Meet Mark

Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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February 07 2012

Why You Should Eat Sulfur-Rich Vegetables

By Mark Sisson
177 Comments

“Be sure to eat your sulfur.”

When’s the last time someone told you that? Except for the Wahls talk, probably never. My mother certainly didn’t.

Few people even know much about sulfur besides the whole rotten egg, fire and brimstone thing. It’s a mineral with a role in our physiology, but it doesn’t showboat like the obscenely corporeal calcium, forming bones and teeth that you can literally feel and see. It won’t immediately soothe your restless muscles or put you right to sleep, like magnesium. Unlike zinc, it doesn’t figure prominently in the production of a sexy hormone like testosterone. And though you can take iodine and get an instant reaction from your thyroid, taking sulfur doesn’t produce anything tangible. In short, sulfur lurks in the background and keeps a low profile.

So why does Terry Wahls promote the consumption of three cups of sulfur-rich vegetables every day?

Before we get to that, let’s define what we’re discussing here. What exactly qualifies as a sulfur-rich vegetable? Any and all fibrous non-leafy (although some have leaves, they’re never the culinary focus) usually-green vegetables that steam well and emit a distinctive, offensive-to-some odor probably contain considerable amounts of sulfur and can be called “sulfur-rich”:

  • Brassicas – cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, bok choy, and related vegetables.
  • Alliums – onions, shallots, garlic, leeks.
  • Lots of edible stalks, lovely smells if you cook it wrong, and a tendency to go well with lemon butter. That sort of thing.

Back to Wahls’ recommendation to eat more sulfur. What’s the justification for it?

Well, by weight, sulfur is one of the most abundant mineral elements in the human body, coming in at around 140 grams for the average person. And as any regular reader of this blog should know, you don’t get to be an abundant mineral in human physiology by accident. Nope: sulfur is involved in hundreds of physiological processes. Let’s explore some of the big ones:

Sulfur is required for the synthesis of glutathione, one of our premier endogenous antioxidants. I’ve talked a bit about glutathione before. It’s one of the good ones.

Sulfur, in the form of disulfide bonds, provides strength and resiliency to hair, feathers, and feathered hair.

Sulfur is required for taurine synthesis. Taurine is essential for proper functioning of the cardiovascular system, our muscles, and the central nervous system.

Sulfur binds the two chains of amino acids that form insulin. It may seem like we bag on insulin a lot, but it’s absolutely necessary for life.

Sulfur is found in methionine, an essential amino acid (think meat, eggs, cheese), and in cysteine, a “non-essential” amino acid (think pork, poultry, eggs, milk).

But wait a minute. If sulfur can be found in all the animal foods we’re already eating – beef, chicken, eggs, pork, dairy – what’s the point of eating all those sulfur-rich vegetables?

There are two reasons, I think, for focusing on “sulfur-rich” vegetables. First, it’s helpful to group things. We’ve got the leafy greens, we’ve got the brightly colored produce (more on this next week), and we’ve got the sulfurs. We want to eat things from all three categories, and making the latter a separate group ensures that we won’t “overdose” on spinach. It’s just a neat, slick way to get the pro-vegetable message across and increase variety of intake. Second, and most importantly, sulfur-rich vegetation tends to come with extremely potent organosulfur compounds that offer a lot of benefit to those who eat them. Animal sources may contain plenty of sulfur-rich amino acids, which we undoubtedly require, but they don’t contain the organosulfur compounds.

Let’s explore them and go over a few of their potential benefits.

Alliums and Their Allyl Sulfur Compounds

Garlic, onions, shallots, and leeks all contain various organosulfur compounds, some of which show major potential.

Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds have shown promise as anti-cancer operatives in in vitro studies.

Various garlic sulfides protected mice from peroxidative damage and increased glutathione activity in the liver. The garlic sulfides were delivered via corn oil, but I would recommend garlic butter if you’re looking for a fatty vessel.

When cooking meat, using an onion and garlic-based marinade reduced the formation of heterocyclic amines (a carcinogenic compound).

Onion-derived sulfur compounds improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic rats (but garlic-derived compounds did not).

Brassicas and Their Various Organosulfur Compounds

Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound found in broccoli (especially the sprouts), cabbage, brussel sprouts, and cauliflower, inhibited mitochondrial permeability and reduced oxidative stress by increasing glutathione activity in rats.

In inhabitants of a Chinese farming community, where airborne pollution is high and liver cancer incidence is elevated, drinking a sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout drink was also able to increase the urinary excretion of those airborne pollutants.

Broccoli sprouts reduced oxidative stress in type 2 diabetics, as shown in a double blind placebo-controlled trial.

Organosulfur compounds from all kinds of brassicas have the potential to reduce or counteract the carcinogens derived from high-heat cooking.

Eating brassicas along with a carcinogen salad prevented the absorption of said carcinogens.

How to Prepare These Vegetables (and Preserve Their Compounds)

You can’t just go eat a head of cabbage like an apple, or throw together a lovely salad of raw onion, raw garlic, and raw broccoli stalks. I mean, you could, but it’d be pretty unpleasant. No, you want to cook these vegetables, because they taste better and are likely more nutritious that way. But you also don’t want to miss out on all the delightful organosulfur compounds we’ve been discussing. You want the optimal prep method – or close to it.

Onions and Garlic

If it’s beneficial allyl sulfur compounds you want to consume, eating your alliums raw and sliced is the ticket. Heat breaks down the compounds. The only problem is that those same allyl sulfur compounds that might fight cancer, boost antioxidant status, and ward off liver damage are the very things that make raw onion and garlic so pungent and unpalatable. Some people enjoy the stuff raw – not me, besides a little chopped garlic in my salad dressings and some raw onion on a salad – but most prefer them cooked. Luckily, studies suggest that by slicing your alliums and letting them sit for at least ten minutes before cooking, you allow the myrosinase enzyme to release more allyl sulfur compounds and make them more resistant to heat.

Broccoli

Steaming is the way to go. One study found that lightly steaming broccoli rendered the sulforaphane three times more bioavailable than after heavily cooking it. I like to steam my broccoli until it’s bright green and tender enough to pierce the stalk with a fork with an emphatic push. Soggy, dull green broccoli is the worst – and it’s not nearly as beneficial. One group of scientists corroborate my method, saying that three to four minutes of light steaming – until “tough-tender” – is ideal.

