated to perform at a high level. Their muscles, digestive tract, and brain are really counting on water, just when it is becoming depleted.

While some incidental dehydration is inevitable during intense exercise, performance, thermoregulation, and recovery depend on being as well-hydrated as possible. Moreover, in the heat of the moment—no pun intended—it can be difficult to right the ship if fluid balance becomes compromised.

Does “Drink to Thirst” Work for Sports Hydration?

Here is where it gets tricky. Athletes need to consider factors including exercise duration and intensity, environment and temperature, training status, heat acclimatization, previous hydration level, diet, and body mass. There is no single best practice for all athletes. However, we can glean some guidelines from the available research.

Many respected scientists, including the inimitable Dr. Timothy Noakes (author of Waterlogged, world-renowned expert on hyponatremia, and low-carb eating enthusiast) and Drs. Marty Hoffman and Kerry Hoffman (Director of Medical Research and Medical Director of the Western States 100-mile endurance run, respectively) still recommend drinking to thirst.6 They don’t prescribe a hydration schedule or “ounces per hour” guidelines even for extreme endurance athletes.

However, there is also ample evidence that the thirst sensation can be suppressed during exercise, even when athletes are experiencing systemic dehydration.7 Plus, in a long, high-stress event like an Ironman, athletes cmay become too mentally and physically taxed to attend to their thirst.

If you are exercising Primally, you are not putting sustained, intense stress on your body (by design!), so you can safely drink to thirst. Likewise, let thirst guide you if you’re only out pounding the pavement for an hour or two in temperate conditions. If you are exercising for more than a few hours or in extreme conditions, I think it is wise to have a hydration plan. Remind yourself to drink periodically and do so if it feels comfortable. Practice your hydration strategy before race day, making an effort to train in similar weather conditions as you’ll likely encounter on the big day. But by all means, never force yourself to drink, especially not large quantities of water without also replacing lost electrolytes.

What to Drink for Optimal Sports Hydration

While plain water is ok, you are better off consuming a solution of water, salt, and glucose or sucrose. Wait, did Mark Sisson really just recommend adding sugar to water?!? I did. Hear me out.

For maximal water absorption, the body requires sodium and glucose or sucrose to facilitate the water transport through channels in the small intestine. This sugar is not for fueling, and it’s not a lot. Your fueling needs are a topic for a different post. I’m talking about a solution of 16 ounces of water, a pinch of salt, and a teaspoon of maple syrup (because it has a good composition of sucrose and glucose).

I do not advise relying on engineered “sports nutrition” drinks in general. They are usually more concentrated and higher in carbohydrates than you need. Those of you who have experienced the dreaded sloshing belly during a marathon know how they can sit in your stomach due to slow gastric emptying.8 Then, once the sugary fluid is in your digestive tract, your body draws stored water into the intestine to dilute it. This has a net dehydrating rather than a rehydrating effect. Ouch!

What’s more, engineered sports drinks like the ubiquitous Gatorade often have undesirable ingredients that I don’t want in my system. I prefer to make my own hydration drink for long, hot days of Ultimate Frisbee. When I know I’ll be sweating a lot, I also increase my electrolyte intake during or after exercise by salting my food more than usual or using an electrolyte product like LMNT.

Beware the Dehydration Sneak Attack

Dehydration can also sneak up on athletes who adopt an ambitious training schedule of back-to-back workouts if they aren’t careful about staying on top of their hydrating needs. Brad Kearns, my co-author on many books including Primal Endurance, sustained severe dehydration and an emergency appendectomy after attempting two high-intensity sprint and strength workouts over four days in 100-plus-degree heat.

The lesson here is that as the athlete stacks up big workouts over time, it’s possible to bring a bit of dehydration to the table at successive workouts. Entering a hard workout slightly under-hydrated, then burning up more energy and generating more heat at the workout, might cause a dehydration spiral. Yes, even if you faithfully down fluids right after the workout until your thirst is temporarily quenched, you’ll find yourself in catch-up mode.

