The Lowdown On Lectins

Little known to the public at large. Little understood by the health community. Omnipresent in our conventional food culture. Proven to be at least mildly detrimental for everyone and downright destructive for the more sensitive (and often unsuspecting) among us. We’re talking lectins today: common natural agents on the one hand, cloaked thugs of the anti-nutrient underworld on the other. Our popular health media, if they’ve heard of lectins, certainly never make mention of them. Famous health gurus never deign to speak of them. In short, lectins thrive in the American diet basically unfettered, unscrutinized. Make no mistake, however. They’re a menacing power to be reckoned with. I’ve addressed them on Mark’s Daily Apple in the past (Why Grains Are Unhealthy) and in my book (The Primal Blueprint), but I still get a fair number of emails and forum questions asking for more info. As I always say, let’s break it down….

What Are They?

Before Monsanto, Mother Nature had her own pesticide strategy. (Humans being among the “pests” to be warded off.) In order to avoid being completely decimated by insects, foraging animals and Groks, plant species evolved assorted anti-nutrients that would make said pests regret their gorges with a variety of mostly digestive related ailments. Low grade toxins, in a sense. A workable balance developed between plants that were able to safeguard their species’ survival and the “pest” patrons that were able to benefit from the plants’ nutrition but learned to partake more sensibly from their supply. Given that our primal forefolk foraged widely and ate a surprisingly diverse diet, the system worked.

Lectins are essentially carb-binding proteins universally present in plants (and animals). Just as they protect plant species from Grok-sized predators, lectins also support other immunological functions within plants and animals (against pathogense, parasites, etc.) They also assist in other functions like protein synthesis and delivery in animals. They’re relatively sticky molecules, which makes them effective in binding with their sought after sugars but undesirable for our digestion, in which their binding powers can lead them to attach to the intestinal lining and wreak havoc. (More on this in a minute…)

Given their omnipresence in nature, a certain amount of lectin consumption has always been inevitable. To the benefit of the plants, lectins are also hard to break down. Regular old digestive enzymes only do about half the job. Human ingenuity evolved across traditional cultures to “predigest” lectins through food preparation practices (fermenting, soaking, etc.). In our contemporary dietary culture, however, we too commonly skip these practices yet rely on the highest lectin-containing foods for our primary food sources.

What Foods Contain Them?

The short answer here is basically all plants and animal products (PDF) to varying degrees. Nonetheless, lectins are concentrated more in some sources than others. Foods with the highest lectin activity include: grains of all kinds (especially wheat), legumes (especially soy), nuts, dairy, and nightshade plants (e.g. eggplant, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, etc.). Add to this list the oils and other derivative products from these food sources. And yet another, lesser known category: GMO food, since lectins are often spliced into modified varieties in order to enhance “natural” pest and fungal resistance.

What Do They Do To The Body?

Let’s go back to the intestine again. (Some field trip, eh?) Lectins’ stickiness allows them to bind with the lining, particularly the villi, of the small intestine. The result? Intestinal damage (with impaired cellular repair potential), cellular death as well as compromised intestinal villi, which means reduced absorption of other nutrients, including minerals and protein. Add to this altered gut flora, which can allow certain harmful bacterial strains like E. coli to run rampant. Furthermore, because the body is now responding full-time to the needs of the injured gut lining, proteins and other resources are redirected from other basic growth and repair processes. Furthermore, lectins have been associated with leptin resistance, a pre-diabetic condition linked to obesity.

Perhaps the most insidious impacts lectins can leave in their wake is this: leaky gut. Leaky gut is a term for the breach in the intestinal lining created by lectins hand in hand with other antinutrients. Once the intestinal breach exists, lectins and other particles (like partially digested food, toxins, etc) can “leak” into the bloodstream.

Once lectins open the door, so to speak, out of the small intestine, they and other fugitive particles are now free to move about the body and bind to any tissue they come across (anything from the thyroid to the pancreas to the kidneys). Of course, the body reacts to these invaders by directing an attack on these particles and the otherwise perfectly healthy tissue they’re attached to. Enter autoimmune mayhem. That’s why lectins are linked with autoimmune disorders like IBS, Crohn’s, colitis, thyroiditis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and arthritis. Specific lectins have been associated with particular ailments (like wheat with rheumatoid arthritis), but more research is needed to trace and confirm these connections. What is clear, however, is the potent autoimmune destruction that can result when the intestinal lining experiences this level of damage.

Primal Advice For Limiting Lectins

As mentioned, lectins are literally everywhere. Although it’s impossible to eliminate them altogether, you can significantly reduce your intake.

  • Purge the worst offenders. That means grains and soy more than anything, but I’d add other legumes to the list as well. Eliminating the foods that contain the highest lectin activity will slash your overall lectin intake – and impact.
  • Cut back on other higher lectin sources. Not everyone wants to nix every dairy or nightshade option. Look at how you can reduce your overall intake of these items while keeping enough to enjoy their flavor and nutrient advantages.
  • Gauge your sensitivity. For those of us who are most sensitive to lectins, more dramatic measures might be needed. If you know or believe that you’ve already suffered some serious intestinal damage, you might do well to steer clear of as many high and moderate lectin level foods as possible. That means perhaps forgoing nightshades, dairy, legumes and even nuts and eggs in addition to all grains and processed foods. Reintroduce desired foods back into your diet by “family” (e.g. dairy, etc.) and be mindful of any physiological effects (however minor) that accompany them.
  • Take up old traditions like soaking, sprouting and using bacterial fermentation techniques for any moderate/high lectin foods like beans you choose to keep in your diet. Fermentation methods are especially effective, virtually eliminating lectins in one study of lentils. All those kitchen rituals you remember from Grandma? They’re adaptive, essentially pre-digestive techniques practiced by traditional cultures around the globe. Going old school on your favorite nut varieties, for example, cuts those lectin levels dramatically.
  • Don’t go wholly raw. Yes, there are legitimate reasons to enjoy raw plants in your diet, but I don’t support the practice as a movement or exclusionary principle for eating. Humans have been cooking for well over a hundred thousand years. Some nutrients are enhanced by heat. Some anti-nutrients (like lectins) are at least partially “disarmed” by it. Cooking methods with a mind toward maximizing overall nutrient value and bioavailability make good Primal sense and can lower your exposure to lectins.
  • Diversify! Restrictive diets make us even more susceptible to the downsides of our foods. (Soy formula fed babies being a dramatic example of this principle.) Make Grok proud and forage more widely for your dinner. Research shows that simply rotating primary foods was enough to limit lectin-related damage in rats that were given rounds of soy feed. A healthy, mostly low lectin diet will offer enough balance and protective nutrition to blunt the impact of the occasional moderate level lectin sources.
  • Avoid GMOs. Hidden lectin is just one more reason to leave GMO products on the shelf.
  • Maintain good overall gut health. Our modern existence sometimes seems like one giant assault against our digestive tracts. Minimize cumulative negative effects and increase positive, protective factors. Eat a healthy diet with Primal doses of probiotics, prebiotics and good fats. Limit stress and the use of medications like aspirin, NSAIDs and antibiotics (as well as secondary exposure through antibiotic-administered livestock). A healthy gut will be better equipped to weather the effects of inevitable but reasonable lectin intake.

Now it’s your turn – for your comments, questions and anecdotes about lectin impact. Let me know your thoughts, and thanks for reading!

TAGS:  is it primal?

About the Author

Mark Sisson is the founder of Mark’s Daily Apple, godfather to the Primal food and lifestyle movement, and the New York Times bestselling author of The Keto Reset Diet. His latest book is Keto for Life, where he discusses how he combines the keto diet with a Primal lifestyle for optimal health and longevity. Mark is the author of numerous other books as well, including The Primal Blueprint, which was credited with turbocharging the growth of the primal/paleo movement back in 2009. After spending three decades researching and educating folks on why food is the key component to achieving and maintaining optimal wellness, Mark launched Primal Kitchen, a real-food company that creates Primal/paleo, keto, and Whole30-friendly kitchen staples.

If you'd like to add an avatar to all of your comments click here!

298 thoughts on “The Lowdown On Lectins”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  1. This is one of the best articles I have read on lectins…and I had never heard of them until 2 years ago. I became curious about this when I noticed I had gluten isues while trying the gfcf and SCD diets for my sons autism. He responded to the SCD. I ate his almond flour baked goodies and felt great. When I finally had time to make gf grain baked goods for me I felt tired and craved sodas. I thought it was odd until I heard about lectins. Lectin sensitivity must be a great for soda companies!

      1. Cashews and peanuts are the two highest. Almonds are “okay”. It’s recommended you stick to walnuts and macadamia nuts. I’m not sure about pecans.

          1. I don’t think they’re referring to something they read but rather their own experience. I was having the same soda craving experience. I don’t know if this is the answer but I do know that I had high cortisol while eating lectins. And high cortisol causes cravings for high calorie foods.

          2. Try the research shared by Dr. Gundry, cardiologist.
            Pecans, macadamia nuts and walnuts are the safest nuts regarding lectins. Cashews are actually legumes, like peanuts, and super high in troublesome lectin levels. Dr. Gundry is the Plant Paradox author and easily googled. Dr. Mercola has studied Dr. Gundry’s work and now follows his research advise.

  2. Well for foods like Beans, and Legumes it appears that 90% of the active Lectins and offending complex sugars are eliminated by soaking, and heating above 100 degrees Celcius for approximatley 10 minutes. Besides the amount of Antioxidants, Vitamins, and other nutrients far outweigh any trace amount of Lectins left over after the legumes have been cooked (who’s eating uncooked beans?). These foods have been sustaining a thriving population in South America for thousands of years. As far as I am concerned, this is just another class act of online fear mongering.

    1. Yes, of course, that’s what this is. Fear mongering.

      You’ll notice I suggest soaking more than once.

      And grains feed millions…

      1. Mark, if beans are OK after soaking and boiling, why do you recommend eliminating them from the diet (as a “worst offender”)?

        “Purge the worst offenders. That means .. other legumes to the list as well.”

        1. Mark never said, “they’re ok, but purge them.” He’s giving us some valuable information and best practices so we can make up our own minds (if we have the mind to do so). His advice is for minimizing lectins in our diets to the extent that they cause significant problems for (many of) us, and dialing them back in calculated ways. For the “most sensitive among us,” that means complete elimination. For many others, switching to traditional techniques might suffice. If you’re looking for someone to tell you how to eat, SOL. If you’re looking for solid information and a foundation from which to construct a dietary plan optimized for YOU, then this and The Paleo Mom are great resources.

          Above all, think for yourself, practice mindfulness and figure out what’s right for you!

      2. I’d go farther, and do with legumes.

        1) Rinse dried legumes in several changes of water, pausing a few minutes between each. Easy to do while doing other kitchen chores.

        2) Cover them with your best quality drinking water. Let them sit overnight to absorb it.

        3) 8-12 hours later, pour the water off (house and garden plants seem to like it). Rinse thoroughly.

        4) Let the soaked legumes sit in a towel-covered bowl in a cool, clean corner.

        Rinse them again every 4-8 hours (I do all my legume prep on the weekends). The idea here is to SPROUT them, waking up the plant embryo. As the seed itself is converted into food for the embryo, and as the cotyledons develop, the lectins plummet.

        5) Do not overcook them. I cover legumes with water, simmer them for 5-10 minutes, then pop them in a haybox.

        I never could eat legumes–back to the 1970s. Then a nonagenarian meat-eating heavy-smoking-and-drinking backpacker of my acquaintance introduced me to eating legumes as “baby plants.”

        1. PS–I don’t eat much by way of legumes, and only rarely (few times a month as I sense I need to). But I find they work very well with my genome, particularly in the autumn and early winter months when I find I do best coming off intensive spring/summer fieldwork to the autumnal addition of carbs to my diet. YMMV. Of course this is all in concert with a high fat/moderate protein way of eating. Also, in winter I don’t tolerate uncooked greens very well; this wasn’t a problem when I lived further south (of 49N). Sprouted legumes seem to fill that slot for me.

      3. Hi Mark! Thank you for your information, I have leaky gut as well as Fibro. Have been veg for 15 years (helps fibro as well). Which beans get down to the lowest lectins?
        I know how to soak, I know how to sprout, but I don’t know how to ferment or if I should b/c my uveitis reacts to Rejuvelac, kimchis, sauerkraut, I have MCS. I do do well w/ tempeh (well, at least I used to before I eliminated it w/ the fibro- don’t know if I should bring back, one of few calcium sources I got). Do you think fermenting and cooking would then work best for me? And how do you ferment the bean sprouts?
        Also, have Sjogren’s, so leaky gut, maybe the Prednisone I was on for years after the Sjo’s went in remission at one point? Anyways, was wondering, once the leaky gut is repaired and the source noted, is that when you bring back things? Do it slowly? Not too much? As a veg, I don’t know what other source of protein I’ll get as a staple other than beans… So, right now, will do this sprouting/cooking twice a day that you suggested. Nuts, seeds, maybe a Tbsp of each a day? Never did get rid of potatoes, but other nightshades, yes, don’t feel them affect me, do they w/o knowing if I have leaky gut?…
        Thank you for your tireless effort and keep up the good work!