Cabbage

Again, research confirms that lightly steamed cabbage offers more bioavailable organosulfur compounds than cabbage cooked at high heat in the microwave. Chop it up to your desired consistency. Let sit for a few minutes so the myrosinase gets to work. Stick to four or five minutes of steaming. Then, toss with your fat of choice. If you want to microwave, use the low or medium setting.

Cauliflower

Cut into small florets, let sit for ten minutes (to let the myrosinase enzyme do its work and make the glucosinates more available), and steam or bake. I’m a big fan of baked cauliflower tossed with turmeric, curry powder, cayenne, salt, and olive oil.

Brussels Sprouts

Although I’m sure the “best” way to cook sprouts (like all the other brassicas) is to quarter and steam them for five minutes, I can’t help but think you’re missing out on the perfect opportunity for some prime caramelization in the oven. So yeah, I’ll steam Brussels sprouts and toss with butter or olive oil and enjoy them just fine, but every once in awhile I’ll finish those suckers off in the oven on high.

Everything Else

Slicing, sitting, and steaming is always a safe bet.

For all these foods, try to embrace the bitterness. Love the bite, because that bite and that bitterness means you’re getting those interesting compounds. Enjoy the crispness of lightly cooked brassicas from time to time. It may take some getting used to, and you might have to play with different flavor combinations so that the bitterness will work, but you’ll be pleasantly surprised. Avoid the mush.

As I mentioned in the greens post, three cups a day are probably unnecessary. Just try a bunch from the ones I’ve listed, see what you like, and try to get some sort of sulfur-rich vegetable into your mouth at least a few times a week. Or, go all out and give the three cups a day routine a shot. You might really like it and thrive on it.

What’s your favorite sulfur-rich vegetable? How do you eat it? Let me know in the comment section!

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177 thoughts on “Why You Should Eat Sulfur-Rich Vegetables”

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    1. Me, too. But please be aware that raw brassica foods have goitrogens that have a negative impact on the thyroid.

        1. I have been eating fairly massive quantity of cabbage almost daily for more than a year. I too was worried about thyroid issues. I’ve had full blood work done recently and learned that I do not have any thyroid problems. My doctor went as far to say that I can have as much cabbage as I want and it still shouldn’t be an issue.

    2. I totally agree!! I think that as far as maintaining nutritional value goes (in non-animal foods), raw is most effective. While I love many of the recipes and totally respect Mark for his insight and contribution to the healthy lifestyle, I would be totally **stoked!!** to see more raw recipes, and a discussion of the advantages (and disadvantages) of raw food. I would totally eat that up!

      1. Mark,would like to ask how long should we baked cauliflower in the oven? And temperature settings to whic temp?

      2. I agree. Raw is best. Enzymes in tact. There are some recipes available, but still scarce in my opinion. Please keep telling your friends and family about raw foods and maybe we can start a movement 😉

    3. Great read, Thanks Mark… However, I would not use a microwave for anything…

      1. I have not used microwave for over a year, and noticed a difference in the food: tastier and juicer when prepared in a steamer.

  1. What about for those following FODMAP eating guidelines? My stomach can’t handle most of these vegetables (especially onions).

    1. This is true for a lot of folks. I think that once you avoid FODMAPS for a long time and heal your gut, then you can re-introduce them one by one. You may be able to consume them then just fine.

      Someone please tell me if I am wrong!

    2. I’m in the same boat on the FODMAPs. I was thinking as I read this, these things are all FODMAPS! Maybe the staulks of vegies like chard are things we can eat and get sulphur from? I’ve been looking into it but the FODMAP lists are inconsistent; I think we have to experiment. Onions have way too much fructose for me too; I noticed a huge improvement when I cut them out of my diet. Carry on FODMAP/Primal friend!

    3. also i ate a bunch of kale after the leafy greens post and my gut’s been sorta rocky then i saw that it’s on the do not eat for FODMAPs list. watercress too and i love that stuff! it’s so hard to know what we can eat and frustrating to try to improve one’s nutrition, only to find out my gut is happier without these greens

      1. The rocky gut may have been from too much too fast. I’d hate to see you give up on kale for that reason. When I first started eating kale I had the same response, it has a ton of fiber and takes getting your system used to it. Maybe start out with no more than a leaf or two stemmed.

        1. Agree with aj. Can’t place the blame entirely on foods when our bodies don’t digest them optimally. The gut works best with adequate flora. Have you ever considered probiotic beverages or foods like kombucha either before or after trying to consume the leafy greens?

  2. I (and my mother and some of our friends) must be amongst the “few people” who know about sulphur. While it may not be as well know as calcium, I didn’t think that it was so obscure. If that’s the case, then you might want to consider covering silica, too.

    Anyway, looks like there is a lot of good leads to follow in this article. And, I am glad to see my preferred cooking methods confirmed. I assume that means that they are safe for removing goitrogens from the brassicas (aka cole crops).

  3. Oh, and now that I think of it – if you want to make a case for eating plant sources of minerals, silica is your guy! The primary sources are plant based – and fish is generally the only animal source on that list. Raw honey is also a source.

    Silica plays an important role in many of the body systems that are mentioned here in relation to sulphur, is beneficial to all healing processes in the body, and slows down the aging processes.

    1. Humans don’t contain silicon in any of our biomolecules. We’re not diatoms and we don’t grow shells.

      There was the idea that alien life might use silicon like we use carbon, but that probably wouldn’t work in an atmosphere containing oxygen. This is because oxidised silicon becomes silicon dioxide (sand) and is hard to get out of the body, unlike carbon dioxide.

      1. There were some studies in the 1970’s that indicated that silicon was an essential mineral in rats, but recent attempts could not replicate these findings and instead saw only minor changes in bone growth. See for example:

        “Increased longitudinal growth in rats on a silicon-depleted diet.” Bone. 2008 Sep;43(3):596-606.

        A free-access review on this topic is:

        “Silicon and bone health.” J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 Mar-Apr;11(2):99-110.

        1. Rat studies? Well, we are probably gonna end up agreeing to disagree – and that’s OK.

          And, after the last comment I made with an active link took DAYS to make it through moderation here, I refuse to provide links.

          If you haven’t seen it already, I made an additional response to your comments elsewhere.

          Take it or leave it – and I really don’t care which it is – here’s what I have to offer (below) that’s readily available online and can be referenced by anyone. And, as I said before, its only the tip of the iceberg where silica is concerned:

          At Yahoo! Answers:

          “What role does silicon play in human body?”

