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Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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November 12, 2008

What’s the Difference Between Primal and Paleo?

By Worker Bee
252 Comments

PaleoWe hear/read it all the time – the comparison of the Primal Blueprint and the so-called Paleo Diet, for which Loren Cordain is the most recognized voice. Sure, it’s a perfectly reasonable association to make, but we thought we’d take some time to address the other side of the coin today.

The Paleo Diet and Primal Blueprint, it’s true, are based on similar evolutionary science. The story goes something like this. Our modern Western diet bears little resemblance to the eating habits of early humans throughout 100,000+ years of evolutionary history. Instead, since the agricultural revolution some mere 10,000 years ago, we’ve adopted a nutritional regime that our physiology wasn’t and still isn’t adequately adapted to. When the basics of our diet return to the patterns of our pre-agricultural ancestors, we’re operating with, instead of against, our natural physiology. More simply: eat as our ancestors ate, and we’ll be healthier for it.

More specifically, the Paleo Diet and Primal Blueprint both suggest, limit carb intake (especially grains), eat more protein and include lots of veggies as a base. But in the midst of this common ground are some significant interpretational differences and approaches. Association, comparison – sure. But conflation? Not so fast.

A fundamental difference? The role of saturated fats. Cordain and many within the paleo community continue to harbor a fear of saturated fats as the bogey that raises cholesterol and instigates heart disease instead of a critical source of nutrients for neurological functioning and other essential physiological processes. Partaking of only lean meats, eschewing butter and coconut oil (two Primal Blueprint favorites based on health benefits supported by extensive research), restricting egg consumption – this is not your Granddaddy Grok’s diet.

As many critics of the Paleo Diet have pointed out, early humans left virtually nothing of the animal carcasses they were so fortunate to bag. And the fact is they favored not the lean muscle meat but the richer organ meats, bone marrow and even fat deposits themselves. Grok, after all, was just trying to get enough calories and nutrients to stay alive from one day to the next. The denser in energy, the more valued the food. (And, can we add here, more tasty?)

And then there’s the discrepancies surrounding other fats. Sure, there’s a general agreement about the importance of omega 3:6 balance, but the particulars diverge. In the Primal Blueprint, unlike Cordain’s version of the Paleo Diet, omega 3 sources like canola oil are suspect. The fact is, the deodorization process that canola oil is nearly always subjected to removes the omega 3 content. But when you’ve written off saturated fat sources (like good old coconut oil), you’re pretty much stuck wading in the murky waters of processed polyunsaturated products. What’s wrong with this picture?

Also at issue is the role of diet sodas (allowed by Cordain) and other artificial sweeteners. The opinion of many in the paleo community is that as long as it’s not sugar, it’s acceptable. Working around the problem like this seems to be nothing more than a manipulation. Although the Primal Blueprint doesn’t demonize the occasional use of artificial sweeteners, it makes the stipulation that its use should be limited to foods or beverages that will inherently add something positive to the diet. In other words, if you aren’t getting anything positive from the meal or drink, you shouldn’t be taking the risk of the artificial sweetener. A better angle? Expand your cooking repertoire. Train your taste buds in the right direction, and don’t let the artificial stuff get in the way of that progress.

Finally and most importantly, the Primal Blueprint works as a broad, holistic approach to living and not simply a list for eating. While the majority of the underlying assumptions and suggestions of the Paleo Diet are generally sound, the diet encompasses only a fraction of what it takes to live a healthy life in the modern world.

The Primal Blueprint recommends wise supplementation appropriate to counter the stressors and toxins unique to our life today. (Grok didn’t have it all bad.) In its fitness and stress management approach, the Blueprint further highlights and capitalizes on our natural physiological functioning. The Blueprint emphasizes the overlap of good diet with essential fitness and relaxation principles to maximize muscle mass and organ reserve and to defend against the inflammation, sarcopenia and other preventable factors behind the aging process.