    2. I think you may have missed one part of the article where Mark is suggesting the same thing as you are for eating beans:

      “Take up old traditions like soaking, sprouting and using bacterial fermentation techniques for any moderate/high lectin foods like beans you choose to keep in your diet. Fermentation methods are especially effective, virtually eliminating lectins in one study of lentils.”

      Be careful about making up your mind before you’re finished reading – there’s a lot of good info on this site that is helping a lot of people.

      1. BTW – thanks for this information. Had a good primal day yesterday, but am suffering today and I couldn’t figure out why. This happens to me off and on. I did have a tomato salad with a bit of blue cheese with supper though. I’ll have to experiment with night shades and dairy – maybe I’m even more sensitive than I thought. Thanks!

        1. You may be having a problem with the blue cheese because they quite often use wheat in the product..As a person with Celiac disease I can attest to the fact that I cannot consume blue cheese..

          1. Jackson, I am also Celiac and have discovered about 50% of all celiacs are intolerant of Cows Milk product. It’s not the Lactose but apparently the protein. I urge all Celiacs to go milk and cheese free.

        2. the Italians worked out that with tomato’s the lectins are in the skin and seeds that’s why they arn’t in Italian Pasta sauce. i read that in Dr Gundry’s book “The Plant Paradox”

    3. Perhaps to you with no food sensitivites, but for the rest of us with chronic food allergies, this makes sense. I have soaked legumes over night and over cooked them in hopes of not reacting negatively to them, and still, they cause severe skin rashes. Legumes, cooked or not, need to be avoided for me. Not everyone has the same health issues and comments such as these irritate me – just because you are fine with a food, doesn’t mean the same food is not harmful to someone else.

      1. Even with soaking and rinsing and cooking in a pressure cooker (which one site says eliminates lectins) I had a horrible reaction to navy bean soup. Same with lentils and quinoa, popcorn and rice. Some information says there are different groups of lectins and you may be sensitive to one but not the other… I don’t seem so sensitive to the dairy group as I do to the grains and nightshades.

    4. In response to RD – Matthew Robert :
      Perhaps to you with no food sensitivites, but for the rest of us with chronic food allergies, this makes sense. I have soaked legumes over night and over cooked them in hopes of not reacting negatively to them, and still, they cause severe skin rashes. Legumes, cooked or not, need to be avoided for me. Not everyone has the same health issues and comments such as these irritate me – just because you are fine with a food, doesn’t mean the same food is not harmful to someone else.

      Read more:

    5. I’m not sure what culture you’re referencing in S.America that is “thriving” on legumes. Most of the people down there I’ve seen that lived past 60 all suffer from diseases like cataracts, type-2 diabetes, IBS, and RA. These diseases are most common in cultures with diets high in toxic lectins. Those that do find a way into the U.S. typically suffer even worse consequences because they eat the same foods they were eating down there, they consume more processed foods here (typically the highest concentrations of lectins are found in processed foods), and the foods here are higher in GMO’s. So when they leave Middle and South America to come to the U.S. they compound their problems.

      If you notice, the Asian cultures consume a high percentage of these lectin containing foods and they don’t suffer the same consequences. The reason for what seams to be an “immunity” to the side effects of lectins in the Asian cultures is FOOD PREPARATION. They consume the highest percentage of fermented foods.

      This article left out one important detail in destroying toxic lectins and that is PRESSURE cooking. Asians eat a lot of rice and they eat the worst kind (sticky rice). They have used genetic selection techniques to enhance the stickiness of their rice for centuries. The stickier the rice the higher the starch (calorie content) and lectin content. They don’t suffer the side effects of the lectins in this sticky rice for 2 reasons. #1 they soak, rinse, and soak/rinse again before cooking. #2 they pressure cook the rice. Pressure cooking destroys what wasn’t taken care of in the soaking/rinsing process.

    6. Dr. Jockers says that “The hard lectin in legumes is impervious to soaking, sprouting and cooking”!

    7. Best to just give your opinion about your own experiences rather than make gross generalisations.

  3. This is a great article. Thank you.

    Archaeological evidence about the origin of cooking is mixed, but the latest thinking (albeit somewhat controversial, but becoming more and more accepted) looks at both archaeological and biological evidence and points to a date at the beginning of Homo Erectus (2 million – 1.75 million BP) as the date at which fire was managed and when cooking in the human diet was introduced. I highly recommend a recent book called “Catching Fire” by Richard Wrangham as an introduction to the totality of this object.

    PS. I’m an archaeologist who is very interested in palaeo diets from both a health and research point of view. I very much appreciate your posts, books, and website.

      1. Aaron, I would love to come! I live on the East Coast, but with some prep and planning perhaps I can make it out to LA. I joined the FB group for updates.

        I’ve been batting around the idea with archaeologist friends about editing or writing a book that compiles the latest archaeological evidence of palaeo diets, with evidence for seasonality, herb use, salt trading, small animal vs. large animal food sourcing, intermittent fasting, etc. It is only in the kicking around phase, but I am sure that the conference would help things along.

    1. I too am an archaeologist and I’ve just recently embarked on a spot of research in relation to paleao-diet and archaeological evidence.
      Was wondering whether you can give give a reading list/reference/biblio so I can glen even more good stuff for my research
      BTW my speciality is African Archaeology/Prehistory, I usually work in the Sahara Desert

      1. I have a question. I didn’t finish my archaeology degree, but I got a few years of study in. It seems to me that a truly Paleolithic diet should include insects and grubs pretty frequently, yes? I remember from my studies of living African tribes that for most of them, actual meat is more of an infrequent gorging thing, and they mostly subsist on starchy tubers and grubs. I realize the climate has changed since it was the “cradle of civilization”, and that game was probably more readily available back then. But it still takes a lot of energy to catch, and bugs do not, so it seems like they still would have been a good food source. As a former vegetarian wannabe who has been pushed into a paleo-type lifestyle because of food sensitivities, I am concerned with the amount of meat I am now consuming. It’s not a sustainable lifestyle for the whole world. But I’ve heard some say that insect protein is the wave of the future for that reason, and I’m thinking that sounds a lot more paleo than eating meat every day. What do people here think?

        1. i think you might be focusing on the idea of trying to emulate exact paleo living as opposed to looking to paleo life for indications of what works best for humans. humans can survive on wheat based diets too, but it isn’t optimal. daily meat consumption is optimal for nutrition. you could survive on more insects than meat, but you’ll be better off with the meat.

    2. Great article! Learning much.
      Have a lot of the symptoms but according to gastroenterologist I tested neg….don’t know what test he did….my question ism that this issue must be revisited.
      I have a rare autoimmune disease along with SPinocerebellar Ataxia..having incontinence multiple system atrophy was suggested. Going t a urologist soon….what should I ask? Was put on Detrol by my primary care and it was a miracle drug for 7 years but it now no longer works…even when doubling and tripolling the dosage. This needs further investigation…!

      1. Lynn Ball…that was ages ago but what happened if you are out there. Have IC and chronic UTI and I think a colovesical fistula maybe. Running out of things to eat if I give up all wheat, diary eggs etc.

  4. I don’t get why milk should have significant lectin levels – shouldn’t the babies of any species be fed food which won’t fight back?

    1. Maybe it serves an immune/digestive system development function, given that they’ll eventually need to develop some level of tolerance?

    2. Lectins are not always bad. The thing Mark didn’t spell out about them (and I don’t fault him, he provided lots of good information) is that a lectin is simply a protein molecule with a sugar molecule attached to it at one end. The sugar molecule behaves as an antigen molecule–really, that’s all an antigen is, is a sugar shaped a specific way. So, a milk lectin would be useful to aid in lining the gut of the offspring to protect it from microbial invaders until the offspring’s immune system develops far enough to take over bodily defenses on its own.

      I already knew milk did that for offspring, including human offspring (which is why, among other reasons, it’s terribly, terribly important to do everything you can to nurse your baby if you give birth to one), but knowing now that there are lectins in milk gives me a clue as to how.

    3. Cows are fed grains. Grains contain lectins. If you can get milk from cows eating grass, then you will be fine. But do you live next to such a farm?? Most of us don’t.

    4. The info that I read said that grass fed dairy is ok. Grain fed cows are a fairly recent method of raising cattle. So, under natural circumstances where cattle graze they apparently don’t consume as much grain!

    5. Brest milk from people has a different composition from other animals. Doctors often suggest goat milk to baby’s that are allergic bc it’s the closest to human milk.

  5. great article…i was a bit confused when it was mentioned that dairy contains lectins (i assumed since it is meant to be consumed by a growing mammal, there wouldnt be too many toxic substances in it), but a quick google search confirmed that dairy does contain lectins but the amount depends on the cows (or other dairy animal’s) diet.
    So ceonventional corn and soy fed dairy is clearly going to contain troublesome lectins, so logically shouldnt grass fed dairy have much less lectins?
    No data on grassfed dairy (go figure) but i assume this would be true.
    Plus fermented dairy would likely reduce any lectins further?

    1. Goat milk does not contain them and is safer than cow milk. That goes for cheeses from goat milk.

      1. Cow dairy makes me sick but I can tolerate goat dairy very well. This helps explain it!

    2. Yes; a lot anyway. Fermenting milk via home cultured kefir. Response to someone posting the question several years ago. Today a customer service rep at wellness – site where Dr. G’s products are sold agreed that kefir made like that = fewer lectins; amount greatly reduced. But, to nothing? I don’t think so. Would we have to simply spend more to get grass fed in addition to ‘just’ organic milk? Yes. A2 milk would be ideal since it is a casein issue mostly I think. But suppose that A2 isn’t organic? This all gets to be too much complication. A1 is harder to digest/causes more damage is what I assume now based on research. This is what Dr. G thinks I think. Some say he uses a ‘rationale’ about grass fed being better because it avoids grains but will just chose to believe he is correct. I threw out the cow mozzarella and the cow parmesan today. Bought goat’s milk cheese and the original parmesan from Italy today. Dr. Gundry basically supports consuming dairy if it is from southern Europe rather than northern, and the US made dairy largely should be avoided. No mozzarella except buffalo milk made…

  6. I wonder how many people suffering from severe digestive ailments go to their doctor’s office, and they just get some pills. “Here take this expensive chemo rat poison for your chrohn’s, but don’t worry about having pizza hut for dinner.” It would be funny if it wasn’t so sad.

    1. I actually went to a gastro once and I explained right off the bat I hated meds, I would rather switch up my diet and habits if he could give me some direction. The doctor outright told me he doesn’t believe in diet changes. Within 5 minutes he was trying to write me a script, I tried to stop him twice, but eventually just took them and never returned.

      1. I had exactly the same experience. Had the tests and was told I have collagenous colitis, which sucks but good to know its not just in my mind! Went to see this guy a few times and he just wrote a different script each time which never really helped much. The last time, I said Id been doing some research on controlling it with diet and before I could get any further he’d rolled his eyes and told me it was probably all bullshit. Needless to say I havent gone back.

        Havent fixed the problem yet tho.. Have cut grains, legumes, pretty much all nightshades and soy. Have cut down but not eliminated dairy. And still eat heaps of eggs and nuts. I dont wanna cut them out too!! 🙁 but looks like i might have to give it a go.

        1. Sorry to hear you’ve been having problems. I found when I went primal that I ate a lot more eggs and it really upset my tum. Eventually I had to cut out all dairy and eggs for three months. Everything was completely fixed by that, then I reintroduced them slowly. Now I can eat well cooked eggs (not runny scramble!) and cheese and little bits of yoghurt and cream, which is enough to enhance the diet. I would really advise you to cut out everything possible and give your intestine a few weeks to heal. After that it’ll be stronger and you’ll be able to reintroduce at least some of the foods that are currently causing you problems. Good luck!

        2. Hidden GMO corn additives may be your problem. Most eggs on the market are contaminated with corny additives during the washing process plus the hens are fed GMO corn in the form of vitamin supplements (even from pastured hens fed organic feed). Look for a local farm with free ranging and foraging chickens for the best eggs.

