Need to Know Factors for Bone Health

Inline_Bone_Health_07.12.17At the heart of every building is its framework. That latticework of timber, concrete or steel is what holds the entire structure up. Without it, there’d be no building at all. I think of that phrase some people use when they look at a house and declare, “It’s got good bones.”

Considering how essential bones are to our existence, it’s surprising how most people take them for granted. A lifetime of neglect can suddenly reveal to us just how sensitive and integral this living framework is. Yet, there’s so much more to this truth than we commonly assume. 

Sure, the skeletal system provides the stable foundation upon which our muscles, organs and fascia are constructed. But that’s just the half of it. Bones also secrete hormones, interact directly with the brain (ever heard of the bone-brain axis?) as well as other organs and fat cells, and even play a key role in immunity. I’ve covered many of the basics of bone health before, and I’d definitely recommend checking those out to augment these suggestions. For today, however, let’s look at some of these lesser known and appreciated functions—as well as some additional tips for supporting bone health throughout the life cycle.

Bones Play a Hormonal Role

While their primary purpose is structural support, in many ways, bones actually behave similarly to glands.

An interesting article posted a few months back in Nature demonstrated just how in tune our bones are with the rest of the body. Researchers showed that, contrary to the view of bones as inert organs, they’re actually in continual communication with the brain, kidneys, pancreas, fat cells, and more via a group of hormonal messengers, including osteocalcin, sclerostin, fibroblast growth factor 23 and lipocalin 2.

Experiments showed that after mice eat their bones release liopcalin 2, which then travels to the brain. Here it sticks to appetite-regulating cells, signaling to the brain to stop chowing down. This means that our bones act as appetite-mediators, sending messengers that cross the blood-brain barrier to let the brain know that sufficient nutrients have been absorbed to keep the bone-building process going. Previous thought assumed fat cells were largely in charge of this task, but it appears bones actually produce 10 times more of this appetite-curbing hormone.

Osteocalcin, a hormone produced by bone-building osteoblasts, further helps to regulate blood sugar by telling the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas to get cracking. Osteocalcin also communicates directly with fat cells to release a hormone that improves insulin sensitivity.

Beyond these critical functions, the osteocalcin produced by bones plays a key role in testosterone production and male fertility, helps regulate mood and memory, and even interacts with the brains of developing fetuses. An interesting side note…osteocalcin may also help improve endurance, with studies in mice showing that older mice were able to run almost twice as far after being injected with osteocalcin.

Capping things off nicely, continuing studies in mice indicate that the osteoblast-regulating hormone sclerostin plays a role in energy metabolism. When secreted from bones, sclerostin has been shown to increase energy expenditure by helping the body switch to ketogenesis.

What Probiotics Do for Bone Density

Studies in mice show that probiotic-treated mice retained their bone density even after ovary removal, compared to the control group that lost a whopping half of their bone density. Researchers just used your stock-standard Lactobacillus strains, commonly found in cultured dairy products such as yogurt and kefir.

A recent Chinese study confirmed that these findings may also apply to humans, with the bone mineral density of diabetic patients being higher the more Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that showed up in fecal samples. Clearly, eating and supplementing for a healthy biome is about far more than just the gut. 

A Word about Exercise and Inflammation

Over the course of nine months, researchers monitored changes in the bone health and structure of female rowers training for the 2016 Olympic Games. The rowers were chosen due to their vigorous training regime (average of 18 hours per week). During the nine months, proponents noticed that protein precursors to bone loss increased significantly, along with the bone formation-inhibiting hormone sclerostin. This was exacerbated by increased inflammation in the bodies of the over-worked rowers, which contributed to higher counts of sclerostin.

The verdict? “Very intense training without adequate recovery period may lead to increased inflammation and subsequent bone resorption (loss).” The result is higher risk of bone stress injuries and early osteoporosis. Enough said.

Overtraining aside, exercise remains one of the leading ways to ensure optimum bone health into later decades. 

Finally, there’s the role that exercise can play in reversing unfavorable genetics. According to research, 50-80% of bone density is predicated on genetics, with conditions such as brittle bone disease being passed on from mother to baby in the womb. Studies on mice indicate that higher myostatin is directly proportional to higher risk of bone disease. Exercise, in particular weightlifting or short high-intensity workouts, decrease levels of myostatin in the body and increase bone mass.