And isn’t it a comfort to know that power over your health is seated in more than diet? The big picture of a healthy, fit and happy lifestyle involves more than isolating a specific issue. The Primal Blueprint was designed for the purpose of offering a guide for all elements of healthy living. Let’s face it, some days life makes it particularly difficult to have the perfect diet. We like to think of the Primal Blueprint design as a comprehensive cover, so to speak. The knowledge and efforts you exert in each area (diet, fitness, supplementation, stress management, sleep, etc.) can make a difference when the realities of day to day life keep you from doing a 100% in a given area.

So, now we’ll ask you about your experiences with the Primal Blueprint and how you came to it? Did you come to the PB from a Paleo perspective? What are your thoughts on the differences and the added dimensions of the Primal Blueprint?

P.S. What do you think of all the links throughout the article? Too many? Overkill? Distracting? Or do you appreciate the links to archived posts? Thanks for the feedback!

candrews Flickr Photo (CC)

Further Reading:

What is the Primal Blueprint?

Getting Back to Nature

10 Ways to “Get Primal”

What’s Wrong with the Zone Diet?

Weston A. Price Foundation – The Paleo Diet Book Review

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252 Comments on "What’s the Difference Between Primal and Paleo?"

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Bill
Bill
7 years 10 months ago

Mark, all i can say is hurry up and get that book ready it’s taking forever.And i also believe saturated fat is king.

Bill

Another Mark
Another Mark
7 years 10 months ago

I learned about Paleo years ago, but didn’t really get motivated to make significant changes until I started reading this and a couple other blogs. I always assumed that the PB was Paleo. Thanks for pointing out the differences.

And the links are fine in my opinion. I mostly ignore them unless I want deeper information.

Ron
7 years 10 months ago

Mark, I just recently discovered you PB site through a link from Jimmy Moore. I had no idea such a plan existed, but you’ve answered my question concerning the contrast/comparison between PB and Paleo with this post. As a newbie to your site I really appreciate this timely article. Look forward to more informative posts from you…you’re now on my Google Reader! Ron, aka The Former Donut Junkie.

Chris - Zen to Fitness
7 years 10 months ago

Very cool post and something I think needed to be addressed. I think one of the main things to take out of this is the more flexible approach of the primal blueprint which makes life far more relaxed and allows for the lifestyle to be easily integrated into our everyday lives.
Looking forward to the book!

Tony
7 years 10 months ago
I just finished reading The Paleo Diet for Athletes. I thought it was very informative, and plan to read through it again. Still trying to figure out what is best for me, an aspiring ultramarathoner, in terms of the carb/fat/protein balance, so all the info I can get helps. After moving closer to a Primal diet I have realized that carbs have a somewhat negative impact on me, so I need to figure out how to balance that out with the needs I have for post-exercise recovery. I will say I was skeptical of the Paleo Diet’s stance on saturated… Read more »
Andrew R
7 years 10 months ago
Hey Mark, To answer your questions, yes, I came to MDA and the Primal Blueprint from a Paleo Diet perspective (as far as nutrition is concerned). I had actually stumbled on the Paleo way of eating as a result of my research to find a more complete diet that would help people to change the way they eat for good. That is, I thought to myself: “Is there a diet out there that can lead people to live a healthier lifestyle indefinitely?” The added dimensions of the Primal Blueprint provide a completely different level of interpretation with regards to overall… Read more »
primalman
primalman
7 years 10 months ago

So what are the differences between the PB diet and the Westin Price diet?

Don Wiss
6 years 6 months ago

The Weston-Price diet encourages dairy, preferably raw. And they recommend whole grains, which they have you soak, sprout, or ferment to neutralize phytic acid and enzyme inhibitors.