          “Silicon is a major ion in osteogenic cells, which are the bone-forming cells in young, uncalcified bone.

          The silicon in tissues is usually bonded to glycoproteins such as cartilage, whereas the silicon in blood is almost entirely found as either free orthosilicic acid or linked to small compounds.”

          “Research at the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center (GFHNRC) has shown that low dietary silicon decreases the bone and blood concentrations of substances that stimulate cells to form joint and bone cartilage and initiate bone calcification in experimental animals.

          Low dietary silicon also has been shown by the GFHNRC to increase the excretion of products resulting from collagen and bone breakdown and loss, which are used as markers of osteoporosis risk. The recent research confirms that silicon stimulates the formation of collagen, a protein that gives bones their strength and flexibility, joint cartilage its cushioning ability, and a scaffold upon which bone mineralization occurs.”

        2. Last stop on my (current) foray into the science of silica – I have other things to obsess over.

          Available as an abstract at PubMed.gov

          J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 Mar-Apr;11(2):94-7.

          “The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits.”

          Martin KR.

          Abstract

          “There is considerable interest in the effects of silica on human health in contrast to prior research which focused solely on the toxic effects of inhaled crystalline silica. However, multiple forms of silica exist in nature and silicon, a component, is the second most prevalent element after oxygen. Silica has widespread industrial applications including use as a food additive, i.e., anti-caking agent, as a means to clarify beverages, control viscosity, as an anti-foaming agent, dough modifier, and as an excipient in drugs and vitamins. Chemically, silica is an oxide of silicon, viz., silicon dioxide, and is generally colorless to white and insoluble in water. When associated with metals or minerals the family of silicates is formed. There are several water soluble forms of silica referred collectively to as silicic acid (ortho, meta, di, and tri-silicates), which are present in surface and well water in the range of 1–100 mg/L.

          Orthosilicic acid is the form predominantly absorbed by humans and is found in numerous tissues including bone, tendons, aorta, liver and kidney. Compelling data suggest that silica is essential for health although no RDI has been established. However, deficiency induces deformities in skull and peripheral bones, poorly formed joints, reduced contents of cartilage, collagen, and disruption of mineral balance in the femur and vertebrae. Very little toxicity data exist regarding aqueous silica consumption due, in part, to the lack of anecdotal reports of toxicity and general presumption of safety. However, a few rodent studies have been conducted, which indicate a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 50,000 ppm (mg/L) for dietary silica. In conclusion, many forms of silica exist in nature and compelling data support myriad beneficial effects of silica in water.”

      2. You may never be satisfied that it simply is NOT the case that “humans don’t contain silicon in any of our biomolecules” – no matter what information that I may share to the contrary. So be it.

        Just so I can smirk to myself if I care to about “you heard it here first” (geez maybe this feeling is a side effect of the Primal lifestyle)…

        ….as I alluded to in my initial post on the subject, silica is currently a focus of anti-aging health and medicine researchers. Note the journal title of the previous reference that I shared.

        Given the whole Primal-living-is-a-fountain-of-youth, “aging is a myth” philosophy, I’d think that any element that promises to accelerate healing and to decelerate aging would just naturally be of interest here.

        1. The body does contain silicon ions, just as it contains traces of arsenic, tin, boron and aluminum ions – if something is in soil it will end up in our bodies. However, silicon doesn’t seem to be used in biomolecules, unlike sulfur which is found in many essential molecules such as cystine, methionine and SAM.

          There is some data that silicon might do something, but it is inconclusive and contradictory. Silicon is much like chromium in this respect, it is definably there, but we don’t know what, if anything it does.

  4. One of my all time favorite primal dishes is sauteed red cabbage with bacon and leeks. Glad to hear I should be eating it a lot more!

    1. That sounds delicious- do you mind sharing the recipe for those of us who can’t just “throw things together”? 🙂

      1. Soft ball size head of red cabbage
        6 strips of bacon (I love bacon)
        1 small leek (3 scallions or 1/2 medium onion work too)
        Pepper to taste

        Core and shred cabbage. Cut bacon into half inch strips and cook in a dutch oven until crisp. Add onions and cook until translucent. Add cabbage and toss for a few minutes until the cabbage heats through and it smells heavenly. About 5 minutes for the cabbage over medium heat. Enjoy!

  5. My 5 year old son loves raw brocolli and cauliflower as his “pre dinner snack”

  6. My (surprising) favorite of this group is brussels sprouts. But instead of steaming, I quarter and braise them with chopped bacon and a dash of salt. I got the idea years ago from Tyler Florence of the Food Network, but was too chicken to try brussels sprouts thanks to all the stigma surrounding them. Thank goodness going Primal gave me the courage to try new veggies, because i’m IN LOVE with my bacon-y delicious sprouts! =)
    Slightly off topic: we don’t eat a lot of brassicas here at home because my mother has hypothyroidism. I read somewhere that there are compounds in brassicas that could interfere with thyroid function. She’s on synthroid, and we use only iodized salt, but does anyone know of a way we can get the benefits of brassicas without disrupting her thyroid? Any help is appreciated… Thanks! =)

    1. Yes! If you cook the brassica’s the goitrigens are removed. I’m still learning about this topic myself but so far what I’ve learned suggests that the cooking methods that Mark shares here are probably sufficient for ridding goitrogens.

      However, I’m still trying to find out exactly what happens to the goitrogens and whether or not there is any concern about consuming the cooking water. For example, the “pot liquor” from cooking greens like collards is considered nutrient rich and is consumed along with the greens.

      As a fan of brussels sprouts (me too), you might like to try them in cold salads – blanched then chilled not raw. Could be marinated while chilling if desired. One of my favorite cold salads includes both brussels sprouts and grapefruit slices. May sound strange but is a great combo if you’re into the bitter stuff.

    2. P.S. According to a book (below) that I am currently reading, goitrogens are only a concern if consumed frequently or in large quantities. But, foods other than brassicas have goitrogenic properties so those foods should also be taken into consideration in the total consumption.

      “Stop the Thyroid Madness”, (2011), Janie A. Bowthorpe, M.ED. ISBN 978-0-615-47712-1

      1. Thanks for the advice, I’ll be going to the bookstore today! =)

  7. OK, double checking the facts not relying on memory – what we actually want is silicon not silica. Aluminosilicate and silica are not absorbable. Evidently the most bioavailable form is sodium metasilicate.