Hydration Accommodations for Female Athletes

As Dr. Sims, exercise physiologist, nutrition scientist, and co-founder of Osmo Nutrition reminds us, “Women are not small men.” Most of what researchers “know” about hydration comes from studies of male athletes. Female hormone cycles can profoundly affect women’s hydration needs.

In particular, during the luteal phase (between ovulation and onset of period), when estrogen and progesterone are high, blood volume and total body sodium are low. At the same time, women have lower homeostatic thresholds for AVP release and thirst.9 This means that women are physiologically closer to being hyponatremic, so they have to be particularly careful not to over-hydrate. (This might be why women are at greater risk for exercise-associated hyponatremia.10)

Dr. Sims advises that women in this phase sodium preload before exercise and hydrate using a water-sodium-sugar solution as described above.11

Designing an Optimal Primal Hydration Strategy

Best practices:

  • For most people, drinking to thirst is still the best recommendation.
  • Drink throughout the day. Keep water handy so it is available if you want it, but don’t force yourself to drink beyond thirst. If you’re constantly drinking water and in the bathroom every 30 minutes, you’re probably just cycling water in and out with no physiological benefit.
  • It’s not enough to drink water; you also have to absorb it. This is where salt comes in. Salt your food to taste, and add a pinch of salt to your water.
  • Eat high-water-content vegetables, plus some fruit if you want.
  • Athletes probably need a more intentional hydration strategy where they plan to check in with their thirst at regular intervals, consume a solution of water + sodium + sucrose or glucose, and replace lost electrolytes. Practice hydration strategies during training to prepare for race day.
  • Female athletes in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycles should consider sodium preloads, particularly before long or hot workouts.

Remember, hydration needs and optimal strategies are idiosyncratic. Just as I advise you to experiment with your diet to find what works best for you, do the same with hydration.

Hydration FAQs

Q: What foods contain the most water?

All food contains some water. Fruits and vegetables contain the most water, so they are the most hydrating. At the top of the list are the ones you’d probably expect: watermelon, cantaloupe, and other melons; lettuce and spinach; berries; celery; and squash.

Q: Does sparkling water hydrate you?

Sparkling water, or carbonated mineral water, is just as hydrating as regular water.12 Sparkling water makes an ideal substitute for soda if you’re trying to cut back on sugar-sweetened beverages. Mix sparkling water with kombucha for a refreshing mocktail.

Q: Is coffee or decaf coffee dehydrating?

Caffeine does have a mild diuretic effect, meaning that it can increase urination. However, the preponderance of evidence confirms that coffee is not dehydrating when consumed in reasonable amounts, meaning two to four cups per day. Go ahead and count your coffee toward your hydration goal.

Q: How do I hydrate fast if I think I might be getting dehydrated?

Unless you show signs of serious dehydration, it’s enough to drink water to thirst with a pinch of salt to increase absorption. Signs of dehydration include extreme thirst, dark urine, dizziness, and confusion. See a doctor immediately if symptoms are severe.

Q: Do I need a home water filter? Is a pitcher filter, reverse osmosis system, or whole-house water filter best?

Plain water is the best way to hydrate. You may want to invest in a water filtration system if you don’t love your water. Pitcher, under-sink, and whole-house filters can all improve the taste and odor of tap water. Check out my guide: How to Choose the Best Water Filter.

About the Author

Mark Sisson is the founder of Mark’s Daily Apple, godfather to the Primal food and lifestyle movement, and the New York Times bestselling author of The Keto Reset Diet. His latest book is Keto for Life, where he discusses how he combines the keto diet with a Primal lifestyle for optimal health and longevity. Mark is the author of numerous other books as well, including The Primal Blueprint, which was credited with turbocharging the growth of the primal/paleo movement back in 2009. After spending three decades researching and educating folks on why food is the key component to achieving and maintaining optimal wellness, Mark launched Primal Kitchen, a real-food company that creates Primal/paleo, keto, and Whole30-friendly kitchen staples.

If you'd like to add an avatar to all of your comments click here!