          Most conventional (and even some organic) fruits and vegetables are treated with some GMO corn derivative during processing. Any bagged or prewashed produce will contain citric acid (GMO corn derivative) and most peppers, cucumbers, squash (some are GMO), apples, eggplants and citrus will be coated with a corn wax (GMO corn derivative) to help them survive travel. Potatoes, avocados and bananas are all shipped green and gassed with ethylene gas (GMO corn derivative) to ripen them once they arrive at their destination. Hawaiian papayas are genetically modified. Berries are often packed in GMO corn derived plastic containers and sitting atop a soaker pad full of citric acid. Grapes are sprayed with fungicidal GMO corn derived spray. Most consumers are unaware that these preparations are allowed on organic produce as well. Buy produce from the farmers market from local farmers to avoid these tactics used on produce that must travel long distances to get to the grocery store.

          Vitamin D milk has GMO corn derivatives in the form of the vitamin fortification and GMO corn oil as the carrier for the vitamins (even organic milk). Drink only raw whole milk from grassfed cows or local pasteurized whole milk (not homogenized or vitamin fortified or ultrapasteurized). American made cheese (and some imported) are made with GMO chymosin (enzyme) which is grown on a GMO corn medium. Kerrygold cheese is still imported from Ireland and GMO-free.

          Iodized salt contains GMO corn, so do a lot of spice mixes. Mushrooms are grown on a corn medium and frozen vegetables and fruit are often dusted with GMO cornstarch to prevent sticking. Cornstarch is used in a lot of packaging thus is undeclared on the label of sandwich meat and cheeses and the like. Buy only raw nuts and seeds to avoid GMO corn derivatives and bring them home to soak in salty water and dehydrate.

          1. Hi and thanks. I took wheat out first then all gluten . I then found that organic , gluten free oats where part of my problems! I was so sick and anemic and unable to eat. Then I took corn out. I’m feeling so much better but I’m still running into problems at times. I came across this article because I have bin trying to figure out why one of my feet itches and sweats randomly, without a rash. I have shown a few doctors and they don’t see anything wrong. The medicine they give me might mask the problem, but it comes back. I tend to feel some UTI simptoms at the same time. But I do not have a uti. My doctor just wants to keep me on antibiotics but I don’t want to. I don’t have a uti! But if my symptoms continue, then it turns into a uti. Also my tongue burns when I eat some foods. It’s geographical tongue. My research on this leads me no where. I really feel like all of this is related. It always happens at the same time. I only take pain killers if I’m getting a real migraine. Pain killers and iron pills hurt me stomach. I’m wondering if my birth control pills are also the problem? Thanks for your advice. I work a lot of jobs in the city to pay my bills and eating is already difficult. My work is not happy with all of my doctor visits I need to take off for. And most of my doctor visits leav me with no salutation. Is there a way to wash the fruit and veggies to make it safe to eat? Can u recommend a food book , cook book or doctor to read about?

        3. Don’t hafta drop the nuts, just soak ’em for 7 hours [and sprout them if they’re sproutable] then dehydrate them in the oven at lowest temp. Even more crunchy and tasty like this…and no lectins! I do this with almonds, walnuts & pecans.

          1. I’ve read that walnuts, pecans and pistachios are not a problem. Can anyone confirm that? If that is so, you would not have to soak them. As Forrest Gump says – One less thing to do!

        4. I would suggest reading The Vicious Cycle book by Elaine Gottschall
          You may have already read her book, but if not, it is a great read explaining how everything works in the digestive tract all the way down the little villi in our intestines. Here’s a review on the book by Weston Price Foundation.

          And for all of you who have had the GI and Internal Medicine Doc’s just want to hand you pills, Elaine had 15 different specialists tell her that her 4 year old daughter’s ulceritis colitis was uncureable and that food had nothing to do with it. She healed her daughter’s UC through proper diet that her daughter was able to properly digest, finally with the help of one GI doc (Dr Sidney Haas)who knew how food related to stomach disorders. Elaine wrote her book back in the 1980’s, and this was before a lot of the big changes in our food industry as it is today, so she did not focus a lot on healthier fats, and etc. but in one of her video’s she does say that with the time she had, this was the Best she could do, She says her hypothesisis is based on Dr. Haas years of work and research. She wanted to get the information out to people. She also says that Maybe someone will come up with a better hypotheses, and to be her guest! You’ll have to watch her you tube video’s. I love her spunk!

      2. I went to the doctor and was told that someone misdiagnosed me with celiac disease. Wrote me a script and told me to eat gluten. I tore it up gave it to him and said I was staying on my diet so I would not have intestinal flue. Last time I saw him

      3. I had a doctor tell me I was going to dye in 10 years 11 years ago if I didn’t take pills. He made me cry. He made fun of my natural food remedys and harassed me on the phone. I understand.

    2. I would be one of those that always mentioned my digestive problems to the doctors whenever I went in for something else…and the same answer was given to me: Add more Fiber to your diet. Then of course colonoscopies were recommended (which i never went to because of fear what they might find) like there was something wrong with ME.

      I have pictures of me around the age of 5 standing with a giant belly, but scrawny as hell, I looked like some kid from a 3rd world country that’s starving of hunger.
      My bloated belly never went away. I grew up in central Europe and oats and rye (breads) are basically being eaten every day. Until Kellogg’s introduced it’s first cereal back in the 70’s to our country.
      The condition got worse as time went on… by the age of 20 my gut was wrecked.
      All this had an impact on my school grades, social life and my thoughts of goals for the future.
      I didn’t realize it at the time but grains have pretty much determined my future.

      I’ve been eating primal for about 8 weeks and haven’t felt this good in like forever! Not only physically, but also emotionally and digestive wise.

      Here is some more good reading FIBER MENACE.

      Whoever is suffering from digestive distress, severe PMS, constipation, painful periods to the point of passing out, please don’t listen to any doctors advice. Just stop the grain madness. That also counts for all the ‘healthy’ Soyspreads in the organic isles.

      1. When I was a kid, my mom was constantly telling my brother and I to “suck in our guts” and made us self-conscious about our little potbellies. We weren’t fat kids but we ate the SAD, with a bit more emphasis on vegetables, low fat and high protein, but unlimited sugar and wheat.

        I bet we were constantly bloated. Though I don’t have full-blown (pardon the pun) IBS, I feel much much better without wheat. My bro on the other hand, lives on mountains of pasta. Yep, he has “Wheat Belly” and is considering bariatric surgery. I hold my breath hoping someday he will ask me for dietary advice.

        1. Send him a link! It’s not preachy if he’s considering surgery o.O

      2. RE: Corn being used as a wash, I had never heard this until the other day when one of my colleagues was telling me it was really really hard to find meat that hadn’t been washed with citric acid, because in this country it is a legal requirement! And there is a certain organic food company that also washes their vegetables in citric acid! I couldn’t believe it, was totally shocked… I do my best to avoid GMO and “conventional” foods and end up finding this out… I was a little disillusioned after that to say the least. :p

        1. Please, could you tell us WHO is that “certain organic food co.”…?

        2. This is probably the most valuable post I have ever read. I am allergic to citric vitamin C and citric acid has caused me problems as it is so often hidden. Even in contact lens solution ! I am in agony because I ate chicken last night. I could never tolerate chicken breast and I ate a chicken curry for a change. As my allergy runs in the family I have known about it for ages and have been told by a hospital doctor it is the 2nd most common allergy in the UK, to different degrees.Many thanks

        3. Hey Yve and everyone else,

          Yeah.. it’s unfortunate about citric acid… but the stronger and cleaner your gut flora is, the less these chemicals should affect you.

          Chicken: Chicken actually contains a lectin that reacts pretty badly with Blood Type B and AB.

          Chicken isn’t the best protein source anyway, so it’s not particularly bad if you just don’t eat it….

        4. AB’s tend to best with Lamb, mutton, rabbit, turkey and most vegetables… Beef and Chicken.. not so much.. Shellfish.. not so much…

          If you’re having sensitivity issues I’d suggest reducing the frequency of eating from like 3 x a day to 2x a day and allow your body to realign a bit….

          Many of the people I talk to can eat a whole variety of foods once they allowed their digest track to heal (by spacing out meals as well as avoiding grains)

    3. Quite a few! The best gastroenterologist I ever worked with was quite comfortable with my holistic approach to restoring my health, which was unusual. Still, he did not generate such discussions in the course of treatment (for Crohn’s).

      Symptoms have been remission for 5 years with minimum medicine intake, more through energy management than gut maintenance. I’ll explore the information shared here with interest, because I do still detect sensitivities and inflammatory tendencies.

    4. Long before I was diagnosed with food allergies, (in my 30s), my digestive problems, which were sporadic before then, gradually escalated. I went to a GE and had the requisite panoply of tests. According to the doctor, they all came up negative – he had the gall to suggest I consider psychotherapy.

      By my late 40s, my problems had escalated to the point of becoming debilitating. Luckily, a met a clinical nutritionist who ordered a blood test, and revealed allergies to wheat, most beans, some berries, fruits and spices.

      I cut out the sensitive foods, and the change was dramatic! Increased energy, weight loss without any effort, even increased clarity of thought!

      Consequently, I have no faith in AMA doctors who either discount the problem or prescribe a medication cocktail that causes more ailments than it cures.

  7. Great post Mark! I’m hispanic & grew up eating rice & all kinds of beans every day for dinner. Since I left rice & beans last yr, I feel so much better & don’t have that bloating, & full feeling or even have pain inside due to gases & you get the point. I also ditched all the grains too. Gald I did. No more cramps either. My only regret is not knowing this many yrs ago. I’ve could of prevented so many problems like IBS & other digestive issues I thought would never go away or thought was “normal”.

  8. I basically live on eggs and greek yogurt. Will definitely need to look up more info on lectins (in my defense, I never have digestion issues/get sick!). Thanks again Mark, for your Daily dose of enlightenment!

  9. Great post Mark.

    I guess this is one reason why I enjoy nuts in moderation as in 1-2 servings a day, usually 1. If I eat too much then I have gas. I enjoy all nuts but go for almonds more so than others.

    And, another great article to show people who doubt grains are bad for you, even whole grains!

    1. Don’t hafta drop the nuts, just soak ‘em for 7 hours [and sprout them if they’re sproutable] then dehydrate them in the oven at lowest temp. Even more crunchy and tasty like this…and no lectins! I do this with almonds, walnuts & pecans.

  10. Good post Mark. Paul Chek has also been warning about lectins for a while now and includes this in his book, “How to Eat move and Be Healthy, first print 2004. Paul also resides in Southern California, I’d be surprised if you were not aware of him since most of your topics in your book reflect his writings so much. You can get access to all his links by visiting . He has in his books and courses all your latest posts on the spine, hips, and shoulder as well as the abdomen. He has been talking about going Primal for many years now and teaches primal movements, eating, and lifestyle.
    Do you know of him and if so, what do you think?

  11. Hi Mark – awesome article…

    I just have a question… I didn’t get to watch my grandma in the kitchen (we didn’t live near our grandparents)… so can I ask with regards to nuts what do you mean by “Going old school on your favorite nut varieties, for example, cuts those lectin levels dramatically”…

    What is “Old School” with regards to nuts… didn’t our hunter gatherer forfolk just pick them up and eat them whilst they foraged? Or is there some extra ritual I have missed from the hunter-gatherer technique?

    I have found nuts a great substitute for the rubbish snacks I used to eat, but I now wonder with this lectin info, should I just be nibbling on a carrot like a rabbit, although they likely are stuffed full of lectin too!?



      1. Yes, I soak almonds, walnuts & pecans for at least 7 hours then rinse and dehydrate them in the oven for a day at lowest temp. They come out crunchy and delicious, and sans lectin! If they don’t get thoroughly dehydrated, though, they will not keep well.

    1. Luke,

      Hopefully an expert will chime in here, but I will tell you what I do.

      I buy nuts raw and soak them for 8-12 hours in water with a little sea salt for flavor. I am not sure if this is the correct amount of time. It should help remove some lectins and the like. It can also start germination or sprouting, which increases nutritional value. I don’t see any physical evidence of true sprouting, so don’t know if this is happening or not.

      Then I spread them on a cookie sheet and roast in the oven. I think 150 degrees or lower is best so as not to destroy nutrients, but my oven is limited to 170 degrees. I tried a dehydrator but didn’t like the flavor. Walnuts usually take around 18 hours with an occasional stir, and almonds take roughly 24 hours.

      I test them by taking a few out and letting them cool. They are good warm, but it is harder to tell if they are dried enough to get crunchy, which is what I want. The almonds will snap, crackle, and pop as they cool.

      Once cooled I store them in an air tight container. This all avoids the lectins in raw nuts and also avoids the bad veggie oils most nuts are roasted with, plus you can control the salt to your taste and needs.

      It is really much easier than it sounds and I HIGHLY recommend you give it a try!

    2. Check out the cookbook “Nourishing Traditions” by Sally Fallon of the Weston Price Foundation. Lots of amazing recipes using old-timey cooking techniques. There are recipes for soaking and sprouting legumes and nuts, fermenting dairy, fruits and veggies. It’s all surprisingly easy, and helps to boost nutrients and healthy gut bacteria.