Nutritional Considerations for Bone Health

On the subject of myostatin, increasing healthy fat consumption, particularly fats with MCTs, along with cutting out inflammatory foods like sugar and grains, also contributes to lowered myostatin levels. In addition, the catechins found in green tea have been shown to lower myostatin production and support healthy bone metabolism.

As for the dairy with bone health? One study examined the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream and vitamin D with bone mineral density in adults around the age of 75. Researchers found that milk, yogurt and cheese were protective against both hip and spinal bone loss…but only when participants also supplemented with vitamin D. Those who consumed the same amount and type of dairy, but didn’t get their daily dose of vitamin D, showed no positive correlation at all.

Another study, this time with a huge cohort of 5000+ old folks in Ireland, demonstrated that “each unit increase in yogurt intake in women was associated with a 31% lower risk of osteopenia and a 39% lower risk of osteoporosis. In men, a 52% lower risk of osteoporosis was found.” Given the findings regarding probiotics in the earlier noted study, there are likely a few factors in play here.

Also, one salient note: the researchers at the end of their study noted that vitamin D supplements were also associated with significantly reduced risk of bone complications in both men and women. But that’s not a surprise to anyone, is it?

Thanks for reading today, and offer up any questions or feedback below. Take care.

Primal Kitchen Ranch

TAGS:  Aging

About the Author

Mark Sisson is the founder of Mark’s Daily Apple, godfather to the Primal food and lifestyle movement, and the New York Times bestselling author of The Keto Reset Diet. His latest book is Keto for Life, where he discusses how he combines the keto diet with a Primal lifestyle for optimal health and longevity. Mark is the author of numerous other books as well, including The Primal Blueprint, which was credited with turbocharging the growth of the primal/paleo movement back in 2009. After spending three decades researching and educating folks on why food is the key component to achieving and maintaining optimal wellness, Mark launched Primal Kitchen, a real-food company that creates Primal/paleo, keto, and Whole30-friendly kitchen staples.

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52 thoughts on “Need to Know Factors for Bone Health”

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  1. what about the role of vitamin K2,Magnesium,Potassium and vitamin A which is critical for bone health but wasn’t even mentioned in the article?

    1. Hashem, thanks for your comment. I’ve covered those in a previous article that’s linked, but I’ll throw in a mention.

  2. Is ketogenesis the same as being in ketosis? Given that sclerotin helps the body go into ketogenesis, and also inhibits the formation of bone, is there any reason to think that ketosis itself can lead to bone loss?

  3. I enjoyed the read. I think it’s hysterical that mainstream medicine still views bone health as something basic. Hit your 60’s and you hear that you need “more calcium”. Truth is, bone health is a major cause of degenerative conditions that plague us today. How many people fall and break a hip then end up sick with an infection from the hospital or get another new condition? Good read, especially the probiotic part.

  4. I bet a well prepared homemade bone broth would provide excellent nourishment for systemic bone health… When bones are properly prepared, you get “whole bone extract” which contains:

    – Bone Matrix, Bone Marrow And Cartilage
    – Nutrients Exclusively Found And Expressed In Whole Bone Extract…
    – High Concentrations Of Stem Cells And Base Cells
    – Collagen, Growth Factors, Fat Soluble Activators (A, D, K)… There you go Hashem!!
    – Glycosaminoglycans Naturally Present in Bone Matrix

    There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow (also known as myeloid tissue) and yellow marrow. Red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells arise in red marrow; some white blood cells develop in yellow marrow. That said, throw in some in varied pieces of bones, ligaments and tendons when making your broth.


    – Bone Health (think bones, marrow and teeth)… Based On “Like Supports Like”
    – Connective Tissue (think ligaments, tendons, skin)…Based On “Like Supports Like”
    – Dental Health And Immune Health
    – Supports And Repairs Cellular Damage

    The fossil record shows a number of caves w/ long evidence of human habitation, going all the way back to the Paleolithic period. All of these caves contained ancient fire pits. And all of these caves contained the remnants of large piles of bones. The bones that were found were animal bones. Almost without exception, they had been cracked open, and every trace of the marrow removed.

    Fire up the Instant Pots!! Get your primal on… if it was good for our early ancestors, it was / is baked into our DNA!!