38 thoughts on “Do You Know How to Properly Hydrate? It’s Not as Straightforward as You Might Think”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  1. Two questions:

    1. Does stevia count as “sugar” in the water? Carbs kill me no matter where they come from, or why I consume them.

    2. What about post-menopausal women–what should THEY do lacking a luteal phase?

    1. As a personal preference, I’ll pass on the sweetener. I don’t like sweetened drinks of any kind although I do love good-tasting water. In fact, it has long been my drink of choice, often with a slice of lemon or lime squeezed in, but plain works just fine for me. I sip it all day long, summer and winter.

    2. Stevia for post-menopausal women can be an issue. Dr. Sarah Ballantyne does not recommend it in The Paleo Approach. She states that it was used for birth control. Was using stevia in my tea and occasion paleo baking and had very little soy [only the soy lecithin in my chocolate.] So, after reading The Paleo Approach, I asked my doctor to test my hormones at my annual physical and estrogen was more than double what it should be for post-menopausal. My doctor was emphatic that I stop using stevia and any soy and scheduled a retest in 1 and 3 months.

  2. I use an old field hand method of determining if I need to add salt. You touch the tip of your tongue with a finger that has been dipped in salt. If you taste salt instantly you are high in salt and should lay off, if there is the briefest delay you are about right. If there is about a second lag, you are low and should supplement. This only works once, and only if you have not eaten lately, i.e., no second opinion until much later.

  3. Really appreciate this nuanced look at hydration, particularly how “extreme” exercise patterns can change the game.

    I practice yoga for 90 minutes each morning and 90 minutes each evening in 105+ degrees (at my current studio, it’s sometimes cranked well over that). Though (at least from a Chinese Medicine perspective), the extreme sweat loss this involves is not balanced or healthy, I’m hooked and have no plan to give it up in the near future.

    That being said, after particularly hot, strenuous practices, I sometimes find myself needing either a mineral-rich Gerolsteiner or a low-sugar kombucha to fully recover. By “recover,” I mean alleviate what, in Chinese Medicine, we call “dispersion thirst” (sort of like the diabetic thirst…one that seems impossible to quench). These are also practically the only times when I might crave a few bites of fruit (otherwise, I don’t have much interest).

    And yet, during one of those classes, the thought of drinking anything sugary (even coconut water) is a complete turn off. Not only does it not digest and make me feel awful, but it makes the class harder and definitely makes that “dispersion thirst” worse. Really cool to read some of the science behind this in todays post!

    1. I do hot yoga as well and have no intention of stopping anytime soon. I am absolutely in love with it. Do you drink anything else besides water to fully recover? Electrolytes supplements ?

      1. Gerolsteiner is particularly high in mineral content…and when that doesn’t do the trick I choose a low-sugar kombucha.

        Otherwise, I find eating well (primal, real, whole food) the rest of the time takes care of my needs.

    2. I practice Iyengar yoga alongside a more free-form style as well – I have to say yoga sessions in such heat as the hot yoga (Bikram) style, resulting in such thirst, aren’t in alignment with my understanding of yoga at all or my knowledge of Chinese medicine (including a basic understanding of qigong practice).

      I have an acquaintance who is also a hot yoga fan taking 7 classes a week for 90 minutes and she too appears ‘addicted’ and unwilling to consider other styles or fewer workouts. I wonder what might be going on physiologically that induces this, or perhaps it’s the nature of class that attracts a certain personality type … and I speak as a recovered IM triathlete who was slowly destroying herself with that addiction.

      When I stopped, and reflected I realised there was an awful lot of psychological stuff underpinning the ‘addiction’. Working on my inner self (which is where the heart of yoga actually lies – read about the 8 limbs …) has delivered me to a more balanced position with regard to movement (in all its forms).

  4. These are great. As someone who knows to drink water all day, I wish more people understand this more. Not only does it make you feel better, but most of the time if you are suffering from a headache it could just be from dehydration.

  5. Will a teaspoon of honey do it?! I don’t have access to maple syrup.

    Can I make a 1,000 liter solution of 200ml of coconut water and 800ml of water? Is the sodium/sugar ratio of coconut water ok for this purpose, or is coconut water more sugary than salty?

    1. Frank I’ve seen coconut water in the health food store, looked interesting but had too much sugar. Not sure what the sugar content would be if you make it yourself. Probably OK a couple of times a week pre or post workout, but maybe not something you’d want to drink multiple times a day.