      1. I second the ‘Nourishing Traditions’ option. Fallon has a really good comparison of commercially prepared beans vs. traditional long-soaking. Since using her recipes, my family has completely eliminated the gastrointestinal problems of beans, including lentils. If you don’t have Fallon’s book yet, get it.

        1. I second, third, fourth, and fifth the Nourishing Traditions recommendation. Since adopting the basic beans process we have NO gastrointestinal distress at all. My sister will only eat beans at my house as she cannot be sure that others will meticulously follow Sally Fallon’s process. If you don’t have a copy of Nourishing Traditions, get one.

      2. I love “Nourishing Traditions” as well. It takes some to get into the habit of soaking and fermenting, however, the health benefits are well worth it. It also helps connect us to our food as we take time to slow down in both preparation and consumption of products! It’s a must have for any healthy family!

  12. Hi Mark,
    Great article. How do you feel about Soy Lectin- or Choline? Choline is a great supplement for your brain and heart. Many people use it as an additive in their smoothies or nutritional drinks. Would you say Soy Lectin is as exception, or is it a case of bad for digestions/ absorption but contains good qualities if youve got an iron clad GI?


    1. @WhitsKitch, I think you are confusing “lectin” with “lecithin”. Lecithin provides a source of phospholipids that may (or may not) have some benefit. I might discuss those in depth at a later date.

      1. AHHH YES– that clears it up. I was running to my smoothie cupboard in a panic!
        I will keep soaking the nuts and keep adding the lecithin to the smoothies!

        THANKS MARK!

    2. You don’t have to eat soy to get lecithin. It’s present in eggs. Probably a lot better for you too, as long as you don’t have an egg allergy.

      (If you *do* have an egg allergy, double-check and make sure it’s not a reaction to the chickens’ soy feed. It’s possible to find eggs from chickens not fed soy but just about worth your life to look. Here’s a site that sells them: Some of us who’ve fanned them on Facebook are trying to convince them to sell the coconut feed to folks who raise their own chickens.)

      1. I wish I had kept the citation I found on a very interesting look at soy. An archeological find showed that soy was a cover crop; people only started trying to eat it because they were starving. Since the plant is quite prolific, it ‘feeds’ many. But the problems with soy are mind-boggling. especially since Monsanto has been GMing and, with the help of the US Supreme Court, setting up their products as intellectual property…. just don’t eat soy.

        1. I have read in several places that MEN should not eat soy in any form! It is a phytoestrogenic compound that destroys testosterone and makes a man less…masculine. I have YET to see anything to the contrary.

        2. The problems with soy is that over 91% of US grown soy is GMOoed. Soy is also high in estrogen, so much so that an 8 oz. glass of SILK milk is equivlent to 5 to 6 birth control pills. Vegans giveing this SILK milk to their babies are finding early signs of puberty at age 3 to 5 years, which is causing great concerns for pediatricians.

        3. Mary Anne, maybe this will help with your answer?
          Back around 1450 BC the Chinese learned to ferment soy. The thousand or so years before that they grew the soy crop, know as the ‘golden bean’ mainly to turn back into the soil as a nitrogen fertilizer for their spring crops. Prior to that they would not eat soy for they knew it was detrimental to their health. They knew this because at that time they had plenty of slaves, prisoners, and pi’ons to experiment on.
          One story was that farmers were running away from invadeing warriors and their bag of precious soy beans got wet and later fermented in the bag during the time of their escape. With nothing else to eat they were hungry enough to eat anything that resembled a food. So about 3500 years ago the Chinese and a little later the Japanese learned to ferment soy and use as a food. The ferment process is slow in Asia, unlike the speedy money making process big co-ops used today. Also in Asia, soy is used as a side dish, such as we would eat peas, but in the US it is used as a main dish. We seem to eat a lot of soy with a fermenting process that is questionable.
          To add to that, ‘soy oil’ is a concentration of soy beans, and has it been fermented, or are we to make the leap of faith? There are many chemicals used in the process, and claims are made that all these bad chemicals are removed in the final oil process.
          At this point, since it is your body, I’ll leave that truth in your hands.

        1. Lecithin is made up of Choline and Inositol, and the best source is from egg yolks. Choline helps to process, or break down fats and helps produce HDL, or high density liprotiens. Inositol is important for signal transduction between cells, including nerve impulses. The bottom line is that eggs are great for the brain.

  13. Dear Mark,
    Thank you so much for all the hard work you and your team put into this site. I enjoy it so much. It really has given me a new lease on life. I have a question? I was diagnosed with Lupus when I was 12 and in your ubove article and several others says that eggs can cause inflammation with those with autoimmunne diseases. Should I limit or even just cut out all together? i havent had any heavy symptoms in years but I do occasionally have artheritis. Only when I dont carefully follow primal I do.Thanks again for eveything you and yours do.

    1. Hi Amanda,

      great to know there’s another primal lupus-oide out there! I have mctd, and I’ve just started going primal a couple of months ago. Do you find it makes a big difference? I have seen some concrete benefits already, but I have been told it will take at least 6 months for diet to take effect on connective tissue/autoimmune problems.

      1. I noticed a big difference in how I felt within just a few days. I no longer was sore or extremely exhausted after my workouts. Before I would drag home struggle to just get home eat and gp to bed because mt workouts wiped me out. Chronic cario is god bye forever. I was starting to become unwell again due to a lot of stress lately and I have found upping my fish oil intake using rob wolffs formula very helpful. Just dont know if in the long run

    2. Amanda, If you haven’t started already, stay away from all processed foods, simple carbohydrates, and sugars. Just a teaspoon of sugar will shut the immune system of an adult for up to 6 hours.
      You may want to look into taking Krill oil, Astaxanthin, and extra Vitamin D3, and (P-5-P) or active B6 daily, along with your other suppliments. This also goes for people with MS, Leukemia, and many other immune deficiency diseases. If your are not supplimenting, remember that it is a human impossibility to get all the nutrients from the food we eat. Also, depending on our age and health, we are only digesting approx; 3 to 35 % of the nutrients from the foods we eat which includes suppliments. Our lands are too depleted for ourselves and animals to get all of our nutrients on a daily basis.

  14. Hey Mark,
    I’m sitting here reading your article enjoying a good cup of coffee. Would coffee contain lectins since it comes from a bean? Because if it does you might as well shoot me, cause’ I’m not giving up my coffee. 🙂

    1. Coffee beans grow on trees. Beans grow on fines. They’re roasted and ground and EVERYbody knows that when you grind a coffee bean lectins die in fear. Yeah, that’s it. Coffee beans are safe. No, they’re HEALTH food. A dietary requirement. No lectins here, move along folks. Yeah, that’s it. Coffee’s just fine… (If this turns out to not be true, just keep it to yerself, will ya?)

      1. Legumes can grow on trees too. Black locust is a legume. You’ve probably seen the big trees with the bean pods on them in the fall.

        That said, since coffee beans are seeds, they probably do contain lectins, or some other kind of self-defense against being eaten.

    2. Coffee “beans” are not beans. I believe they are actually a fruit – a berry. Most fruits have a significantly lower lectin level. Plants don’t “guard” fruits, they “guard” the seeds within the fruits. This is also why olives and avocados are “safer”, because they are also fruits.

      1. Coffee “beans” are actually the pit of the coffee cherry 🙂 I learned this back in the day working for Star Shmucks.

  15. The popularity of lectins has increased ever since Dr. Peter Dadamo’s research in Eat Right For Your Blood Type came out back in 1996. It’s heavily researched and lectins can both be beneficial or harmful depending on blood type. If you want a personalized work up just contact me. You can heal from anything!

    1. I was going to comment that I first heard of lectins from the blood type diet. Mark had this to say about it:

      Fortunately I’m type O, and those recommendations are the most primal, so cutting out wheat and eating lots of red meat were a big part of the diet for me.

      I think D’Adamo is onto something with the lectins (I think if recommends wheat at all for any type, it should be sprouted) and has helped a lot of people, but he accidentally stumbled on the primal/paleo diet and I’m not sure blood type has anything to do with it.

      1. Honestly,

        I hold Dr. Dadamo in the highest regard. As we know in life, there is usually no “one size fits all.” One man’s food seems to literally be another man’s poison.

        Notice all the fat people eating tons of meat, and the unhealthy looking vegans.. Maybe Vegan O types and Carnivorous A Types should switch places…

        Dadamo actually thinks WHEAT is harmful for ALL TYPES.. It’s inhibits metabolism, has a harmful lectin, and has proven harmful consequences for anyone suffering from most all diseases of civilization…

        Since you’re a type 0, you’d thrive on RED MEAT (again, not pork) and most all greens and many veggies (except cucumbers, coconut, cauliflower, potatoes). Red Meat has been shown to be beneficial for type 0 diabetes.. Lamb, Venison, Bison, Veal are A + too…

        Pork products clump red blood cells of all types and every persons blood reacts as if it was a foreign invader and creates antibodies against all pork products. Your level of sensitivity will be determined by your overall state of health…

        Cashews, Pistachios are to be avoided by all types too, because they are known for their high mold content.. Yet people love them… Remember, people eat food for stimulation often and not for nourishment.. Your body gets a high when you ingest food not ideal for you (think alcohol).

        Anyway, I’m glad you found the primal way of eating works for you. It’s unfortunate Mark thinks there is no evidence for the Blood Type way of eating because there are tons of medline documents related to lectins and blood type. I’m suprised he even has an article on lectins even…

        I’m sorry about your brother, hopefully you can be a positive example for him and become radiantly healthy and happy. Tell him you don’t eat harmful foods like Wheat, Corn, Peanuts, Navy Beans, and crappy refined processed foods and oils.. (Olive Oil, Ghee, and BUtter is best for us type 0’s..

        If your brother is overweight and eats tons of Wheat, he is most likely an 0 as well. Go around asking about people’s blood type and notice what they eat.. You’ll notice a huge correlation between the people who intuitively follow the Blood Type recs and their state of well being and health…

        Many schizophrenics go into remission if they go on a Gluten Free diet. Unfortunately sooo many of them are addicted to wheat.. The red meat replaces the wheat cravings because you get the L Tyrosine which is very calming and helpful for up-regulating dopamine levels…

        Anyway, best of luck!!!

        1. Thanks for the advice, I’ve actually read and mostly memorized the blood type book, but I go by Mark’s recommendations now, with a few tweaks for my own sensitivities and preferences. I won’t preach at my brother, and I won’t talk about the blood type diet if he asks me for advice, I’ll tell him about primal/paleo. He will want scientific proof of what works.

          I know you mean well, and I know Mark enjoys a good debate, but dispensing blood type diet advice in the comments section of a primal lifestyle blog? Probably not such a hot idea. I’m glad it works for you and that you’re enthusiastic about health. Cheers!

        2. There is no vegetarian blood type. I have read most of D’Adamo’s books. Type A CAN be vegetarian because allegedly they respond best to soy, but there are meats recommended for that blood type. I should say vegetarianism is not demanded or enforced in any way for any of the types.

          Of course there are fat people eating lots of meat. And bread. And beans. And rice. And potatoes. I have yet to run into a thousand-pound person, though, who ate nothing BUT meat. If you find one, be sure to let us know.

      2. You are 100% correct – he stumbled onto Lectins, and decided to wrap t up in Blood Type… But this has nothing to do with it.

        IIt is NOT heavily researched by anyone but Dr Dadamo, who has a clear conflict of interest in a positive outcome for the diet. If he gave his diet advice away for free (like Mark does here), and didn’t sell the woeful refined food he now sells, that relies on the people believing in the blood type diet to sell – then I’d be less skeptical.

        Independent research does not support the Blood Type Diet.

        It only works because of placebo effect (30% of people when given any “medical” intervention get a positive response) and that for a large chunk of people it actually proposes the paleo diet. When you put these two percentages together you get enough people that “believe” in it.

        An analogy – the world looks flat to us, so,based on that observation it is easy to believe that the world is flat – but that does not make it true!

        Dr Dadamo has never done any placebo controlled studies (where you can eliminate the placebo effect).

        With the exception of his advice to avoid lectins and in particular wheat (which is a common theme for many diets, including paleo/primal/gluten free) his diet is bogus.

        It is funny someone is spruiking his diet on here saying “one size does not fit all”, but apparently one size fits all for your blood type?!

        Any peer reviewed science has repeatedly called this “diet” out for what it is – bogus.

        The advice for AB’s is the most out there – no wheat, no dairy, no meat except turkey – please explain how people that were born AB in places where turkeys didn’t exist survived eating other meats!!??

        If this works for you (most likely because you are following a version of the paleo diet), then all well and good.. but don’t force this diet on unsuspecting people that may then go out and pay money to be conned.