    1. I love the Instapot! And would be excited to find out how to get the most nutrients out of the bones. I have not seen any really good recipes anywhere for Instapot bone broth. It seems they are just short 60 minute or so stints and have little density or flavor and I also wonder what would be the most useful setting… soup or stew or just High Pressure for ??? minutes. Does anyone know just how long it takes to get full usage from those thick grass-fed beef bones. The bones are piling up in the freezer waiting for the day when this will be revealed. I am thinking there are lots of minerals locked up there! Aside from the scrumptious marrow. Oh and not to mention the shanks:wow. I did read about the cider vinegar being useless. I guess that covers it.

      1. Zenrose, I am sure that the Instant Pot high pressure settings have their place… In our house, their place isn’t for bone broth. Then again, maybe we’re doing something wrong, in which case, I’ll point the finger.

        After experimenting with many, many batches of broth, wife now uses two of the largest size Instant Pots and two huge ceramic pots (on the stove top) to slow cook our bones — the old fashioned way, the way that our early ancestors did (less the actual fire). Wife’s way slow cooks for a good two to three full days. Bones go a’ mushy… marrow goes a’ missing… and the final product always congeals.

        One of my favorite appetizers is chopping up some avocado over my chilled, gelatinous broth, adding in some spicy kimchi or sauerkraut, a drizzle of some authentic olive oil, and a sprinkle of wild kelp granules and himalayan sea salt. It’s cold… it’s spicy… it’s melts in your mouth and it’s so good in the summer!

        1. Thank you for the reply, there are several helpful tips there. I see I need to be more specific about the bones in that I am using beef soup bones, knuckles, leftover shank & oxtail bones. I am wanting to get all the good minerals etc. out of them in the Instapot and wondering how long it takes under pressure to accomplish that…such as how many hours to get them finished off and thrown out. I have a small home in the hot desert and cannot cook the bones for days! So the Instapot is very helpful and especially keeping every place in the house mostly smell free… it is most annoying to have them simmering for days in that then I am always hungry and in the middle of the night too! Also I do the intermittent fasting and this is torture! So just want to know how many hours to leach out all the minerals and what setting? Thank you.

      2. For super rich and gelatinous soup, add to to your mix of bone marrow, 2 or 3 pieces of sliced calf’s Feet. It’s will turn your soup so thick once chilled, that you can actually cut a square (I store mine in a deep rectangular dish but any shape would do) and eat with a fork & knife. Delicious!

      3. Amazing timing! Just a half hour ago I poured out my semi-homemade chicken broth from my InstantPot. (I used to make it in the Crockpot.) I take the carcass of the rotisserie chicken(s) from Costco and break it up; add green, red, orange, and yellow peppers (organic, which I puree in season, then freeze in a silicon peanut butter cup candy ‘tray’ so I always have “fresh pepper cubes” in-house), fresh basil from my deck, and whatever spices, etc. Pour Costco organic chicken broth to cover.

        Slow cook on “medium” for 3-4 hours, just to get it well-heated; then put it on “low” for about 12-15 hours (over night). In the morning, I use tongs and big scissors to dig out the bones and cut off the bone-ends — so the marrow is exposed to add flavor; then cook for another 2 hours on low. (Could smash ’em with a hammer to start: too messy, too much work.) Pour into a large glass bowl through two colanders (large one to hold the smaller one). Let it cool a bit (half hour, say) on the counter. Cover and put in the fridge overnight.

        Next morning, I scrape off the layer of congealed fat (I know, I should save it, but I don’t LIKE chicken fat — and I don’t entirely trust it, even from Costco). I stir it, then divvy it up into silicon “mini-loaf” pans (about 2 cups each) on cookie sheets and put into the freezer.

        Now I always have rich rich delicious broth on hand: when it’s cold, throw one ‘brick’ into the micro with a pat of Kerrygold — warms me up AND gives me energy!

        Is it “pastured chicken” and all? No, some things I can manage; others not so much. DO WHAT YOU CAN!

    2. I’m 60 and LCHF and love making and drinking my bone broth, but one thing confuses a bit. It seems like some believe we can actually build bone through dietary means, but dentists and dental hygienist adamantly say ‘no you can’t to anything to help with bone loss’ I’d just like to know if we’re only able to ‘maintain’ the bone we have today or if it is in fact possible to replace some lost bone in our teeth.