      1. Hello HealthyGuy!

        I don’t know about bottled coconut water. They probably add some sugar since the taste of fresh coconut water is not sugary, they don’t have that many sugars.

        100ml has about 4g of sugar, so if I add 200ml of coconut water to 800ml of water will come up with 8g of sugar for a litter, which is about the same as 1 tablespoon of maple syrup, I guess.

        I live in Brazil and I buy fresh coconut for about 50 cents. 🙂

  6. I have found that I require 64 ounces of clear liquid (water or green tea) every day to feel well. Adding an extra cup of coffee or some other beverage doesn’t help. On workout days and/or in summer and/or after a high-carb meal, I need an extra 16-32 oz. I’m a small person- 5’3″ and 115lb- so this seems like a ton of fluid. I’m wondering now if this is a problem. Am I drinking too much? If I drink less, I feel sluggish and get sweets cravings.

  7. What about then, for a mild sweetening, blackstrap molasses? Lots of minerals, some carbs….

    1. I am curious regarding molasses as well, it is something I have plenty of on hand. I also have honey. Have wanted to get maple syrup for “a while” but it gets pushed back on the shopping list in favor of other things.

      I have a pair of 3 liter bottles that I’ve been filling with water and adding 3/4ths tsp of sea salt to, so about 1/8th tsp per pint. If I get the maple syrup (and my math is correct) then about 2 tbsp of syrup per bottle?

  8. One good thing to do is to drink a large glass of water upon rising IMHO. I put a few drops of some mineral concentrate (which has a fair amount of sodium) and some d-ribose in it. Once a day I will have a glass of water with a lemon squeezed into it, and once a day I will have a shaker full of water with a spoonful of greens.

    1. I wake up and have a large glass of water with magnesium. Great start to the day!

  9. I’m after some advice, it’s been a long time since I’ve ever really felt like I have consumed enough water. Years really. I obviously drink and get water from food but most days this is a single cup (200ml). I often have dry lips and other signs of dehydration. The problem of listening to my thirst is that I am never thirsty. Regardless of how dehydrated I am it’s like my body doesn’t recognise any signals for water. How do I fix this? I’ve been able to drink 600ml the last few days (living in Australia with 37* temps) and hope to increase consumption to where I don’t see and signs of dehydration. But it’s really difficult.

    1. Also in Aus, hot central Qld. I have to work hard outdoors to experience definite thirst. Suspect consumption of 3-4 creamy coffees/ day interferes, that cutting dairy might change that. It’s my fast food, however, when I come in pooped.

      Urine colour and volume is what I use to remind myself to get stuck into the water.

  10. I really appreciate the in depth article regarding HYDRATION, it’s definitely a subject needed for clarification and professional advice. As you mentioned in the article there are many opinions and suggestions but the logic or science behind them are not always solid or very reassuring. Thanks again.

    I would like to know if possible, your feel on carbonated water/ fizzy water ….
    cheers! – Vishal Kawatra

  11. Can you comment on the whole hydration and salt issue for people who have had kidney stones? Already on a low oxalate diet. Thanks.

    1. After my oxalate stone lithotrypsy, I asked my urologist how much water was enough to drink to prevent recurrence. He said that he was more concerned with output than input. So, I measured output, and found that, for me, two extra 16 oz. glasses of water with half an tablet of nuun in each, gave the 1200 – 1500 ml output per 24 hours I was after. Not scarfing kale salad (high in oxalates) was harder.

      1. Tony,

        Thanks, I hadn’t heard of nuun before. I’m already over 2000 ml, so I guess I don’t need to increase my water intake. 🙂

        I’ve been lucky so far, that all of my stones passed on their own, even though they were kind of big. Did lithotripsy go ok for you?

        Tuscan (aka Dino) kale is lower oxalate, if you really miss it.