John Campbell
John Campbell
7 years 10 months ago
Excellent post – I had not really sat down and analyzed the important differences you pointed out. I agree with your assessment and I find myself much more on the Primal side than the Paleo. I started with this several years ago with Atkins – I cut back on sugar and less bread etc – I lost some weight and definitely knew there was something to this, but drifted away. I considered Atkins too extreme – scraping the toppings off of pizza? Crazy. As I approached 50 and saw my aging parents deteriorating, I stumbled upon Art Devany’s site and… Read more »
Steve Watkins
Steve Watkins
5 years 9 months ago
Totally agree with you. I am a 46 year old man and what drew me to PB is the more balanced, less-hardcore approach. I found immediate good results by changing my workouts and incorporating occasional sprints. I play with my kids and go for a good old-fashioned evening stroll every night. The diet works great for me. I started buying really good quality butter and meat, and changed my cooking style (I do most of the family cooking) to be a bit more French e.g. saute veggies in butter rather than olive oil, slow cooking meats. I just avoid the… Read more »
Ryan
7 years 10 months ago
Mark, One thing I have always questioned about the PB is your use of butter, and less so, eggs. I know you aren’t saying to put butter on everything, but Grok hardly had access to butter, nor the means to make butter. I’d even argue that he had limited access to eggs, and probably just as limited way to cook eggs. I am not arguing the benefits of both, just why they are held so highly in the PB (unless its to educate readers on the benefits of them) if they weren’t readily available to Mr. Grok. As for the… Read more »
Robert M.
Robert M.
7 years 10 months ago

The combination of saturated fats and carbohydrates may be harmful, especially if carbohydrates are hydrogenating the fats to make them transaturated. I would, love, love to see a study of animal fats from ranched grass-fed cow compared to caged, corn-fed cow and the composition thereof.

Medical science (which is just statistics applied to observations) is typically poor at separating variables. This is because most medical doctors are poor at math and don’t understand what they are doing when they apply various statistical methods.

Jedidja
7 years 10 months ago

I think it’s great to have articles linked to wherever possible! It doesn’t matter if they are archives, externals, or anything else: the more information that’s easily accessible, the better.

Methuselah - Pay Now Live Later
7 years 10 months ago
To be honest I have always regarded the term ‘Paleo Diet’ as a generic one that refers to a diet that mimics what our hunter gatherer forefathers ate, rather than something proprietary to Cordain and others. This may just be my own flawed perception. Since you mention the use of supplementation. I have a question. Whilst I recognise that we are exposed to more toxins in the modern world that Grok would have been, I have always considered that we also have more consistent access to quality fruit and vegetables – far more than Grok would have been lucky enough… Read more »
Sebastien
6 years 3 months ago
I realize that this is an old post, but I stumbled upon this comment and think it’s interesting. I also think that the Paleo diet is a concept of eating like our ancestors and that it’s not a concept owned by Cordain and al. I personally am way more on the side of generous amounts of saturated fats, but still call it the Paleo diet when referring to it. The movement is quite young and as it gains traction and attention, if people believe in a high saturated fat version of the Paleo diet, Dr. Cordain will have to change… Read more »
Donnersberg
Donnersberg
5 years 5 months ago
I just take the best from whatever makes most sense and apply it to myself. I eat according to the PB… but add raw goat’s milk… and add WAPF odd things to my diet such as bone broths, lots of organ meats, including eyeballs. My only supplement is a red mineral clay and Fermented Cod Liver Oil / HV Butter Oil Blend as suggested by WAPF. I can tell ya, my hair and nails are growing like nuts. My teeth are hard and strong and I can only imagine my bones are, too. Hair, Nails and Teeth are kind of… Read more »
Christine
Christine
7 years 10 months ago

The whole allowing artificial sweeteners would have put me off of Paleo if I had managed to come across it before PB… The fact that it’s all essentially chlorinated sugar and impossible for our bodies (or the rest of the environment, for that matter) to break down makes it one of those things I avoid like the plague. If I’m going to bomb a diet or lifestyle for something ridiculously sweet, it’s going to be real.

j d wilson
j d wilson
7 years 10 months ago
As attractive as the Paleo Diet is, I find it subject to one big logical fallacy. Wikipedia defines the fallacy as “Denying the Antecedent.” They give a good example: “If Queen Elizabeth is an American citizen, then she is a human being. Queen Elizabeth is not an American citizen, therefore she is not a human being.” The Paleo Diet maintains “that if Grok ate it, its good for you. Therefore, if Grok didn’t eat it, then its bad for you.” This seems more like dogma than science. There are many foods which Grok didn’t eat simply because they weren’t available.… Read more »
Ben
Ben
5 years 6 months ago

*very* good remark about “denying the antecedent”!

Donna
Donna
7 years 10 months ago

Since i’ve been eating primal, i’ve felt better than i ever have before, wish i would of eaten this way all my life, but unfortunately, i didn’t. It’s never too late to change from eating bad foods and start eating primal and feel your best.