      1. Our early ancestors didn’t brush… didn’t floss… didn’t get cavities. This is my “go to” line because it seems that the more we brush and floss and use fluoride, the more cavities we get. Obviously, brushing and flossing aren’t the answer, but don’t tell this to the multi-billion dollar dental industry (nor to the allopathic dentist). We all have the ability to remineralize our teeth… to withstand acidic insults… to arrest and resist decay. Nutrition giants Weston A. Price & May Mellanby did the work and published the data proving the vital importance that the fat soluble vitamins A, D and K play in tooth remineralization.

        Wife is a biological dentist (of 20 years)… I own a supplement company (Ancestral Supplements). In fact, we developed a product together called “Tooth Restore” that is rich in vitamins A, D, K, magnesium, phosphorus (and others)… This is not commercially available, nor does it need to be for people to glean the benefits, because as you know, nourishing food and mother nature come first.

        — Vitamins A, D, and K2 cooperate synergistically not only with each other, but also with essential minerals like magnesium and zinc, with dietary fat, and with key metabolic factors like thyroid hormone —

        — Vitamins A, D, and K2 interact synergistically to support energy metabolism, immune health, provide for adequate growth, support strong bones and teeth, and protect soft tissues from calcification —

        — Magnesium is required for the production of all proteins, including those that interact with vitamins A and D —

        Grassfed beef liver is rich in real, preformed vitamin A (5,000 iu per ounce). That said, if you are deficient in vitamin D, vitamin K2 and/or magnesium, you will not see as much benefit as you could (nor) will you be optimizing other important health metrics. Do you regularly get mid day sun exposure, or take a vitamin D3 supplement? Do you eat fermented veggies like kimchi or sauerkraut or take a vitamin K2 supplement? Do you take a magnesium supplement (I personally recommend a transdermal magnesium oil spray because it’s virtually impossible to get enough magnesium from diet alone).

        [ NOTE: Bone marrow is likely rich in vitamin K and the other fat-soluble nutrients (reported by Weston Price), but formal tests to determine the range and amount remain to be carried out. While smashing bones and sucking out the marrow fat was the hard way our ancestors obtained vitamin K, it’s not that difficult to obtain marrow bones and either oven roast 3″ pieces to serve as appetizers, or slow cook them to make them extra delicious / nutritious… or, look for a good bone marrow supplement! ]

        The take home message here is live life in harmony with nature, the way of our early ancestors… consume your liver, get sensible sun exposure (preferably mid-day), eat your fermented foods (natto reigns supreme) and mind your magnesium.

        People with periodontal issues will also need additional support from whole bone extract (bone, marrow and cartilage), CoQ10 and collagen. Ideally, we would consume these nourishing nutrients by indulging in the deliciousness of bone broth, bone marrow and organ meats (heart is the richest source of CoQ10 that exists in nature). These additional nose-to-tail nutrients could easily be the missing link to the strength, energy and other health benefits that we are all after.

        1. Thanks for your input. I’ve had a very healthy diet in the last several years, including organ meats and sunshine and/or D3. I’m glad you agree that teeth/bones can be mineralized because it’s always bothered me that my dentists have always been so adamant that it can’t ever happen. They think that my bone loss occurred because I used to smoke (I finally quit for good in 2010 after a few attempts and periods of no-smoking). At any rate, my blood work is very good and I use food as my medicine now. I don’t like the idea of taking too many supplements, but do if I feel I’m not getting enough of a particular nutrient in my foods.
          One thing I wonder though, can those vitamins you mentioned in your toothpaste really penetrate the tooth enamel from the outside?

          1. Those vitamins aren’t in a toothpaste… those vitamins (vitamins A, D, K, magnesium, phosphorus (and others)) are from good old fashioned foods… food that our early ancestors would have regularly consumed from their nose-to-tail diet and sensible sun exposure.

          2. Guess I got that idea from what you wrote here:. In fact, we developed a product together called “Tooth Restore” that is rich in vitamins A, D, K, magnesium, phosphorus (and others)…

          3. I totally get it!! The current paradigm is to treat our teeth from the outside in when in fact we should be thinking about it from the inside out. Our product, “Tooth Restore,” was a dietary supplement that included grass fed liver, grass fed bone marrow and whole bone extract.

            If you want fresh breath, brush your teeth. If you want oral health, nourish your body!

          4. Bit o’ trivia: the best predictor of success in quitting smoking? Having quit before! It’s NOT a one-and-done for most people. (For the “lucky” ones? Maybe. Most folks struggle!) But, having tried it once, twice three times a lad… er… having quit before means you will likely finally succeed! So any smokers here, keep trying!