  12. hmm, I’m a little confused on the glucose/sucrose ratio. You promote the benefits of a “good” ratio of glucose to sucrose. You don’t say what that ratio is, however. In the FAQ section for Osmo Nutrition they say their optimal glucose/sucrose ratio is “proprietary”, so that doesn’t help much. Then you recommend a teaspoon of maple syrup per 16 ounces water. But maple syrup is essentially all sucrose, with a sucrose:glucose ratio of 100:1 or higher, see for detail. Now, a teaspoon of maple syrup is about 5 grams of sugar, so not much sugar to begin with, so perhaps it doesn’t much matter, but it’s still confusing.

  13. I used to agree with “just drink to thirst” but I think there’s some good evidence that we can lose our ability to discern how much water we need as we age. It seems ludicrous–why would nature do that? But other parts do wear out and in my experience, I feel a lot better when I drink a bit more water than I really want and monitor urine color as an indication of hydration. Never thought I’d hear myself say that!

  14. What our your thoughts on ACV , Lemon and Himalayan Salt combination in water drinks ? Is there really great benefits or just a lot of hype ?
    Thank you

  15. I wonder if someone will ever mention sip viz glug versions of intake. Is one better for hydration.

    Also drinking at night if you wake up. I pretty well have to after a sweaty day if I don’t wish to wake with small output. Surprised to hear a nurse who identified as a kidney nurse or somesuch saying adamantly, don’t drink at night. She couldn’t explain why not.

    1. In the ancestral context, they drank a lot all at once (i.e. glugging). Which makes sense, there was no ‘water bottles’ to carry water around. Interestingly, there is also evidence of increased oxytocin levels associated with ‘bulk water drinking.’

      i drink water sometimes at night if I wake up thirsty. I have noticed no difference between drinking and not… that being said, I have also heard recommended from others in this space not to drink anything at all at night. Similar to you, not exactly sure why. But thinking rationally, I don’t think a couple mouthfuls of water in the middle of the night is going to do anything negative to you whatsoever.

  16. I used to drink about 62 ounces of water a day. I noticed as the afternoon wore on I would get colder and colder, having to wear a coat even though the temps didn’t drop. So, I quit that large amount of water, added a pinch of salt to my “drink for thirst” glass as well as to my coffee and that has helped. I have low body temperature to begin with and all that water was cooling me off too much. I went low carb and found out that I need to add more salt to my life to keep the muscle cramps away. I now also add magnesium to my coffee as well.

    1. Hi 2Rae Same here. I now only drink warm water and to thirst. I use a mineral salt – grey celtic sea salt. Also a spoon of molasses which Mark said were very high in minerals cos cane sugar roots very deep in the earth. I am being treated with Chinese medicine for arthritis – which in TCM is all about damp and spleen and kidney energy being too low to clear the damp and move the fluid. Anyway – I am avoiding too much liquid and a lot of salads (cold watery veg).

  17. I use the “sting” test for salt. If my sweat doesn’t sting my eyes, I figure I’m low on salt. I make my own salt pills and I’ll take about 9000 mg (yes, 9g) over the course of a day. It’s about the same as a liter of saline.

    Also, I almost never feel thirsty after aerobic exercise, even if I lose 6 lbs of water on a 3-hour run. For some reason, only anaerobic exercise makes me thirsty.

  18. It’s great article. I really need this article for properly hydrate for me and my family.

    Thanks you so much for sharing this article 🙂

  19. Glad you highlighted the water issue. The weather is getting hot now in Seattle, and I’ve started taking two quart-bottles of water on my Amazon delivery route instead of one. I was just the other day mysteriously faint, I added a pinch of salt to my hard boiled eggs I routinely take on my route. The salt tasted especially good to me, having just read your mailing about salt. I’m thinking I may have been flirting with hyponatremia.

  20. I don’t personally agree with the drink to thirst method as some sedentary individuals will not feel the same “thirst” as active individual. Even remaining sedentary your till need to hydrate especially when considering your sodium in take and sedentary behaviors.
    I enjoy the section on the sports drinks though, the overall sugar content and carb content is a deadly mixture when watching weight gain.

  21. “Drinking to thirst” is the takeaway point for me. I have written about healthy eating, and hydration, but during winter I find myself taking very little water, as opposed to summer.
    So it is best for the body to give direction on hydration patterns.