SuperMike
SuperMike
7 years 10 months ago
I came to PB via Art De Vany a little over two years ago. At that time I thought I was eating the right way, egg whites, oatmeal, not much fruit, whole wheat bread and lean meats. But I always felt sluggish and could never really get lean enough to see my abs clearly (a long time goal.) Being 53 years old didn’t help either. My metabolism slowed down a lot after 40 and even more after 50. So I would work out even more and that would just make me hungrier and cause me to eat more of the… Read more »
Mike
Mike
4 years 7 months ago

I am new here, yes believe it or not coming from a fruitarian point of view. Do the feast and famine days help alleviate thyroid issues from low carb? I have read over and over low carb diets lead to the thyroid slowing metabolism thinking the body is dying. Has Mark covered this?

primalman
primalman
7 years 10 months ago

SuperMike! – your one of my idols.

I can say the same things as you. I know that it is not high science, but I tried it in a simple “A-B” design and I feel and look waaaay better.

Kloep
Kloep
7 years 10 months ago

I was unaware of the discrepancy between paleo and primal. Thanks for clearing that up.

I also like the links. I’m relatively new to MDA and constantly find myself following those links.

Thanks

Mark Sisson
7 years 10 months ago

Yeah, SuperMike is one ripped dude, primalman. Have you seen the pics of him in the testimonials section?

http://www.marksdailyapple.com/primal-testimonials/

I’m glad everybody appreciates all the links. The Worker Bees and I will continue to seed all posts with a ton of links.

There are a lot of good questions and comments here. I’ll try to get to them soon. Thanks, everyone.

Son of Grok
Son of Grok
7 years 10 months ago

Thank you for the clarification Mark. Before reading this, I would have sometimes describe my diet as paleo. But now I know taht it is not… it is truly primal. Especially due to the saturated fats, coconut, and most importantly EGGS!

The links are good. I try to scour the archives as much as possible but i miss things and they certainly help me catch up.

Mark
7 years 10 months ago

Fantastic article Mark! I came to the PB lifestyle via the Paleo community and can only now really appreciate the differences. Keep the links coming! I’m sure it adds to production time but they create a ton of value for your readers!

Nick
7 years 10 months ago

I like all the links throughout the article! Great stuff as usual.

Tal
Tal
7 years 10 months ago
Hi, a long time lurker here but this article intrigued me. I do not remember how I stumbled on your fantastic website/blog but I am glad I did. From my understanding of the Paleo diet I notice a few other differences as well. Firstly the Paleo Diet (Dr Cordian) severely limits all dairy products (milk butter yogurt, etc…) as well as legumes (beans, lentils, peanuts etc…) and even yeast containing foods (baked and fermented foods). Now I do not necessarily agree with this (I like raw cheeses and enjoy olives and sauerkraut from time to time) but it is a… Read more »
Elizabeth @ The Young Retiree

I just started what I thought was Paleo, and my very first recipe had shredded coconut and coconut oil in it. I also cut out diet soda and the like of artificial sweetener. Just like you said, I thought that’s what Paleo was… so I guess I’m somewhere in between PB and Paleo since I’m not too keen on eggs without cheese so I’m not giving that up… I guess I’m just making it up as I go with the PB/Paleo as my guide!

Carla
Carla
7 years 10 months ago

I LOVE all the links! It helps me catch up with all the older articles I’ve never read… 🙂

dragonmamma
dragonmamma
7 years 10 months ago

Never knew there was a difference. I went straight from a body-builder’s diet (tons of protein, carbs surrounding the workout) to the stuff I’ve learned from you.

Never too many links–I love links!