    1. Sodium metasilicate is mainly used as a bleaching aid, paint stripper and insecticide. It is severely irritant to skin and has been used to remove hair from pigskin.

      It isn’t a nutrient.

      1. Ewww blech! That sounds tasty LOL! Thanks. Let me double check my silicon sources again…..

        Ok, this time I referenced the Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Full text version of the citation (below) is available online:

        “…confirming that food-based, phytolithic silica is digested and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.” (And, good news for beer lovers, beer is a great source of silicon! LOL)

        “Key Words: Silicon • orthosilicic acid • phytolithic silica • silicon intake • gastrointestinal absorption • bioavailability • cohort study • diet • nutrition • bone formation”

        American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 5, 887-893, May 2002
        © 2002 American Society for Clinical Nutrition

        1. Yes, although we don’t know of any reason why the body would need silicon, beer is a harmless, rich (and very enjoyable) source of this element.

        2. Seriously, Tim? I guess you didn’t read my original comment here about silica (silicon – you’ll find it both ways):

          “…if you want to make a case for eating plant sources of minerals, silica is your guy! The primary sources are plant based – and fish is generally the only animal source on that list. Raw honey is also a source.

          Silica plays an important role in many of the body systems that are mentioned here in relation to sulphur, is beneficial to all healing processes in the body, and slows down the aging processes.”

          More specifically, silica balances calcium and magnesium. And, that’s just the tip of the
          “essential trace mineral” iceberg. If you want to know more about the trace mineral silica/silicon use a search engine. Or read the JCN article that I referenced earlier.

          Your not knowing about the role of silica in the human body seems to support Mark’s assertion that minerals like sulphur are not know to many. Comes as a surprise to me – on a nutritional blog – that its so unknown.

          I don’t come here to be spoon fed – but to have my curiosity piqued and to check things out for myself. I also don’t plan to spoon feed anyone else. So, do your own investigating.

      2. Btw, Tim, – oxalic acid is also used in various restoration processes – cleaning, bleaching, refinishing wood, and so on. And, it also naturally occurs in plants and animals and is (unfortunately in some regards) bioavailable to humans.

        Still looking into bioavailable food sources of silicon. Seems that one of the reasons that beer is such a good source of silicon is that sodium silicate aka sodium metasilicate is also used to clarify beer.

        So forth and so on…and on and on, evidently….

  8. I love the veggie emphasis of these posts. I have been trying to focus on all the foods to eat in abundance for health rather than focusing on the forbidden ones. It definitely is expanding my eating horizons… Thanks, Mark!

    1. That’s such a good way of looking at – “all the foods to eat in abundance…rather than focusing on the forbidden ones”. Seems simple, but i’ve never really thought of it in that way. I guess it makes you feel a lot less restricted, and allows the primal eating journey to be a lot easier!

  9. I too wonder about thyroid problems and the FODMAPS issues for these sulphur sources. Meat, cheeses and eggs would be the first natural source and then my only thought would be to take some MSM in its purest form to add sulphur w/o the food sensitivities. I know supplements aren’t the greatest but with gut and thyroid concerns it can be helpful!

    1. Yes, good suggestions. I would think that (food grade) MSM could also be valuable as an anti-inflammatory for people with thyroid and FODMAPS issues.

  10. Don’t forget … fermentation! Fermenting vegetables can increase absorption of key phytonutrients and have many other health benefits. Just sayin’.

  11. I’m a convert to the Dr. Wahls diet (even if I hate that word) — it’s the most compelling “why” I have ever seen, and a very reasonable “how” as well.

    1. I’ve been calling it the 9-cup diet. (Or challenge, as that’s how I originally started following it — was by setting a challenge for myself.)

  12. What about slow cooking with a crock pot. Will that prevent the alliums from breaking down? I eat a lot of stews with garlic, cabbage, and onion. Now I’m worried that It’s all a waste.

    1. There’s a simple trick to avoid heat damaging the nutrients of vegetables cooked in a crockpot… all you have to do is add in your key vegetables 15-30min prior to serving/consuming. I actually take it a step further by adding just a 1/4 to 1/2 of my vegetables at the beginning when adding the protein/water/broth & spices (etc) and then save the remaining 1/2 to 3/4 of my chosen vegetables for the final 15/30min of cooking (just prior to serving/consuming). Its of course not rocket science, it just takes some outside the box thinking/breaking-up” with those bad habits we learned from old school cookbooks, our parents and grandparents 😉

  13. We always keep a big ol’ bowl of cole slaw in the fridge…. chopped red cabbage and carrots with olive oil, apple cider vinegar, honey, and mustard… or a green cabbage and fennel variety… it’s great with poached eggs on it, it’s great on top of a big ass salad (as dressing), it’s great as a side at dinner…

  14. Can’t believe nobody has mentioned kale yet, including Mark.

  15. I like cruciferous veggies, but I can’t take most of them cooked. Cooking them produces a compound that makes me gag. I consider it a genetic defect, but get around it by eating them raw. I don’t have problems with raw onions, cauliflower, etc, and eat them daily.

    1. Well there is a genetic variation in taste buds that allows some people (1 in 10,000) to have an enhanced ability to taste bitterness. There is an extra set of “bitter” receptors. Seems that these people may be sensitive to oxalic acid and can have a gag reflex like you describe. It might be worth your while to investigate this possibility.

      1. I’ve heard of that one before…someone told me I had that…I laughed it off at the time, thought it was a joke.

        I cannot, for the life of Grok, eat steamed cruciferous vegetables. It is so bitter!
        This stuf fhas to be boiled into a mush and slapped with butter and salt to make this bitterness disappear. I never understood people that say ” I love vegetables”….

        1. Oh, no – its absolutely not a joke! I was looking for info about this genetic variation online and came across another explanation for genetic variation in bitter tasting. This website may shed some light on why some people like veggies more than others, among other things.

          Here, just add the “http://”

          learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/ptc/

      2. I can eat broccoli, onions, garlic, cauliflower, cabbage, all that stuff just fine, but brussels sprouts… I just can’t do ’em. They taste so incredibly bitter to me that I just can’t get one past my lips. Even braised with butter…

        1. thats weird cabbage can be much harsher than brussels. Try fresh brussels steamed with lem juice and butter. REmove outer leaves and trim off end where they were cut. seek out tiny firm brussels they are sweeter than big ones. cook very well via steaming

  16. Eat your vegetables! Because ‘The Boss’ said so.

    LOL, I’m so glad I clicked on that feathered hair link. I’ll have to bookmark it for the next time I need motivation to make my cabbage curry…:)

  17. Dr. David Servain-Schreiber, in his book Anti-cancer, strongly promotes sulphur-bearing vegetables as having cancer-fighting properties.