  5. Very good read. I’m a bit surprised at the rowing study. I would have thought the body could recover from 18 hours of weekly training. Ironman participates spend a lot more time than that per week training. Perhaps they are all causing massive bone damage too.

    1. Yes they are. You can tell by looking at them over a long period. Organ damage as well.

    2. The study doesn’t make any mention of calorie intake – possibly they were straying into “female athlete triad” territory.

  6. I appreciate your including information on men’s bone health here as well, as it’s often seen as just a women’s issue in the mainstream.

    Thanks for the not-so-common knowledge and linking to your previous with on the subject.

  7. I am curious why ovary removal in the mice affected their bone health and whether this is true in humans.

    1. Estriol may stop bones from breaking down. Progesterone may help Osteoblasts build bone.

    2. As “His Dudeness” said, the ovary removal puts them in a state that mimics menopause (when women lose a lot of their bone density).

      On that note, several studies on animals and humans have shown that approximately 100 grams of dried plums (aka prunes) halts, and can even reverse, menopause-induced bone loss. 100 grams is roughly 8 to 12 prunes. Prunes are fairly carb heavy, but they’re very high in antioxidants. Among other things, they have a decent amount of vitamin K2, which is known to have a positive impact on bone health.

      Mark, if you do a follow up piece, consider looking into the studies on dried plums, and perhaps also the study on the “Scarborough Fair” diet, which also showed positive bone-health results for the group using a specific set of herbs, fruits and vegetables.

  8. One of the problems with bone disease, is the fact that it’s silent until something goes wrong and even then, diagnosis could get delayed, if it’s masked by other issues.

    I know that too well, as I broke my wrist while mountain biking in 2014 and suffered a cracked rib (doing a flagpole) at the end of 2016 and a multi stress fractures about a week later while barefoot running. I haven’t healed yet and I’m about to have an MRI. All accidents were attributed to the activity and why shouldn’t they (even thought I hit 60 and wrist fractures are typical to osteoporosis)? After doing some research on the link between bone health and the thyroid problems, my endocrinologist who treating me for Hashimoto, ordered a bone density test which reveled that I have osteopenia. Since, I had a long list of blood and urine tests (sex hormones include) but we still don’t know the root cause; it’s not cancer ? In hind sight, I should have made more of a fuss, back when my family practitioner measured my height a few years ago and told me that I inches shorter then I knew it to be. Please tell me that I am being hard on myself…. I just hate been sick or immobile, and I tend to forget, that a lot of water went under the bridge, since my high days as a paratrooper.

    To Marta below… being that the issue is dear to me (I also practice keto), I went over several studies regarding the effect of ketosis on bone density and non of them found a link to bone loss.

    1. TT I would say yes you are being too hard on yourself, I’ve had to forgive myself for my lack of connecting the dots when my mom passed away (she complained of fatigue, shortness of breath but said it was just natural aging, I should have had her go to a cardiologist right away). I hope you can use your knowledge of traditional and natural healing to improve your situation. I know you want to do as much weight bearing as you can for you bones, but if you have access to a pool for cardio that may be useful.

      1. TT, thanks for your words of support; no pool but I live near the sea and I can harness that. Sorry for your loss. I know what it feel like to lose a mom, no matter the circumstances, as mine passed away last year.

    2. You should look at getting into rebounding (jumping on a trampoline). Studies have shown it has a positive effect on bone density

  9. One of the problems with bone disease, is the fact that it’s silent until something goes wrong and even then, diagnosis could get delayed, if it’s masked by other issues.

    The beauty of the bone, is that it is an enclosed structure that is shielded from the outside and where it’s cavity serves as a to factory for many crucial elements (blood production for one).

    To Marta below… being that the issue is dear to me (I also practice keto), I went over several studies regarding the effect of ketosis on bone density and non of them found a link to bone loss.

  10. Is it possible that a significant factor(s) in the rowers overtraining and resulting decrease in bone density is due to a.) rowing is not weight bearing(!) and b.) stress is stress is stress in terms of adrenalin, cortisol, other stress hormones and that is also a factor in decreased bone mineralization.

  11. “Exercise, in particular weightlifting or short high-intensity workouts…. increase muscle mass.” …. Do you mean bone density rather than muscle mass?