Dr Dan
7 years 10 months ago
Well I guess I am a bit of a paleo groupie. However, I find your postings very interesting. I do have a huge battle in my head about the saturated fats dilemma. But the fact remains, that even though our ancestors went for these fats, they would have been extremely low in wild game. As a result they would never have obtained as much saturated fat as we do and the saturated fat content would still be low. Based off this I just don’t go there and trim the fat off of meat. I would be interested also in a… Read more »
Dr Dan
7 years 10 months ago
Sorry I just checked his website and this was a summary of his reply to Sally Fallon who also stated that hunter gatherers always preferred organ meats. Quoting “There is no doubt that hunter-gatherers ate the entire edible carcass of animals that were hunted and killed, and the fatty portions of the carcass were relished more than the lean muscle tissue. We have pointed this information out in many of our scientific papers.” “Studies of caribou over a 12-month period show that the total carcass (organs and all) fat by weight for 7 months of the year average less than… Read more »
Danielle Thalman
7 years 10 months ago
I gave up wheat, dairy and sugar because I just get sick as a dog with a variety of symptoms when I eat those things. I can get away with about 80 grams of carbs per day, out of my 4K calorie diet. A doctor at a famous university hospital said to eat more carbs even if they gave me the runs and caused sinus congestion and weight loss, but that didn’t make sense to me. Another doc told me to just keep on doing what I was doing. He said it was called the Paleo Diet and I was… Read more »
Steve Liberati
7 years 10 months ago

I said it several times before on the CrossFit forums…and I repeat:

Mark is the new Art Devaney!

and…

Primal is the new Paleo! (i kick myself in the butt for calling my kits Paleo, and not Primal. (ohh well too late!)

Art D and Paleo are etched in most of our minds as a result of being the first true messengers of the information. I remember in business class, they referred to it as the first mover advantage. I think Primal is quickly starting to take over though and becoming more widely accepted.

Kudos to Mark for his fine work!

Amanda
7 years 10 months ago
I love this post! Thanks so much. I came to the PB because of a) my “I want to live like a cavegirl” approach to life (which I now realize was incomplete) and b) because MDA helped me realize what my previous approach was missing. I’m not perfect about the PB, obviously, but the mentality behind living as our ancestors (or, rather, their ancestors’ ancestors’ ancestors) did is almost spiritual to me and allows me to approach my life with a greater calm than fumbling around aimlessly for a healthy lifestyle, which changes by society’s definitions daily. Following the PB?… Read more »
Shaun
Shaun
7 years 10 months ago
I consider myself a pretty hard core paleo eater (and have been for years) and I do not agree with most of the differences that you have highlighted. If you eat based upon the paleo philosophy (what man ate in paleo times), then sweeteners and sodas are not allowed and you eat any fat that gets in the way. I think that pure paleo and the PB eating are identical, as they both come from the same starting philosophy. I use the following to define my paleo diet: No • Grains (wheat/rice/oats etc) • Dairy (milk/yogurt/butter/cheese etc) • Refined foods… Read more »
Dr.Pierre Debs
Dr.Pierre Debs
7 years 10 months ago

To Tony,

Hi Tony, I am also a paleo/primal Ultra Marathoner ( Mountian Biking) To fuel my training, I simply replaced all grain-based carbs with dried fruits: apricots, figs, dates. For races, I inject with a needle, honey into the same fruits and put them into a a small ziplock baggy and stuff it in my trikot. For training, I eat Halva which is sesame and honey.

Works great!

good luck,

Pierre

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[…] to Mark Sisson, over at Mark’s Daily Apple, I suppose I am actually more “Primal” than I am “Paleo” since (among a few […]

Mary
7 years 10 months ago
I don’t remember how I found your site – it was linked on someone’s blog and I just started checking it regularly because the articles are interesting. I started with a Zone diet, I tweaked it into a version of the athlete’s Zone (less carbs, more fat), started eating only Paleo foods in those proportions, and then tweaked it a little further by eliminating nightshades, eating more sat fat and lots of eggs. Now, I eat a Zone-ish Paleo/Primal diet with about 8x Zone fat blocks. I usually keep track of how many Zone blocks mainly so I can tell… Read more »
Earth Beauty
7 years 10 months ago

Great Blog Mark. I just quit sugar two days ago, and when I was offered me sugar free cookies I said no thank you! To me that is worse than eating ice cream with sugar in it. I love my coffee with half and half, in fact I crave it in the mornings. I plan on being sugar free until December 12th…