    Luckily, I love all these foods. If you can handle dairy, roasted Brussels sprouts with a little crumbled bleu cheese is excellent. I also enjoy getting a large sheet pan, roasting chopped cauliflower, onion, and garlic with a little olive oil, S&P, red pepper flakes, and some turmeric, and then pureeing the batch into a spicy cauliflower soup – use whatever broth you have handy, finish with a splash of heavy cream.

    Speaking of soup, Gordon Ramsey once made a broccoli soup that appeared to be “too easy.” Steam broccoli and then just puree it with the steaming liquid and some salt and pepper. Done. Tastes sweeter than you can believe.

    1. That soup sounds like perfect minimalist keep it simple primal fare :-).

    2. Thank you for those soup recipes, they sound delicious. I’m going to try the cauliflower one tomorrow. I detest Gordon Ramsey, but will overcome my distaste to try his broccoli soup. 🙂

  18. Best way to get down some raw onions and garlic? (Not to mention the cabbage, too.) Two words: homemade kimchi!

    Talk about nutrition in a jar! Napa cabbage, garlic, scallions, carrots, and ginger, all raw and fermented. Doesn’t get better than that. If you don’t like spicy stuff, you can make a “white kimchi” with all the same ingredients but minus the chili flakes.

    I’m pretty fortunate that I love most of the veggies mentioned in this post. Most of them are tough to eat raw though, and for various reasons, probably shouldn’t be (goitrogens, etc.). But kimchi is an awesome way to get your sulfur while preserving the live enzymes and getting some good gut flora too.

    1. Eating that exact thing with a steak as I read this post. Steam brussels sprouts lightly, saute onion, bit of carrot and bacon pieces add sprouts, throw in steak. Cook all together. Serve with a side of kale chips. Now I wish I had seconds.

    2. That sounds great to me too. We eat a lot of cabbage (usually cooked in bacon fat), cauliflower, onions and garlic. I have tried brussel sprouts in the past but only steamed and with butter. I am going to try the bacon and brussel sprouts method. Sounds great!

  19. What is the minimum effective dose? Brassicas (along with most other veggies I’ve tried) provoke in me a strong involuntary gag reflex. Those that don’t I find extremely unpleasant, with the exception of carmelized onions and peppers, potatoes, and tomato sauce. I force myself to eat some raw carrots or raw spinach each day, but I don’t want to eat any more than necessary as it just tastes nasty to me. So, what’s the least I can get by with eating?

    1. [I like the nod to 4HB…]

      I’ve learned I can’t say, “I don’t like XYZ vegetable.” Instead, it’s more along the lines of “I don’t like XYZ when prepared in _____ manner.”

      After growing up in a house that promoted steamed and boiled veg, I had to relearn how to prepare most of them on my own. Like Mark was saying, there is nothing like roasted Brussels sprouts. It’s a totally different animal when prepared that way.

      There’s always another way. Even cabbage… maybe the gagging could be avoided if you shredded and sauteed a head in some lovely bacon grease!

  20. I love all these veggies and I can enjoy most of them raw including onions (but not garlic!). If I were forced to pick a favorite from the list I’d have to say broccoli -raw, steamed, roasted, doesn’t matter. I also love roasted cauliflower. On a downer note I gained 2 lbs this week from my Super Bowl feast (I guess). Eh, it was an accepted risk. :~)

  21. It looks like I love all sulfur rich veggies. I can’t stand onions and garlic raw after its just been cut. Both cooked in butter are of course awesome. I enjoy steaming the broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, etc.

    I’m going to have to throw the BS in the oven soon!

  22. Someone mentioned Fermentation. We as a family go through 2 cabbages a week, making sourkraut. Can someone tell me what effect fermentation makes on these compounds ? I also drink garlick juice, I clove every day ….. its an aquired taste I can tell you !

    1. I have a related question. Someone mentioned here recently that the Asian countries that consume a lot of fermented and pickled foods have a high rate of stomach cancer. I’m thinking that’s probably because salt is linked with stomach cancer and these foods tend to be salty.

      So, my question is this – does anyone know why these foods would be linked to stomach cancer and what would be considered a safe amount to consume if consumed on a regular basis?

      1. I remember watching a special on this on Japanese TV not so long ago; apparently most of the stomach cancer in Japan and other neighboring countries is actually caused by an oft undiagnosed parasite / infection: Helicobacter pylori

        1. Thank you. I knew that H. pylori was also implicated in stomach cancer- but not that it was identified as the leading cause in Asian countries in particular. Btw, H. pylori is very common all over the world – and is really not that hard to diagnose and treat, usually. Also causes peptic ulcers. Shame to allow potentially fatal diseases to develop when H. pylori is involved.

      2. You are correctin saying that H. Pylori is easy to diagnose. But it’ s actually very difficult to treat. In most cases, it keeps coming back, even after the prescribed antibiotic treatment.

        1. I understand that the treatment now involves treating the whole family as that’s the usual vector for reinfection. May be too soon for stats but I think that the initial views are that its effective. Your take?

        2. H. pylori is an ‘opportunistic’ bacteria. It seems that we all have it (so, it is not infectious), but it thrives on people that are debilitated by disease or on a poor diet, such as the high-carb diet. There is some evidence that it loves carbohydrates! This probably explains why about 40% of the Brits have it – they eat too much bread, pasta, etc. It seems that, when H. pylori growth uncontrollably in our body, it invades all our organs: stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, pancreas… eventually also the brain! If you have bloating, reflux, constipation or diarrhea, pale (colorless) urine, etc. look for H. pylori. I had this opportunistic infection for over 10 years (it got much worse in the last 3 years), and got free of it after the third treatment with antibiotics accompanied by a change in diet. It was when I learned about the PALEO DIET! The bacteria will not return if you do not feed it with carbohydrate. This is another reason why I reccomend Paleo diet to everybody.

      3. I don’t remember the source, but I’ve read that some sort of residue that’s left over from the processing of white rice has been strongly indicated in the stomach cancer rates of those countries

    2. I would suggest checking out the Weston A. Price foundation, but their website appears to be down at the moment, so also do a search for ‘vegetable fermentation bioavailability’. Lotsa stuff there.