        1. I haven’t noticed that there has *been* any peer-reviewed experimentation on D’Adamo’s claims. The typical response is “oh that’s B.S.” and laughing it off. That’s not science.

          D’Adamo says that the blood type antigens line the gastrointestinal tract which is why he makes the recommendations he does. The supplements are an extra, and not required for the diet. You could go to his websites and find 90 percent of what you need to know to follow the diet properly.

          I just looked on Wikipedia and a cursory glance does not out and out tell me that ABO lines the GI tract, though the article does state the blood type antigens are found on various tissues–but you could ask around and see if it’s true. That is a verifiable claim without having to run any research studies at all. It’d be an important clue to avoiding the most gut-damaging lectins in one’s diet, if it were true.

          Dismissing something as B.S. without looking at it too closely yourself is not what I’d call an intellectually rigorous approach to obtaining knowledge. I’m not saying D’Adamo is absolutely right, but you never know, he could be right in the same way that people were who believed you could get malaria from the night air. Shutting the windows against the night air still prevented a lot of malaria cases simply by dint of shutting out mosquitoes. Maybe following D’Adamo’s advice might help people preserve their health for reasons other than the placebo effect.

          I know that when I followed his type O diet, even though I was still eating seed foods such as quinoa and amaranth and NOT soaking them, I lost thirty pounds. For what it’s worth.

  16. Damn Mark . . . how did you get so smart. Thank you!!! You really have a gift. My husband and I feel GREAT!!! Grok on!!!

  17. I have a question. If you stop eating “nightshades, dairy, legumes and even nuts and eggs in addition to all grains and processed foods”, what the hell do you have left to eat? Wouldn’t you end up with a horribly one-sided diet?

    1. I must admit my reaction to reading that was similar. However you are left with seafood, poultry and meat with fruits and vegetables… Which is quite varied. And as suggested, you then reintoduce one at a time to see if any causes you issues… If no issues, you can enjoy them. Especially eggs, nuts (properly prepared though), and nightshades… All of which feature in primal recipes

  18. You’d be left with all animal proteins (try to avoid pork though), seafood, vegetables, fruit (healthy nuts = walnuts and pumpkins seeds and almonds). You don’t need this hugely diverse food array to choose from to be healthy. The food industry’s goal is to sell more food. Some people survive on just meat and fat and do great.. Plus, calorie restriction increases lifespan and improves your quality of life.

    [email protected]

      1. Because Pork has been shown to clump red blood cells of EVERY blood type. It does the same thing as a lectin and acts as an agglutinate.

        This may sound racist, but African Americans have the shortest lifespan out of all races and they’re obsessed with pork products. The south is the heart attack capital of the U.S. practically. It’s not prime rib in on the menu, but bacon, pork. rinds. etc…

        Try beef for a week and then switch to pork products only for a week… You’ll probably be able to tell in the way it makes you feel and your energy levels. It will cause inflammation in more sensitive individuals. Try it out for yourself…

        1. I won’t judge whether you sound racist, but deeming any one group of people “obsessed” is no way to win friends and influence people.

        2. I hope you aren’t referring to blood type diet rules?

          This has been proven to be total nonsense.

          Also, regarding your assertion that African Americans have the shortest lifespan out of all races, and then attributing that to pork… sorry mate, in Australia Aboriginal peoples have the shortest lifespan, and they don’t eat pork to any great extent.

          To say a food group is responsible for the short life span of one ethnic group may not be racist, but is a bit far fetched.

          This view ignores factors like social disadvantage, resulting in lower levels of schooling (not by choice), less access to healthcare (not by choice), exposure to more violent crimes (resulting in injury and death – again not by choice), and when they do get arrested for a crime, higher levels of incarceration compared to caucasians for the same crime (I’m going out on a limb here – but I reckon that’s not by choice!).

          I’m sorry, but to reduce the complex problem of the health issues of a minority and largely discriminated against race to the consumption of pork is a bit out there!

          Funny how you seem to be oblivious to “the south” being a factor due to any of the issues I raised above – please do not tell me you think there is no longer racial prejudices in “the south”?

          There is also a silly stereo type that African Americans are obsessed with chicken – is poultry now off the menu too?

          Or perhaps the solution to the health issue for African Americans (and Australian Aboriginals, and any minority group with poor health) is to convert to Judaism!? 😉

          Sorry, this white Aussie could not leave that one alone!

          Grok on


          PS – the majority of Grok’s were African or very close decent, racial differences also started accelerating with agriculture!

        3. Why do aboriginals have the shortest lifespan? What kind of diet do they eat? Thank you 🙂

        4. Europeans eat a lot of pork too. Do they die as often and early as African-Americans? Way to completely ignore the history of African-Americans and the effects of epigenetics on an ethnic population.

          Southerners love beef. I guess I would know, as I am one. And they also eat lots of bread, rice, and sugar. Those go farther to explaining heart attacks than the presence of pork on one’s menu.

        5. I just have to chime in on this thread. Perhaps the problem with pork has nothing to do with the animal but how it is grown in America. As someone with a corn allergy, I can attest to the fact that pork is the most GMO corn dependent animal species that we eat, even edging out chickens for the lead. Not only is pork raised almost exclusively on GMO corn feed enriched with GMO corn vitamins, but it is contaminated with GMO corn in every step of processing. While it is possible to buy exclusively grassfed cow, bison and lamb, it is not possible to find grassfed pork. Even most “heritage” pork is fed GMO corn or soy to some degree.

          During processing, the carcass is sprayed with lactic acid or citric acid (GMO corn derivatives) and pork is routinely injected with a broth solution (GMO corn or soy derived) or treated with nitrates and chemical preservatives derived from GMO crops. Pork is not simply pig meat anymore. Would anyone care to guess if GMO corn is linked to heart disease and obesity?

          Perhaps the rate of obesity and heart disease is higher here in the South because income level is the number one indicator of risk for both conditions. Low income = high GMO diet.

        6. My sweet mother-in-law could not eat pork, except very occasionally. That means once or twice a year. She loved ham, but ‘paid’ for it if she ate it more often. She also had ‘undiagnosed’ lupis, reumatoid arthritis, and severe other food allergies. My sister-in-law, similarly afflicted, will not hear of changing her ‘lifestyle.’ I’ve even offered to be a personal chef, to no avail. It breaks my heart the pain these two women in my life suffer (suffered in the case of my mother-in-law) because they won’t listen…. each of us has a choice, I suppose.

        7. Can you share a link to what study demonstrated this? Thanks

      1. Gosh Luke, I just love it when someone who lives 15 timezones from the South is expert in its ways. Please do not tell me about residual racial prejudice in the South. If you have something to report about residual prejudice among white Aussies toward Aboriginals, I’d be more inclined to view your opinion as having a modicum of credibility.

        As for Southern blacks being denied educational opportunity, as one who teaches part-time in secondary school following retirement, it has been my observation and experience that blacks have exactly the same opportunity as every other student. The ones who misbehave and make little attempt to learn are treated with ‘kid gloves’ lest a charge of ‘racism’ be automatically leveled.

        Your stereotypes need an update: Southern Gothic is increasingly a literary genre, not a societal norm.

        1. Ah Jim – I did acknowledge prejudice against Aboriginals in Australia.

          And as an educated man, you should know that you don’t have to love somewhere to know about it.

          I also did not confine my comments about education to just the South.

          I have no stereotypes about the South of the US… I do however not live in a state of denial that not all human beings treat each other equally (and that also goes for African Americans (or any other race) towards people of another race.

          In your rush to defend yourself (why is that?) you missed the point I was actually making… you can’t attribute the health of African Americans (even those in the South) to the consumption of pork.

          As an educated man from the South, do you REALLY believe that this is why African Americans (anywhere in America) have lower life expectancy?

          I was in no way pretending to be an expert, I simply and quite honestly stated that there are still people in the South (and in the North, East and West if it helps you feel better) that are racially prejudiced… and YES there are those type of people in Australia… I can admit this, I always wonder about people that can’t see prejudice and/or racism AT ALL…

          One of the stereotypes we do have in Australia is that people from the South are very sensitive about the topic of racism, you have at least confirmed that for us.

          And Msfit, Aboriginal diets vary, however most of their health issues are due to not consuming their traditional hunter gatherer diets, combined with alcohol consumption (which prior to european settlement they did not consume – so they are susceptible to its effects) and also lack of access to decent health, as many live in some of the most remote places on the planet (not a lot of people in the middle of Australia, and even less doctors/nurses/teachers as a result). Also, like many indigenous cultures that did not evolve eating grains (like those from the pacific islands), when exposed to a diet containing grains they get diabetes – some pacific islands have up to 90% of the adult population with diabetes, Aboriginal Australians range between 30-40% depending on where in Australia.

          Getting back on topic – NONE of it has anything to do with PORK!

          I’m with Aaron on this one – food of the gods!


        2. You only see black kids in the classroom. That’s not exactly being knowledgeable about the whole of their lives and history. Nice try though.

          And if there are any black folks here reading this who feel an urge to stick up for this guy, don’t bother. Yes, there are black kids who are slackoffs. There are even black people who take advantage of racism in American history to get away with bad behavior. So what? We still have racism in this country, and white kids are still overwhelmingly advantaged over black ones. If I as a white person can see this plain as day, we’ve got a looong way to go.

  19. Deborah & Amannda

    Following a Primal Diet is definitely the first and most imporant step when dealing with an autoimmune condition. I would recommend dropping the eggs for a while due to the fact that they are known to be a common food sensitivy even people with healthy GI/immune systems. Cordain has done quitit’s bit of research linking eggs, grains and dairy to autoimmune conditions.

    I don’t have an autoimmune condition but, I have worked with quite a few who have. I have found that they all had extensive GI issues that were confirmed by stool testing and other lab work. I would highly recommend getting your diet in order like you are and working on healing your gut with a targeted supplement protocol.

    1. As far as targeted supplements what besides fish oil,Vit D and lots of leafy veggies would I need to start with? I dont go to Doctors they cause more confusion and and money.My mother has lupus at least she did and now she has Fibromyalgia. Her Doc first mentioned Paleo to her to try since she is a diabetic as well, which got me curious and here I am 6 months later and 30lbs lighter.My thing is she is stuck on CW like most and doesnt know where to start. I try to explain but I am just going to have to print out all the info I can and mail it to her to convince her otherwise.She wants to try this just scared and hasnt a direction because she would have to change her whole life and routine.

      1. Amanda, I have seen wonderful improvement in autoimmune issues with turmeric and cinnamon in capsules. I make my own by buying the spices in bulk and the gel-caps separately to make them more affordable.

        1. One of my mottos: Everything tastes better with cinnamon. Sprinkle some on your apple, add to your salad dressing (esp Asian styles), sprinkle on salsa (less on hispanic style; more on asian styles), dump some in your almond drink-based smoothie. If you don’t like cinnamon, I’m sorry…all the more for me!

        2. I hadn’t thought about making my own gelcaps with spices. I even have the equipment to do it. I’ve been stirring in cinnamon and 100% cocoa with my morning coffee but a lot filters out with the french press. I have however noticed that my joints get really hot in a good way, like soaking in a nice warm bath, instead of really hot in an inflammation and pain way. (I have fibro/CFS and am really dreading the fact I might need to cut more out of my diet now since a lot of the stuff I’m reading here are things I use the most in my primal/whole30 lifestyle at the moment)

      2. She may not have to change her lifestyle as much as her diet… People with autoimmune tend to thrive on more animal protein.. (They’re usually Blood Type 0 or B).

        I highly doubt she is A, but I bet she eats tons of carbs right?

      3. Do you and your Mom live close by? Cook for her. Invite her for lunch and prepare primal. or dinner and prepare primal. I Guarantee if you feed the wonderful primal recipes, you can win over practically anyone. Oh dear, I re-read and assume you live in a different town. Send recipes. MORE importantly, send MENUS. Recipes by themselves can be intimadating in a sterile sort of way. The MENU, however, gives a lovely picture of the whole meal.

        My ‘meat-and-potatoes’ husband looks forward to primal dinners. Ok, he still likes potatoes, but I’ve managed to reduce serving them to once or twice a month.

        My vegetarian sister and spouse share fantastic recipes. They know we have no intention of becoming vegetarian, but having a stunning beet casserole recipe is totally primal…we LOVE pairing their beet casserole with bison rib steak!!!!!!

  20. Waah! A dude can’t eat much anymore, without knowing it’s harmaful for you. Guess it’s just grassfed protein and leafy veggies with very few fuit selections for me. How boring!

    1. Boring???? May I offer my services in creating menus for you? My husband was a bit depressed by cutting so much carbohydrate, but now is quite enthusiastic about a menu of, for example, bison rib steak, khol rabi-tomato-basil salad, plums (combination of heirloom Green Gage and Brooks) for dessert.