Mark Sisson
7 years 10 months ago
primalman – Good thought. I may do a difference between Weston Price and PB post in the future. Methuselah – Great question. It’s one I get often. I’ll be doing a Dear Mark post sometime in the near future to address your questions about the Primal Blueprint and supplementation. (Hint: I think it’s a crucial part of a healthy life in the modern world.) Chris – I’m glad this point comes across clearly. Flexibility is essential for long term success. The PB takes this into account. To Steve, SuperMike, Donna and everyone else, thank you for the support and the… Read more »
primalheather
primalheather
2 years 3 months ago

I think Westin A price is a HUGELY valuable resource for people who might find themselves in a “food desert”. There could be times where access to the very best food is limited and knowing how to make cheap bad food, much better could be a life saving knowledge.

trackback

[…] have noticed while reading a lot of blogs, on eating in a paleolithic format, that saturated fats are completely acceptable. In contrast, Dr […]

TrailGrrl
TrailGrrl
7 years 10 months ago
Mark, Great website. I used to be bummed on the weekend when there wasn’t a new MDA, but then I started looking forward to the new links on Weekend Love Link that took me to some other great sites. I like the links to previous stuff because sometimes it’s hard to find what you want in the archive. The first books to get me thinking about eating good food was the French paradox stuff and Real Food by Nina Planck, as well as a link to the Weston Price foundation from Ross Enamait’s boxing page (since he obviously is built… Read more »
Joy Beer
Joy Beer
3 years 8 months ago

I just thoroughly enjoyed your comment! Hate to have it just buried in a comment… blog it?

LMAO: “F@#$ brown rice.” and totally love this… “I think the taking charge and making yourself responsible is the key element.”

Mark Sisson
7 years 10 months ago

TrailGrrl –

Thanks for taking the time to post your comment. It’s a great story; one that I think will resonate with a large number of MDA readers.

We post as early as possible every morning. This usually means before 9am PST. Unfortunately, this means east coasters have to wait until noon(!) to get their daily dose of MDA.

Thanks for the comment again. I’d love to hear you chime in from time to time if you’re up for it. We always appreciate thoughtful responses.

Cheers!

Timber
Timber
7 years 10 months ago
I like all the links- I can remember concepts but always have to waste time tracking the articles down when I want to get a refresher or the specifics. One of my good friends awakened the whole lifestyle to me via DeVany’s site (and I still thank that friend everyday). Now its become an obsession and I check about 30 health blogs a day (with yours, Eades, modern forager, The IF Life, and T-Nation at the top). The more I read, the more I started to see flaw from DeVany and Cordain- especially after I was introduced to the whole… Read more »
Donna
Donna
7 years 10 months ago

Mark,
We all thank YOU for having MDA to come to every day and educating us to better health, you are “appreciated” by all us apples!
And you make this site so much fun, as well, totally “UPBEAT!!!!”

Donna
Donna
7 years 10 months ago

Aaron,
Thank you also for all your hard work researching to bring us the best of knowledge, YOU are appreciated, also!!!

wflnc
wflnc
7 years 10 months ago
I started reading various health blogs about a year ago when DH’s bloodsugar was slightly elevated. The doc’s weren’t sure why – he’s fit, trim, ate right and exercised. We already eat well – organic & grass fed, belonged to a CSA, etc. many tests later, he seems to be gluten/casein sensitive, but not celiac. This got me reading about Paleo, but I was also reading Hyperlipid and Whole health Source (these 2 make more sense) and ended up here. Drop the grains, drop the dairy (wow- wicked casein withdrawals!) and things are much better. The links are very helpful… Read more »
Brian PCF
7 years 10 months ago

Love the article and especially the links.

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7 years 10 months ago

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Larry Sloma
Larry Sloma
7 years 10 months ago

I went from not walking (wheelchair) to walking with change in diet from junk to gluten free, organic, fats, proteins, milk from goats, organic eats (little), no chemicals, no drugs, nothing artificial in drinks, eats, treats, no sugars and lots of supplements. I am not primal not paleo consuming the way God made it naturally. It works.

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[…] from selling supplements. We don’t talk too much about it here on MDA, but I get enough questions on this topic, that I felt it was time to explain exactly why I choose to manufacture and take […]

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[…] What’s the Difference Between Primal and Paleo? […]

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