  23. My holistic doctor has me taking MSM, which is a natural sulphur. I really never knew how essential it is. I also eat vegs; is it possible to overdo it?

  24. Lack of onions or garlic in the pantry for me, is a cause of an anxiety attack! I put them in just about everything, haha 🙂
    I do love me some Brussels Sprouts though 🙂

    1. Great article Mark,
      Glad u are back on the airwaves, I missed you at breakfast time!
      I only eat 2 meals a day,a fry up of whatever is in the fridge in the morning with eggs, and the evening meal. I just don’t know where I could fit all these veggies in!
      We do brussel sprouts by steaming them and then frying in butter with bacon pieces, pepper and mixed herbs, no complaints from my non primal teens. Enjoy life and don’t get too hung up on details ( particularly silica/con!).
      Cheers

      1. While not getting too hung up on details is often a good idea – and generally good advice – when an owner of a website has just had their website hacked details are pretty important. In fact, attention to details ~may~ prevent hacking in the first place.

        Now is not a good time for Mark to get hung up on extraneous details, I’ll agree with you there. However, my comments about silica were begun before the site was hacked and I wrapped them up as soon as the site was back up.

        Moreover, and more to the point, I think that Mark is a big boy and can (and probably does) pick and choose amongst suggestions, requests, comments, observations, etc. as to what he feels deserves his attention and what doesn’t.

  25. Hi Mark, with regard to Dr Terry Wahl’s diet plan can the green veggies be juiced each morning instead of eaten and still deliver same effect?

  26. This will be somewhat helpful information for me on a related front. My wife has a respirator allergy to sulfur, like the kinds that get used in poor quality dried fruit as a preservative. Been trying to see what to tinker with to see about improving her symptoms, now I’ve got at least some more of a starting place, though the fact she’s finally starting to warm to the whole primal thing helps as well.

  27. Any suggestions for addressing the not so pleasant side effects from eating too much sulfur rich food….erm gas?

    1. I’d like to know about this as well. I love the taste of all of these foods and can eat most of them without issue but CANNOT eat onions nor garlic raw or cooked without paying dearly for it later (those around me will pay as well – oh no!)

      I would really like to know how to alleviate this problem and eat these wonderful foods.

    1. Great news for a lot of people if she’s right! Thanks for sharing the links. Will check it out.

    2. Wow – just skimmed the article at the second link. Profound implications there – with explanatory power for why a sulphur rich primal diet far surpasses a high carb, grain heavy diet. Not to mention other modern ills. Really looking forward to reading this one in depth!

  28. Coleslaw…fantastic way to eat raw onion and cabbage, and delicious with some homemade mayo and red wine vinegar!

  29. What about people that genetically have intolerances to sulpher rich veggies?
    Man it’s bad. It’s like a disability. Garlic and onion are found in EVERYTHING! If I ingest these things there’s a high probability of nausea and vomitting (depending on the amount). I just avoid the stuff. Any ideas about supplementation would be great and welcomed.

    1. Sounds like a bad situation, indeed. You might want to read the article at the second link (above) shared by Eric Anondson.

      At this point, the impression that I have is that the only essential sulphur is methionine – an amino acid that we must have in our diet.

      1. Great article. Thank you. It shouldn’t be a problem then getting all my essential aminos via other sources. I guess I’m just a bit sour that it’s so difficult to find foods or recipes sans Garlic, egg, and onion. I wanna play too! Probably how a diabetic feels looking at cupcakes. lol

  30. Great information, thanks.

    Speaking of cooking method, are steamed carrots more nutritious than raw ones?

    I eat carrots, lettuces, onions, garlic, and green peppers raw, while other vegetables like spinach, cabbage and broccoli cooked. I’m wondering if I’m missing something by eating this way.

  31. Love the Brassicas and eat them a couple times a day. Today I steamed brussel sprouts and drizzled them with lemon infused olive oil. That is the first time I tried that and it was wonderful.

    After giving up sugars and starches, all these vegetables taste very sweet to me.

    1. Yes, I discovered the same thing about the sweet taste. I sorta expected it – like when I cut way down on salt and I could taste salt in everything. Still, when it first happened it caught me by surprise how pronounced it was.

  32. Well thank goodness I love everything on that list! My favorite dish to make is sauteed brussel sprouts with bacon and purple onion. And yes I know it’s weird, but I actually have a love addiction with streamed broccoli and garlic with some butter. Eat on my friends, eat on 🙂

  33. I love alllllll of those yummy sulfur-rific veggies! Onions and garlic are pantry staples, and broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts are eaten several times a week, along with kale, chard, bok choi…..yummmm!!!!!

  34. I’m really glad you’re going over all this Wahls stuff. Her video wasn’t enough! I need more!!

  35. I juice broccoli stems, kale, parsley, and add some aloe juice. you get used to the taste.

  36. I eat a lot of all the vegetables mention, both raw and cooked.. I am also allergic to sulfur drugs. Is there any connection between the sulfur drugs and the sulfur rich vegetables?

    1. Sulfa and sulfur are not the same and you can eat them even if allergic to sulfa drugs. You can even take MSM.

      There is a good article by a doc online about this issue. Sorry I don’t have link – just google MSM and sulfa allergy.

  37. Hi Mark, great post! I just watched Terry Wald’s video the other day, so this was very interesting for me.

    One question…during the challenge this year, one participant from Spain I believe sent in a video recipe for a tuna dish that called for garlic. He said to remove the green part (or the part that looks like the root in the middle of the clove) to avoid having the smell linger on your breath the rest of the day. This has worked wonderfully for me…with a little parsley, you’d never know I’d had garlic (or at least my boyfriend says so! lol). I have tried this with onions too…cutting out the center part…and it appears to have a similar effect….

    So, am I losing all or most of the benefits of these vegetables by cutting out the part that leads to lingering bad-breath?

    Thanks!

    1. May be a myth, but I was always told that those parts were the most nutritious. I always mince the center/root area very fine – since its the strongest smelling/tasting.

  38. Garlic and onions are used in virtually all South Asian dishes. However, they are cooked for a long time until they are broken down and turn into a sauce. Though they become much more digestable, I wonder if there are any useful compounds left in them.

  39. Brussel spouts, chopped up fine, sautéed with onions and garlic, salt and pepper, and CUMIN! Oh my sweet Lord…SO! GOOD! I could eat the whole pan.