  21. Logically, it’s hard to imagine eggs would be a problem for Grok. Grok would surely have eaten all the eggs he/she could find. Because they don’t even have any claws or fangs and they run quite slow! (unless they are on a steep hill that is..) Perhaps there is something specific in eggs currently available that is causing the problem.

    1. Eggs would have been a seasonal food, like any other. Birds only lay eggs in specific seasons, so the eggs would have been plentiful for a short time and then not part of the food supply for 11/12ths or so of the year. Turtle and aquatic egg layers have a different seasonal trend, so perhaps that would have increased egg consumption, but I’m unclear whether lectins are a problem in roe or other aquatic eggs.

      1. Eggs foraged in the wild by the likes of Grok would have always been fertile – eggs in our markets now days are unfertile.

        Anti-nutrients like avidin(and possibly lectins)are mostly deactivated in fertile raw eggs(even more so than in well cooked unfertile eggs).

        Fun fact: Feed an egg eating pet snake fertile eggs and they will thrive, feed them unfertile eggs and they will not only get ill they will soon die if not returned to a diet of raw fertile eggs.

    2. Birds were not fed GMO corn and soy and the eggs of yesteryear were not washed with GMO corn detergents. Why would they be? Eggshells come with their own protective coating that is destroyed by washing. Besides, eggshells are porous and anything you wash the outside with ends up on the inside.

      1. Wild birds eggs will have a roughly balanced omega 3:6 ratio. Grain fed chickens produce omega 6 rich eggs. Big bad trouble! If I didn’t feed my free range chickens grains they would eat no seeds of any note. They eat grass, though like the wood pigeons they much prefer clover, worms, slugs, snails, cow pat grubs, mice (often whilst still alive. Nature is hard!), frogs, newts, apples, pears and plums as they fall off my orchard trees (yes they free range) and they love cherries and strawberries (they get the ones I reject). My Guinea Fowl love onions, leeks, garlic and can fly into the veg patch to do so. Netting helps. I try to feed as little grain as possible. It is easy though! Read Dr Artemis Simopoulos’s book The Omega Diet. It describes chickens in her native Greece scratching around for grubs and eating purslane (high in omega 3 ALA) then the American corn/grain fed chicken. Great book.

    3. I’m six years “late” with this reply, but many people are allergic to just the white of the egg…not the yolk. Also, I read that egg whites do a number on our skin in some way (you’d have to google that). In other words, if you eat eggs at all, just eat the yolks.

  22. I am a little confused about the source of lectins: what about canned beans, home-cooked beans and (this is odd) pea protein powder?

    1. Prepare dry beans according to ‘Nourishing Traditions.’ The will clear up any canned vs. home prepared issues and will render your recipes primal friendly.

      1. I always find it useful to have a can of beans in the cupboard, but can anyone tell me if these have been through the soaking phase before being cooked, as I guess this is crucial to reduce lectin?

  23. First off, if you’re really eating primal, beans aren’t really on the table right?

    But anyway, I digress. Beans have the highest amount of lectins after grains. Some lectins are good, some are not..

    There is a lectin in the banana that actually binds to the HIV virus.. SO this is good for some people… I believe the castor bean lectin (ricin) was used for assassination purposes. (bad bad bad)

    The soy lectin helps prevent cancer (in certain blood types). The primal diet works for me because I’m genetically wired (through Blood Type) to benefit. Almost half the population is….

    This is all documented on medline so I’m not just repeating what Dr. Dadamo says..

    You can’t say “everyone has to eat this or that to stay healthy.” That is just not true and is all or nothing thinking…

    I’m thriving on red meat and animal fat alone.. I bet not everyone could…

    Anyway, if you’re truly wondering about lectins, find out your blood type and I’d be glad to help you out.. Because the negative ones mess your gut up and take away from your happiness. Avoiding (negative) lectins frees up tons of extra energy….

    1. The Blood Type Diet simply works because it moves people toward a paleo diet, not because of the flawed blood type theory it contains. Loren Cordain has just published a great review of this diet in one of his latest newsletters. Dr. D’Adamo doesn’t even list the blood types in correct order. The first bloodtype was A (not O), the second B, then O, then AB. Furthermore, all bloodtypes were established roughly 240,000 years before the advent of agriculture (not right before or after). Negative lectins don’t take away from my happiness – Bad science does.

      1. Dan,

        Dan, first off, please list your blood type. I think Loren Cordain is great, but one size doesn’t fit all…

        Lectins have a profound impact on all of us and I’d challenge you to eat the exact opposite of your blood type every day for two weeks, lectins and all and then tell me how happy you are….

        As an 0, I’ve been a vegan and i can tell you that was not very good for me… Now that I’m a primal eater, the whole physiology has changed and I’m loving it…

        1. So you admit to following a primal diet – and yet you think this is due to blood type?!

          So explain the sudden development of the genotype diet – which one is it – blood type or genotype?

          I’d say it’s the laughing all the way to the bank type, as the blood diet faithful cough up more $$$ for the newest variant of bogus science… I note the guy is selling food now too (and it is highly refined artificial food! – Anything for a $, health is not the aim here)

          Convenient that 43% of population are O – and so should follow what is essentially a paleo diet…

          Another 12% of population are B – and are prescribed a slightly less stringent primal type diet (although grains are included – WHAT about lectins here? Even though science has proven regardless of blood type, lectins are not good for us

          The best part though is the 40% of the population that is A, which are given a recommendation to be vegetarian!? Are you kidding – 40% of the human population evolved to be vegetarian?! Without meat consumption we wouldn’t have evolved that much from apes!

          And then finally the poor 5% of the population that is AB – and get the ridiculous advice that you should ONLY eat limited amounts of turkey and lamb, perhaps rabbit, but not chicken and beef or other meats, peanuts are highly beneficial (oh the lectins!?) etc etc

          What about the ABs born where there were no turkeys or lambs? How did they thrive?

          The focus of the blood type diet is weight loss, and in the end it works due to:

          1) Placebo effect
          2) a large % of people being told to go paleo/primal (which is a proven health strategy)
          3) restricting food choices so much that the person becomes conscious of what they are easting – which is the 1st big step to weight loss

          Now if due to the above 3 things it works for you fine – but that does not mean it is real science or even real period.

          And it should not be spruiked in such a way that leads other people to think it is a scientific fact, so that they hand over money to a very rich man that is self-perpetuating the evidence for his theory.

          For example Mark does sell health supplements and his books, but you can get the information he has in those on here for free with effort, and on other sites again through effort.

          Personally I’m always suspicious when someone has “scientific proof’ of their own (not independently verified), published in their own journals/websites that give a result that help that person sell something else.

          If he EVER shows a placebo controlled trial, that is then published in a peer reviewed journal (not his own publications), then I’ll eat my hat!!! I’m AB – I’m sure that is OK?! 😉

        2. I am type A+ but can’t eat fibrous foods such as veggies as well as meats because of my Crohn’s Disease. I’ve never had problems eating meats, even crispy, salty bacon which in theory you’d think would irritate my intestines just from being overcooked and dried out/hard/crispy but it doesn’t… unlike say, leafy vegetables which if eaten alone I don’t even seem to be able to digest (because my intestines don’t like it as much which is in direct contradiction of my blood type diet – in fact, if I were to have a severe bout of inflammation the only safe foods would be 0 carb 0 fiber meat. After my first surgery when they found out that baseball-sized absces they removed from me was from Crohn’s they gave me aprintout of suggested foods to eat and avoid – recommending a low GI low fiber diet. You’d think as a type A my consumption of meat would mess me up or make me fat and yet it hasn’t.).

          I’m not surprised you failed at veganism since you sound like the gullible type – maybe you believed veganism to be primarily a health-based diet when in reality it is healthy but primarily an ethical-based diet that limits your choices of certain essential micro and macronutrients – you need to really know what you’re doing to thrive on a vegan diet, it’s too easy to make yourself unhealthy by not paying attention to what you’re eating.

          Speaking of gullible – you DO realize that red blood cell types exist so your immune system can identify them as being a part of your own body right? because they are essentially dead cells with no DNA – just an iron core – I really don’t see how they can have any effewct on your immune function – blood type is for red blood cells, not white immune cells. And why wouldn’t it be your gene phenotype that plays a role in metabolism? There are countless variants of gene expressions. There are only 4-8 red blood cell phenotypes. Sure, red cells can clot sometimes, and some things can make them clotty-er, but in your above posts you also talk of immune responses which I hate to tell you but your red blood cells play not real part of (even when it comes to clotting to heal wounds, it’s mostly your white blood cells such as macrophages that will clot together to heal the wound). Your red blood cells are there to provide oxygen, that’s about it. Worst case scenario, they clot up and induce strokes/cut off blood flow to organs until they’re un-clotted… fSo, in theory according to you I should have died of a massive stroke by now….

          Do me a favour and never preach this garbage to people like me who have serious health issues – it makes us cynical about other potential more useful things like the Paleo diet – you do realize that if I were to seriously try out your little blood type theory I’d be putting myself at risk again of another flare-up, possibly even once again having another part of my intestines permanently removed and being able to process certain micronutrients just a little less efficiently. Have you ever even been hospitalized for health problems? Probably not or else you’d try to do more research before getting behind something like this – what’s next? you’ll tell me I just need to see a chiropractor to fix my spine to heal my immune system and that will take care of all my ailments?. Or let me guess, I need to consume diluted toxins – so diluted in fact that they aren’t even there….. Or maybe my Crohn’s Disease is caused bya bacteria in milk that magically survives pasteurization and affects even non-milk drinkers (or was that a virus?)… or maybe the fruitarians had it right and I need to stop eating proteins from animals and plants because they create evil mucous!

          You yourself admit to going Primal while going on the blood type diet – I don’t see how you can not seriously see the major flaws in that diet when the benefits you gained from it can be better explained with the primal diet which appears to make a lot more sense… waaayyyy more sense that that other diet. That’s the thing about alternative medicine/health: There’s a LOT of bullshit you have to sift true to get to the good stuff…

      2. Exactly Dan – he has made this stuff up – and when science has proved that his hypothesis is incorrect, he just changes it, or just drowns out the science with marketing dollars, so that his disciples don’t lose their faith.

      3. Loren Cordain says paleolithic people ate low-fat diets. Pardon me if I don’t exactly trust him to know which blood type developed first.

  24. I am always suprised that you continually post articles on lectins and hardly ever discuss the fact that they are neutralized by soaking/sprouting/fermenting. I t was nice to see it mentioned in this article, but you still left it out of the section on how to deal with lectins. It is not necessary to completely eliminate grains and legumes from the diet if they are germinated first.

    1. oops, jusr re-read, and you did mention it in that section. good for you.

      1. Yes, and the ‘Nourishing Traditions’ book. There was an interesting article out of Japan a few years ago where researchers discovered that brown rice goes through a chemical change resulting in more proteins (think Ezekial sprouted grains) when soaked in warm water before cooking. I forget the soaking time, but at the time I thought that was pretty cool.

        BTW, I have cut out grains and feel MUCH better. At this point, I’m ready to go to my doc to have my prescription drug needs re-evaluated. Fully expect to change docs soon….

  25. Hi, I am new to your site–have a question.that improved my health greatly–someone told me that the same kind of lectins in cows milk is also in beef which could explain why I can’t eat beef. Is this true? I was a Macrobiotic vegey for many years but in recent years have started a gluten free diet and then started adding more animal protein–eggs, fish, poultry but still dislike red meat–just cannot do it except for occasional bison when my husband makes it. Bison seems better than beef for my digestive system though still don’t like it much. I have thought about trying rabbit as it seems like something paleo people would have eaten and thought maybe I could stand it better than larger mammals. I love almonds and am planning to try the soaking first for those. I do eat quinoa, amaranth and millet and sometimes rice but I do soak all of them overnight.

    1. Somehow not all of my post came through–I thought I wrote: I quit eating dairyproducts many years ago–that improved my health greatly.

  26. Good article – one point I think it highlights for everyone is that just because a food has existed for hundreds of thousands of years, does not necessarily make it 100% ‘good’ (even if most are when added into our diets in the proportions that nature intended). All plants have some methods of defending themselves are are not just here for our consumption… our ancestors worked this out (sprouting/soaking/etc), we should too.

  27. I’m African American, from the South, and the diet is horrendous. People can afford to eat whatever they want but choose the worst foods because of tradition. I know prosperous, educated people who still serve chitterlings (hog guts) at special occasions and load everything down with lard, salt, starches, fried foods, etc. It is true that we looove pork and fried meat. It’s not racist to be truthful; let’s talk about food and health.

    1. Organ meats are good for you. Lard is good for you. (Read the label. As long as it is not hydrogenated, it is mostly mono-unsaturated fat, just like olive oil.) Salt’s only a problem in salt-sensitive people which, to be fair, there’s reason to believe applies to African-Americans. The starches and sugars are the main problem, from what I can tell.