  12. No gluten may heal intestines so more minerals absorb. Vit D3/Vit K2/Vit C/Si/progesterone/Vit B12 methylcobalamin with intrinsic factor/Mg/sea salt/Zn/Amour thyroid and more may help bones.

  13. My dr. Informed me I have bone loss in my foot. I had a bone scan and I am normal, is my bone loss possibly from not enough recovery? I have stopped running but need help w/ the right exercises.

    1. Tracy, first, consider what is meant by “normal.” One could be “normal” and suffering from the “normal” bone loss. Do we (or you) want to be normal? I would suggest we do not want to be normal.

      Second, I do not know if bone loss can be reversed, or how exactly the change might be described, but from what I have read one function of Vitamin D is calcium utilization, which would apply to feet too, but… without vitamin K2 the D and calcium is not properly used, and you end up with calcium deposits where you do not want them, in soft tissues.

      For me a lot of these discussions relate to somewhat conflicting meanings and objectives when we discuss normal and other terms, like ideal, and various “ideal” objectives. The idea is (as I see it) to live a long time in a healthy and strong body. That is not exactly normal.

      The first thing to do is to minimize harmful things (excessive sugar and carb consumption and, as noted above, over-training) and maximize the ideal consumption of healthful foods combined with proper exercise, meaning some aerobic activity combined with weight and resistance training.

      The second thing is to pay attention to insulin levels. Insulin is extremely easy to regulate, because it is only generated in response to eating carbohydrates and protein. Fat consumption does not generate insulin. Proper (meaning low) levels of protein are required for health, but there is no dietary need (as I understand it) for carbohydrates, although people can eat both and do just fine. The answer to excessive insulin production is fasting, and intermittent fasting is the way for the individual to control, meaning for the individual to take charge of, insulin production. Fasting also produces growth hormone, which should assist with bone health as well.

      None of this requires any drugs or expensive equipment, or even testing. Vitamin D3 is cheap and easy enough to buy, and sunshine is free. Vitamin K2 is readily available in pills and from a variety of food sources. Exercise with body weight is quite effective. Fasting saves you money and means you spend less time cooking and eating and cleaning up.

      1. I used to fast from my evening meal until lunch the following day , I had done this for a year when I had a bad fall and fractured a vertebra and had a diagnosis of severe osteoporosis with a -4.8 T score , after that I worried that I was depriving my body of nutrients and started to eat a small breakfast. It is a very frightening condition and I am at a loss to know what to do to help myself , I just take the supplements I see recommended and exercise. I have always tried to eat healthily and seldom had fast food meals, never smoked or drank and always exercised , all my blood tests are normal .b

  14. I wonder about collagen. How much is this also associated with a healthy bone system?

  15. I’m on the Vit D Protocol from Dr Cicero Coimbra, www. which is a very low calcium diet. I’m feeling tremendously better in just one month of taking 70,000 iu daily, reduced pain (7 autoimmune illnesses) better thyroid function and great sleep.
    There are several YouTube videos of Dr Coimbra being interviewed.
    What do you think of this Protocol?

    1. LOW calcium? Where is your body supposed to get the needed calcium for its daily operations? Or do you mean you’re taking 70k IU daily OF calcium? I’ll go look at this Docs stuff but …??

  16. How is the work coordinated between the hormone lipocalin2 released by the bones to inform the brain about bone nutrients sufficiency and the Leptin hormone released by the fat cells to inform the brain about satiety?

  17. You wrote, “A recent Chinese study confirmed that these findings also apply to humans, with the bone mineral density of diabetic patients increasing the more Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium they were given.”

    Nope, the patients were not given any probiotics. The researchers simply analyzed their fecal samples to determine how much Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli they had residing in their guts, and then performed an analysis to see if this had any correlation with bone mineral density. And it did. Diabetics with osteoporosis had less of these bacteria, while diabetics with a higher BMD had more. So there is a positive correlation between BMD and the number/concentration of Bifidobacteria/Lactobacilli in the colon. Whether this means you can retain your BMD if you manage to increase the amount of these bacteria in your large intestine (either by eating the right prEbiotic foods, or by directly ingesting prObiotic supplements) remains to be seen, although the mouse experiment seems promising.

  18. Paleo-humans were known for their flawless use of commas: Not “Experiments showed that after mice eat their bones release liopcalin 2,” but “Experiments showed that after mice eat, their bones release liopcalin 2.” Aside from that, I love your bog.