    I think I have, actually.

    I slept alone after that, lemme tell ya! LOL

  40. I love raw garlic and onions, raw garlic is good with fresh french bread,onions I usually chop them and put little salt and let them sit for 10 min. and give quick squize ,put some lemmon and olive oil add some avacodo ,tomatoes and enjoy with freshly baked bread.Does asparagus included in that weg list,because after eating asparagus my your urune smells for day or so.

  41. Try sautéed cauliflower in beef tallow, with some simple s&p, and garlic.

    DELISH!

  42. Gotta wait a few months for the leeks. She just planted them… the winter wonders.

  43. I love those little brussels sprouts! Just quarter them, mix with a little olive oil, and pepper, and roast in the oven at 400 for 20 mins….yummy!

  44. These types of vegetables are even harder for me to eat than tthe leafy greens; that “bite” it vicious! But my favorite would have to be broccoli or cauliflower 🙂

  45. Great article, but i am a little surprised at the recommendation for microwaving.

  46. Has anyone tried Cabbage Bolognese or Cabbage Lasagne? They are both delicious! Make up your usual bolognese sauce and serve on a bed of shredded steamed cabbage instead of pasta. Likewise, cabbage leaves alternating with layers of meat sauce, topped with torn buffalo mozzarella and cooked in the oven is better than the usual version. We always use cabbage in place of all pastas.

  47. Ive been thinking about making sauerkraut out of kale. I reckon the culture might turn the K1 into K2 the way Cow’s stomachs do. Does anyone want to weigh in on this?

    Also, I haven’t made any form of sauerkraut before so I’m not sure whether it would work (have enough moisture etc).

  48. This is great news for this garlic lover 🙂 I use garlic in the kitchen just about every night. Onions seem to be becoming a regular staple as well. Yum!

  49. After watching Terry Wahl’s video, my wife started taking MSM. She has autoimmune disease (hasn’t been given a name, but is Behcet’s-like) which has had her wheelchair-bound at times this past year, and in considerable pain the rest of the time, despite high-dose prednisolone and azathioprine.

    Over the weekend, she realised that she was essentially pain-free. We’re somewhat skeptical, as there could be confounding factors (she’s had a stinking cold, so perhaps her immune system is “busy” *goes all hand-wavy*) but we’re cautiously optimistic.

  50. Your version of baked cauliflower sounds good, but try tossing cauliflower with turmeric and black pepper, layer onto a baking sheet, and then cover with bacon. Bake it around 350/375 (Fahrenheit) and when the bacon is done, the cauliflower is amazing.

  51. I normally won’t eat any of these nasty veggies! I eat nasty smelling Kimche which is made from garlic, cabbage, and onions and fermented for several months in the ground.
    I eat this to piss my witch off evey time she cuts raw onions in the house. Does this mean I’m eating right for this article?

  52. I make this every Sunday and eat it throughout the week with meals or alone as a snack with a harbored egg.

    Food Processor Shedder attachement:
    1 Green Cabage
    1 Red Cabbage
    3 stalks celery
    3 carrots
    7 or 8 radishes
    1 or 2 jalapeños (remove some seeds)
    2 cloves of minced garlic
    2 Bubbies Pickles (or any fermented pickle)
    Juice of one lemon
    sea salt and pepper
    good quality balsamic vinegar (about half cup)
    Apple Cider Vinegar with the mother (about half cup)
    good quality Olive Oil (about half a cup
    Mix well and cover in Fridge
    will stay good all week! Will make your reflux disappear and make your food digest easily and help recovery after workouts – always eat with a protein.

  53. soar throat or just sick: chopped garlic on a spoon covered in honey – RAW. Defintelly pulled me through college on a budget that couldn’t afford medecine. Now I do it still, though I’m the only one… can’t get others to try it out.

  54. The only way I’ve ever been able to eat brussels sprouts is to run them through the food processor with slicer attachment and then sauteing in bacon grease.

    It’s weird because broccoli has always been my favorite vegetable – I prefer to buy frozen florets and then lightly cook them in the microwave. Add butter and salt to taste and I’m in heaven.

  55. Where does lacto-fermenting fit in with this. Would making sauerkraut out of the veggies maintain the nutrient integrity as much as raw or would it damage them?

  56. yes these foods are all very high in MSM, shame the author did not mention this as the alternate supplement name for organic sulfur – can be easily added to your diet as i have done for 10 years and it has saved my life, cured all allergies and never had a cold for 10 years. Would not live without sulfur – go MSM!

  57. I LOVE cabbage spinach and kale sauteed lightly in coconut oil! 🙂 with some onions usually too.
    And i love red onion on my salads.

    Thanks mark for all this information!

  58. Oh my…these are what I refer to as “rich” veggies…

    Summer’s raw broccoli stems are delish sliced thin in salads;

    Cabbage/Brussels Sprouts/Cauliflower…raw in salads or sauteed quickly with olive oil or organic bacon drippings and garlic…

  59. Just a suggestion on kale, we’ve never been fans but I started putting it on the mini chopper and grinding it fine. I add it to salads, omelets, soups, salsa, etc. It blends in perfectly !
    Also, if you let veggies sit in vinegar for a spell it “cooks” them making the nutrients more bio-available.

  60. So, is anyone out there really getting 3 cups+/day of these sulfur-rich veggies? I eat more veggies than more people than I know, and yesterday, a high-brassica day due to the cauliflower soup I made, I may have clocked in at about 2 cups…if you are getting it, what’s your trick?

  61. About fermented veggies. I cannot believe they cause cancer. They are known to keep your digestive system in really good shape. Of course, you do not need vinegar to make sauerkraut, just cabbage and salt. make sure it is an unrefined salt. I never liked sauerkraut until I made it myself. Yumm….

  62. I came upon this article from google. However, reading the replies I see a lot of people site animal experimentation in thier replies. if you all didn’t do this (we’re not animals/per say/anyway)it would go a long way towards STOPPING this horrendous act!

  63. Thanks for this wonderfull site. Very informative. Having MS and looking for information on sulfur, vegetables containing sulfuyr etc. your information really helped me out.

  64. Excellent. Please keep up the good work for the concise and informative articles. This is more informative than other media, I really like following your blog as the articles are so simple to read

  65. Some people are sensitive to SULFUR and are inefficient at eliminating it from their methylation pathway due to MTHFR gene mutation. Experts now say 40% of the population has MTHFR and/or CBS gene. So, if you have bad breath, sweat or urine after sulfur foods, these are indicators to back off or avoid until your CBS pathway is supported properly.