      He was still incredibly rude to speak of you the way he did. And I doubt he will be able to explain how Europeans can eat so much pork and still have lower heart disease rates than we do.

      1. Isn’t lard mostly saturate fat? That’s why it’s sold at room temperature and is ok for high temp cooking.

      2. Having read this site for the last half hour it would appear that your food is grown/ fed and processed in a totally different way from Europe. I actually see the crops growing and the animals grazing before I buy the food locally. I always feel best on a high meat/ fish protein and animal fat especially, ALWAYS butter NO spreads, some veg. I tried to eat more varied and carbs make me feel and look awful. Having read about grains here I now know why.I’d never heard of lectins before today. Re the blood group issue I’m AB NEG so have given that one a miss.

  28. In the last 6 months I have started getting severe hives from the lectins in all grains, legumes and dairy (I am blood type A, the ‘vegetarian’ type for those in that debate!). Unfortunately, I also get a histamine reaction from all protein foods not freshly cooked from caught/ frozen and am at work 10 1/2 hours per day with only a microwave to cook food, which I won’t use. I have therefore been left very hungry as I try to just eat vegetables all day until 8pm when I get home. This very interesting article and comments have inspired me to experiment a bit with soaking and sprouting grains & legumes. I know that promoting this wasn’t the purpose of your article, Mark, but its a possible solution for this very hungry person!

    1. I’d at least attempt the B-type diet to see if you notice any improvement… Chicken, Turkey, and Soy at least.. If it doesn’t help try Emotional Freedom Technique or Neuromodulation Technique (NMT.MD) (google them). or even NAET. These are “alternative medicines” that people who never suffered from severe enough problems to change usually discredit and call quackery. Suffer enough and you will become open to these treatments pretty quick. Just my opinion….

      1. I wish I had a figure for all the NAET clients that come back to the avoiding corn forum after a while when it no longer works. These techniques teach the body to stop making a fuss about allergens or toxins, that isn’t the same thing as being cured.

        The problem sounds like an allergy or intolerance to preservatives (maybe citric acid). The solution is to cook in bulk from whole, fresh meat and veggies and then freeze portions for later. I don’t eat anything that I haven’t cooked from scratch and I don’t cook whole meals three times a day.

    2. Hello Helena – have you considered histamine intolerance – which I am. It can be successfully managed through eliminating histamine rich foods. Only a thought.

  29. Great information. I’ve been gluten free for the last 10 months, but have noticed I still get sick occasionally and was really disapointed that my energy level never improved. Looks like I have a lot to learn (or unlearn) about what’s healthy. Thanks for the education.

    1. Focus on your wellbeing and the health you do have for a week. Put your intent out there that a solution is yours and one should come. Best of luck in your well being. Some people are just more sensitive than others, but inevitably it’s a lot about belief and our thoughts, so fighting about what is healthy or not does become pointless (to a point). : )

  30. Don’t get me wrong, I’m totally convinced by the ‘evil lectin’ science, but can we not get a bit more specific? For instance, which lectins are found in which foods and in what quantities? Which lectins are most and least harmful to your health? I can’t seem to find a breakdown anywhere on the web.

    I think that sort of information would really help people to establish any correlations between diet and the state of their health.

    I seem to be able to tolerate eggs, soy protein chunks, gluten free oats, and certain beans like cannellini and black eyed, but not wheat, rice, buckwheat and millet and would love to know if there’s any logical behind this.

  31. I have had a problem with irregularity my whole life. I cannot find a natural way to help me and it is getting more and more uncomfortable thru the years. Is there any chance the Paleo Diet would help me? If I were to try this, how would I get the rec calcium I need?

    1. Hi there,

      You get plenty of calcium through the greens you eat, especially kale, red chard, and spinach. Calcium from dairy is a joke. It’s better to get calcium from your greens. Contact me if you want to know more…


  32. I have suffered from Ulcerative Colitis in the past and my doctor was ready to put me on a strong immunosuppressant, and I was told diet has little to do with my condition. I had difficulty accepting this and began searching for a dietary cause for my colitis.
    I have been in remission for the last two years by avoiding lectins. Information about lectins is often sketchy, and the food and medical industries would rather you not worry about lectins. Removing lectins from my diet has been key to my recovery.
    I am thankful that I found this website and I look forward to learning more about Primal Living!

  33. not all bean lectins(kidney, lentil. garbanzo) are deactivated by soaking and cooking and some lectins have blood type antigen specificity (agglutinate antigen cells). Read Eat Right For your Type for the skinny on lectins and blood types. William Boyd’s work in the late 1950’s on lectins and blood types is another essential read. You people who pan diets without taking the time to study them is annoying judging by some of the comments I’ve read.

    1. Mike – I’ve read Eat Right for Your Type, I even have a copy (I keep it for the comedy value), I also have read a number of scientific papers on lectins etc

      The issue of Lectins is VERY REAL

      The Blood Type diet is NOT based in any sense of reality, other than just by CHANCE (or clever deception) The blood type diet is essentially a primal/paleo diet recommendation for Type O, which also happens to be the largest group of the population.

      In science, when you give population based results, it is possible for a positive result in the majority to hide the complete lack of a result, or worse a negative result in the minority groups.

      I have NO DOUBT that the Blood Type diet works for Type O’s that follow it – BECAUSE it is primal/paleo.

      But that does NOT mean that the Blood Type Diet is right.

      The BIGGEST issue is what is claimed in that book is scientifically, historically and patently WRONG.

      The claim is that O is the OLDEST blood type is WRONG/FALSE


      Type A is the most ancient blood type, estimated to appear between 5-6 MILLION years ago NOT the 15-20 THOUSAND years claimed by “Dr” D’Adamo

      Next was Type B, splitting from Type A, around 3.5 MILLION years ago NOT the 10-15 THOUSAND years claimed by “Dr” D’Adamo

      Then Type O cropped up, another split from Type A, around 2.5 MILLION years ago THEREFORE NOT the “original” blood type suggested by “Dr” D’Adamo.

      And finally, by PURE luck no doubt, cause there is only one option left AB did come last. HOWEVER NOT the 1500 years ago claimed by “Dr” D’Adamo, RATHER it was a 260,000 years ago!!!

      You CANNOT make such fundamental errors, and BASE your entire “science” on such claims, and then have them so patently wrong and expect to be credible!?

      I can’t even be BOTHERED reading my old post, but I am sure I stated that this whole blood type diet is a SCAM, based on sure co-incidence, rather than FACTS, and that co-incidence is that the majority of the human population is type O, and so they are recommended what is essentially a Primal/Paleo diet.

      However, it is reprehensible to suggest to the smaller Blood Type groups to do pretty much the OPPOSITE of a Primal/Paleo diet on a FALSE assumptions.

      If you read the comments by absolute devotees of the Blood Type Diet, they are ALMOST ALWAYS Type O.

      There are HEAPS of Type A’s (particularly) and Type AB’s that quite rightly say – the diet is CRAP, because it recommends they eat diets at odds with our evolutionary, social and natural history.

      Now I am not saying that there is ABSOLUTE proof for a Primal/Paleo diet, but the Primal/Paleo proposition is at least not morally flawed, in that it puts forward that ALL people should adopt this approach, and presents data (which is actually in peer reviewed and published in scientific journals).

      I am HAPPY that Type O’s get the benefits of PURE luck from following “Dr” D’Adamo’s advice.

      I OBJECT that he uses pseudo science (so EASILY disproven) to convince people that are “swayed” by his “Dr” title and use of scientific terms and even pseudo scientific words he has made up to convince them to follow a diet that could be harmful to them.

      WORSE – this guy is now pushing ANOTHER diet system (no doubt massive repeat sales into his group of already duped believers) called the GenoType diet.

      This again is fundamentally flawed – FIRST point, what “Dr” D’Adamo calls a genotype is in fact a phenotype.

      Notice how he capitalises the “T” in genotype to make it “GenoType”. No doubt his publishers lawyers gave that advice, so he couldn’t be challenged for making a false claim (“There is no such thing as a “GenoType”, so how could I get it wrong?”)

      AGAIN – out of SIX types, THREE can be Type O!!! Better STILL these THREE GeneTypes are “most common” according to “Dr” D’Adamo making up at LEAST 50% of the human population according to “Dr” D’Adamo – HOW BLOODY CONVENIENT for him – ONCE AGAIN the majority get what is essentially a Primal/paleo lifestyle recommendation!!!

      I think this is a BLATANT attempt to jump onto the primal/paleo band wagon, whilst avoiding admitting you are publishing a load of RUBBISH.

      However as has been pointed out by MANY, what is great about this new diet is it exposes how there is NO science to this, just a random set of made up suggestions. This is EVIDENCED by the fact that the diet recommendations are contradictory between the diets.


      BUT IF it is BASED ON SCIENCE, then the “rules” can’t change between books, because the “scientific evidence” that formed the rules can’t change!

      GRANTED new evidence may come to light, but that MEANS the OLD information is now WRONG.

      I have seen this highlighted best in a review on Amazon for the GenoType Diet (just click on the 1-start reviews to see reviews from people that have READ ALL of “Dr” D’Amado’s books)

      For example:

      (Thanks to Amazon reviewer “MacGregor from Boulder, Colorado” for the information here)

      In the Geneotype diet book, “Dr” D’Adamo claims that Type O’s can be “Hunters”, “Gatherers” or “Explorers” (THREE of the SIX remember!)

      “Highly Beneficial” medicinal for blood type “O” in “Blood Type “O” Food Beverage and Supplement LISTS” AND “Eat Right 4 Your Type Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia” books:

      A. Cherries (all)
      B. Plum (all types)
      C. Prunes
      D. Banana
      E. Blueberry
      F. Fig

      “Toxins to Limit or Avoid” for {“Hunter”,”Gatherer”,”Explorer”} (blood type “O”) in “The GenoType Diet” book:
      A. Cherry
      B. Plum
      C. Prune

      Additionally we see that the following are listed as “Toxins to Limit or Avoid” for 2/3 of the blood type “O” GenoTypes:

      “Toxins to Limit or Avoid” for “Hunter” & “Gatherer” types (i.e. 2 of the 3 “GeneoTypes” that are Blood Type O in the GenoType Diet book:

      D. Banana… Listed as toxic for {“Gatherer”,”Explorer”} – THAT is 2 of the 3 Type O types!
      E. Blueberry… Listed as toxic for {“Gatherer”,”Explorer”} – THAT is 2 of the 3 Type O types!
      F. Fig… Listed as toxic for {“Hunter”,”Explorer”}, listed as neutral for {“Gatherer”}

      Consider as well that Raisins, go from being listed “Neutral” normal food for blood type “O” in the Blood Type books, to being listed as “Toxins to Limit or Avoid” for {“Hunter”,”Gatherer”,”Explorer”} (blood type “O”) in the GenoType books.

      And the BEST example:

      On page 188 of the GenoType Diet book “Dr” D’Adamo praises a food (Cherry) in a chapter meant for all GenoTypes, describing them as “The best fruits for each are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and fiber. In particular, berries and cherries are super antioxidant foods.”

      BUT LOOK ABOVE – IN THE SAME BOOK THE SAME PERSON then goes on to claim that the food (Cherry) itself is toxic to 84% of your GenoTypes {“Hunter”,”Gatherer”,”Explorer”,”Teacher”,”Warrior”},

      The reviewer posts some questions to this, but I will post my own:

      1) IF this is SCIENCE, then Cherries, Plums, Prunes, Bananas, Blueberries and Figs CANNOT be “medicinal” for Type O Blood Types AND “toxic” for “Hunters”, “Gatherers” and “Explorers” IF those groups are blood Type O

      For it STILL to be SCIENCE, then what “Dr” D’Adamo MUST publicly acknowledge is that since making a fortune selling books stating that these foods were “medicinal” for Type O’s, his “research” has found that this is actually WRONG, and that in fact Blood Type O will find these foods TOXIC.

      IF this is what he is saying, HOW CAN HE MORALLY keep selling the Blood Type Books?! AT LEAST He should retract them, and ONLY sell the GenoType Diet book (BIG assumption here is that this is science remember). AT BEST he should give EVERY owner of the Blood Type books an apology and a FREE copy of the GenoType book so that they can know to stop eating “toxic” foods that there are likely consuming in VAST quantities as he has previously claimed they are “medicinal”!!!!

      ALTERNATIVELY (and the best answer using the principle of Ockham’s razor) is that THIS IS NOT SCIENCE, hence there are NO RULES to follow and it IS ALL MADE UP, and the man responsible lost TRACK of his previous rules, when making the new ones up!?

      So right back at “You people that pan people that HAVE taken the time to study the diets and so called “science” behind them and find the diets not only ANNOYING, but down right fraudulent!”