  66. The problem is that these sulfur rich vegetables cause nasty flatulence — bloating and odorous gas passing — for many. For these folks, these vegetables are not so great. Nothing like pain from bloating after eating these things and being banned from civilized company. How many have this problem? Maybe as high as one-third. Also, Mayo Clinic recommends cutting back on these vegetables if odorous gas passing is a problem.

    How about mentioning these problems instead of ignoring them?

  67. Hi Mark,

    I’m suffering from sulfur breath. i have been looking for remedy for a long time now to no avail. After reading your comments on the goodness of sulfur I’m so lost, i want to get rid of the bad breath caused by sulfur rich foods. please help me.

    Thanks Koyo

  68. My parents ate all garlicky foods, so I and m brother ate garlic too and loved it. When I close my eyes, I can smell the bread toast with crushed garlic or langos with crushed garlic. Or garlic soup …

  69. Not sure if this has been mentioned, but a way to eat onions raw (even white onions) is to chop/slice them up, then soak them in a bowl of cold water for half an hour. I’m not sure if this gets rid of much of the nutrition, though!

  70. Before I was not really curious with the help of Sulphur to our body, I don’t like to eat those Sulphur rich food until the time I my hair falls a lot each day my body seems like very stressed. It really makes me worry until my friend told me to learn to eat more protein and sulphur rich food. Now i feel a lot better and feels my body cope with those minerals in my body. with the help also of the sulphur supplement that he give to me.

    Its a great reading..

  71. Good stuff!!! One thing to consider for the people that feel sick, get headaches, rashes etc. when eating heavy sulfur foods is that they may have a CBS enzyme gene mutation, and so have issues processing sulfur or may be insufficient in molybdenum.

  72. Brussel sprouts are the best, try shredding them with a food processor, and dress them with some nice vinegary dressing, serve them raw with red onions and sliced carrots, add a few sliced almonds and some craisins or diced apricots, yummmmm… if you want to cook them, use everything except the dressing and saute them lightly in olive oil and chopped garlic, then add everything else, I make them like that for the holidays, very festive looking with the craisins… also yummmmm…

  73. I have a question. From where do the vegetables get their sulfur so that we can eat it. Is it in the soil?

  74. I love to hear about the different ways to prepare veggies.
    If you really want to protect yourself and your family stop using the microwave to radiate your food. That oven is a killer.

  75. I make (raw) sauerkraut from red cabbage, red onions, garlic sea salt and eat 2 TBS or more with every non-sweet meal. Works great tossed in salads–eliminates need for dressing.

  76. I like thinly sllced cabbage with vinegar and oil, salt and pepper. Makes a delicious salad especially after it’s wilted a little.
    But my favorite use of cabbage is to combine it with sauerkraut. I saute some onions, and when they are translucent, add cabbage. When it’s fairly well cooked, but not too limp, add sauerkraut. I usually rinse it once. But as I’m heating it, and it does not seem sour enough, I add some more without rinsing it. I eat it warm or cold out of the refrigerator. You can cook up enough for a few days,

  77. great write, thankful to have found you, blessed be be blessed <3

  78. 40% of the population has CBS and/or BHMT genetic mutations and should be careful about the amount of sulphur consumed and the impact on their methylazation cycle. One size does not fit all for nutrition, if you feel bad, have gas or headache or weight gain, consider genetic testing to confirm as sulphur is everywhere, healthy foods, many meds, and topical solutions.

  79. Omg! No wonder I like these vegetables so much! My body may be crying out for more sulfur rich food. I really love Asparagus! Fill a stove top frying pan with them and then put in about a pint of water and half stick of butter. Put on med low heat for like 10-15 mins with a top and then 5-10 mins with no top until all water has evaporated away and you are left with tender plump buttery asparagus. Throw on salt and pepper and you’ll almost be in heaven eating that. Thanks for info

  80. I love the more pungent garlic and onion types of vegetables. You have heard of someone eating so many various they turn orange? I eat so much of garlic and onion relatives that you can smell it in my skin on the palms of my hands and yet it may have been days since I last handled prepared the sulfur-rich goodies. You can also detect it in my blood whenever I may have drawn some on accident. I can’t go without garlic and onions for even just one day, I try and consume some whenever am cooking something that could go with it.

  81. Regarding the sulfur organic compounds in cruciferous vegetables: Will these invariably be present, or does it depend on the soil? Some soil has been in production for a hundred years and more. Although it may get the three usual compounds in commercial fertilizer, will long-farmed soil have the sulfur necessary to make the compounds?

  82. I dislike that I cannot take advantage and perhaps decline for the inability to consume silver rich foods. I have developed a true and potentially lethal allergy to sulfur rich veggies. Lack of the sulfur makes sense in my declining health but I certainly cannot live with it. Thank you for the enlightening article I will share with my healthcare provider so we can develop a strategy for enhancing my health and aging.

  83. This is awesome, one of the best health articles I’ve read in a while, a lot of wishy washy same old same old out there lool

  84. Interesting article with a lot of comments and ideas to follow. My question is, what the heck is a carcinogen salad, and why would someone eat one?! “Eating brassicas along with a carcinogen salad prevented the absorption of said carcinogens.”

  85. Does taking MSM help? It’s hard to eat enough vegetables! How does MSM compare to Sulforaphane?

  86. I think I can feel the effect of Sulphur, it changes my personality, makes me breathe better, feel more confident, sexually improve, and even in my emotions

  87. I LIKE TO PASS A MIXTURE OF RAW ONIONSWITH A FEW CLOVES OF GARLIC THROUGH A BLENDER AND KEEP A JAR ON MY TABLE AT MEAL TIME.ITS GREAT TO ADD A SPOONFULTO MY SOUP AND BUTTERED BREAD, LOTS OF PEPPER OFCOURSE. I ALSO ENJOY IT ADDED LIBERALY IN MY BUTTERMILK.

  88. How bioavailable is the organosulfur compounds in raw, cabbage juice though?

  89. I like to eat most of the vegetables raw. I make smoothies with kale and salads with broccoli or cabbage., carrots and onions. The cabbage need to be very finely chopped of cause and lightly marinated for several hours with rice vinegar, salt and sugar. Garlic and pepper can be added as well. Cauliflower is my favorite, so I can eat it raw on its own.