      By the way – on that point, notice that “Dr” D’Adamo has never sued anyone that has called him a quack or a con-man!? Perhaps it is because he KNOWS he is making too much money from this ruse to risk it all with the FACTS being examined in a court and the TRUTH that it is quackery being exposed – any damage to his ego is being paid off by his enormous bank balance.

  34. I find it very hard to believe that peppers and tomatoes are bad for us. After all, as non-sweet fruits, they evolved to be eaten by mammals and other seed-dispersing animals. From an evolutionary point of view, they need to be nutritious for their seed dispersers.

    1. @ Darwin’s Doctor:

      1) Tomatoes and peppers may rely on seed dispersal, however this does not equate to them being good for human consumption… In the past they may have relied predominately on birds for seed dispersal. Birds have a very different digestive system to humans and mammals in general, meaning that these compounds that are toxic to us, are not toxic to them

      2) The peppers and tomatoes we eat today do not resemble the plants they have been selectively bred from. It is a bit rich to invoke “Darwin” and evolution as a reason we must be adapted to eat tomatoes and peppers, when the plant we eat is so different from evolutionary history for both species!

      A little background on Nightshades:

      Tomatoes, white potatoes, red and green bell peppers, the “hot” peppers such as chili and paprika, as well as eggplant belong to the Nightshade Family, a botanical genus called Solanaceae species. This species also includes tobacco, poisonous belladonna, and the toxic plants herbane, mandrake, and jimson weeds.

      These are VERY toxic plants. It is highly likely that in terms of evolution, being from the same species – “Solanaceae” – ALL nightshades were once toxic, but humans have distorted the evolution of some of the nightshades we chose to eat.

      ANYONE that eats a raw potato will tell you how toxic they are.

      Additionally (from wikipedia):

      The leaves, stems, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the poisonous alkaloid tomatine. Tomato leaves in the form of a tea have been linked to at least one death, but the levels of tomatine are generally too small to be dangerous, so foods such as fried green tomatoes are safe to eat. Ripe tomatoes do not contain any detectable tomatine.
      Tomato plants can be toxic to dogs, if they eat large amounts of the tomato itself, or chew on the plant that grows it.

      I do not have the evidence for this, however it is HIGHLY likely that humans have bred for lower levels of the toxic components. So again, invoking evolutionary history, tomatoes could have once been a VERY deadly “fruit”.

      Additionally, you will note the reference to dogs, a species that is very much a seed disperser in nature. Clearly not ALL mammals are great with tomatoes as you have suggested.

      If you do in fact know a lot about Darwin, you will know enough to be aware that the toxicity of a plant can be selectively bred out, however, even then, it is possible that the toxicity is not bred out completely, rather to a point where it is at a systemic low level, which for many people causes minor toxicity, and for a few sensitive people still causes significant toxicity.

      The point of this article is to make EVERYONE aware of these FACTS, and then those that are highly sensitive may find significant benefit if they STOP eating foods they have been told are SAFE and non-toxic.

      Additionally others that are only mildly affected may also choose to trial not eating these foods and find some slight benefit they appreciate.

      It is unfair of you to invoke “Darwin”, one of the greatest scientists in history, and also the title of “doctor” to counter this.

      A casual reader may infer that you know a great deal about the evolution of humans and tomatoes/peppers, as well as medicine and human health and hence ignore this article.

      The fact is – we as a species have disconnected from the instinctual nature of most living things when it comes to our food. We have lost our “knowledge” that was passed down from eons of evolution and trial and error, which resulted in either good health, sickness or even death if you chose the wrong thing to eat.

      We have ignored instinct, and supplemented it with marketing messages as “knowledge”.

      The fact is this species is a highly toxic plant, that HAS been selectively bred to make it less toxic, but for SOME people may still be significantly toxic, and they should know this HISTORICAL facts about this food, so they can make informed choices. Choices they would have been aware of, if the tradition of handing down food knowledge from generation to generation wasn’t broken by the advent of agriculture, and hence the economic motive of the producer to “promote/market” the benefits of the crop they produced (made even worse now by the multinational food companies that then strip the product of the little nutrients left, add salt, water and sugar and then MARKET it as a health food (low fat etc etc).

      Sorry for length of this post.



      1. take away: if you find you’re having problems, research and determine if a food is a problem for you. I think this is a real primal point. we’re supposed to figure our what works for us. that is I’m supposed to figure out what works for me. that’s how we figure out what’s edible. SOMEbody had to eat a tomato or (fill in the blank) to know it was ok to eat.

  35. Very thorough and clear article! I am particularly interested because I am having trouble finding anything to eat. I realized in the last few weeks that I am sensitive to salicylates, amines and glutamates as well as all dairy and possibly gluten, when I went on an elimination diet and finally got rid of my two main symptoms–painful joints and headache (after at least 5 years!). I was feeling great until last night when I tried to introduce two new foods, mung bean sprouts and rutabaga. Within an hour my symptoms had returned. So now I am suspecting lectins and oxalates. Really worried about my nutrition and general enjoyment of food in the future. Any ideas? Any doctor recommendations? At this point I’d be willing to travel almost anywhere if I can find the right professional(s)!

  36. While I found your article interesting, I found it just as vague as anything any doctor has told me about my issues. Basically, watch what you eat. Thanks for the hot tip. I would like a clear guide as to what I can eat. I can’t eat soy, that I know, no melons, no cabbage family, no legumes, no dairy, no wheat. What the hell is left????
    And I would like a pill that would help me eat and not be embarassed “sorry I can’t eat that”. My intestinal issues go back to when I was a kid and have never got better and I have been to umpteen numbers of doctors shoving things in every orifice, with the verdict, yup you have diverticulosis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    I have only recently heard about lectins. I found a site that has pills that are made from plants that help cleanse lectins from your system. It says, okra for one is something you can eat and is contained in the pills.

    I haven’t been able to find okra in my grocery store. That is why i was hoping there was a way of taking some kind of pill that can replace the actual foods the article talked about.

    I am soooo frustrated and feel no one can help me and I have to accept that I will always be in pain and eat whatever I want because it doesn’t make a damned difference.

    Please help me if you can.

    1. I can see you’re frustrated…

      I am assuming you’re Blood Type O as well… First.. with colon issues eliminate most fiber…

      Stick with Meats and Veggies… That’s what is left to eat. It will heal you…

    2. Wow, I am very sorry you are having such life-long trouble, Pam. Okra is a very warm weather item; I’ve seen it frozen food sections here in the pacific nw.

      Not that you want to hear another ‘can’t’, but those who have problems with melons often have problems with winter squashes as well. my brother-in-law is one, and his family, e.g., no pumpkin pie in that family at all. I don’t see that you have corn on your ‘no’ list. It might be a good idea to not have corn for a while and see if it makes a difference. So much corn now is GMO that i sure wonder about it (and don’t eat it except maybe once or twice a year). I knew a fellow who was deathly allergic to grass and couldn’t figure out why, in August-Sept, he was a real mess. We were living in upstate NY at the time and the corn fields were in tassel. Sure enough, corn is simply a very tall grass…

      You don’t say if your doctor(s) have been western medically trained. I’d go for naturopathic, homeopathy, eastern. Oddly enough, many allergy sensitive people I’ve known have found relief and even freedom in acupuncture. It’s sure worth a try.

      Anyway, it’s been my experience that SOME western trained docs can be a bit arrogant and patronizing (and vague). I’d try a different school of thought.

      1. Thanks for the advice. I had not thought about corn and grass. Corn did not show up on an allergy test I had some years back. But about 7 different types of grass did. The worst was Beech trees. That is very interesting. When you say cut out corn, do you mean cornstarch as well? It is in so many things these days.

        As for accupuncture, I had never thought of it. That is something to think on.

        I am in Ontario, Canada. We have abundance for corn, potatoes, tomatoes, squashes. I always try to buy local. I guess I can’t do the 100 mile diet. 🙁

        I’m still not sure what vegetables are good to eat. So for breakfast today? A stick of celery?

        1. celery for breakfast. not a bad idea. can you eat eggs? I would do something fun like make scrambled eggs and put them in celery ribs. I have also put egg salad in cucumber boats (peel cucumber, slice in half lengthwise, scoop out seeds, fill with egg salad). a fritatta with thinnly sliced zucchini or chopped spinach or chard on top is really good too. Add some sausage; I make my own so I know there are no fillers, msg, soy protein, blah blah; just the meat, organic herbs, kosher salt. I have one of those workhorse KitchenAid mixers with a grinder attachment and can make 4 pounds of chicken sausage at a time.

          Out here we get BC Hothouse (as in British Columbia) hydroponic vegetables. B.C. is about 300 miles from me but…. do you have room or inclination to build a cold frame? leafy vegetables do really well in them even in more severe climates. There may even be a farmer or two in your area who do that. Here we have Extension Offices linked with universities; they help people and communities with stuff like that (how to compost; how to build a cold frame; how to grow x, y, z). Maybe there’s something like that? To make things more interesting, you could start a kitchen (or other room?) window herb garden. There really is nothing like snipped fresh chives sprinkled over a tomato omlet.

          best wishes for you.

    3. I have only recently heard about lectins. I found a site that has pills that are made from plants that help cleanse lectins from your system. It says, okra for one is something you can eat and is contained in the pills.

      would you disclose the site address ?

  37. Thanks for all your help everybody. I’m not sure what a cold room is, but I have a feeling that is not feasible where I live. I do have a garden though, I love my herbs and fresh food grown by myself. I guess my initial frustration when I read the info. on lectins that it further depleted the list of foods I can eat. No melons, no cabbages or cabbage related veggies,no potatoes, no corn, no apples, cherries, plums, etc. Then this article talks about nightshades like peppers. So you see with such a lengthy list of what I can’t/ or rather shouldn’t without painful consequences it is frustrating. I have found there seems to be no rhyme or reason to my bloating and pain. I had concluded on my own that anything sugary and starchy is bad for me.

    I guess I will just keep plugging away and researching. Hopefully there will be an answer someday.

    Thanks again.

  38. There is soy lectin in my tea, is this bad if im trying to stay paleo/primal?

    1. soy lectin in tea? really? that seems odd to me. I wonder what purpose it serves? shelf life?

      I avoid soy at all costs.

  39. Have been eating Paleo for a month and boy HOWDY do I feel good. I was a complete bean whore before. LOVED.BEANS. Especially peanuts and soy products. I plan to never go back except for maybe the occasional burrito with some pinto beans. But, never again will I indulge in soy products. I think that was what was giving me most of my gut trouble. Great ARTICLE. Explains so much.

  40. Mark, my apologies for the post that follows. I will say first I am a fan and I credit you with improving my health enormously.

    I’m a black man (I refuse to use the politically correct term “African American” or “African Canadian.” I was born and raised in Cuba, which I was lucky to leave when I was 21, and moved to Canada 17 years ago.

    Whatever the reason is, the fact remains Canadian jails are brimming with black people, and Canadian universities are not.

    I, for example, was one of a handful of black students at my campus at U of T. Most of us came from abroad, mostly from Africa. I only remember two (two!) black students who were born and raised in Canada.

    I found this deeply shaming. I assumed Canada was full of racist institutions. This was in line what I was brought up listening to, for in Cuba, the propaganda machine has us believe blacks are always oppressed in capitalist countries.

    Then I realized, if I, a black penniless immigrant, could borrow money from the government, get a shitty job to help pay the bills, and put myself through school, why couldn’t more black people do it? If I was able to get a good job after graduation, why couldn’t they?

    My point is this, justified by my own experience as a black man: more often than not, the excuse of racism and skin colour is precisely that: an excuse.

    Of course, my people suffered enormously during centuries, and that until only a few decades ago, racism was a real obstacle that prevented us from moving up in life, at least in North America. It drives me insane to know that had my father been raised in, say, Alabama, he would’ve been forced to drink from separate fountain or sit on different seats in the bus.

    But this is all in the past. And the historical excuse does not work in the case of the Chinese, for example, who were used as cheap labour for railroads.

    Or how about the Jews? I don’t think there’s ever been a people that’s been more discriminated against.

    Yet both the Chinese and the Jews work hard, go to school, and make money. They have solid families. Few of their children are raised out of wedlock. Most know their fathers.

    Mind you, these are not blind generalizations, but census facts and social/economical studies anyone can look up on the Internet.

    It’s time for people, both black and white, to admit the problem, stop justifying it, and work to resolve it—not by exercising “positive discrimination”, not by being politically correct or by calling SteveB rude, but by facing the truth.

    And that truth is, black people today are largely responsible for their situation.

    Bill Cosby is my hero.

  41. Hey Pedro,

    Thanks for standing up for me… If you’re interested in a complete Wellness Workup.. that is what I do for a living… So definitely email me and we can set up an appointment.. I’m glad you’re health has been improving..

  42. I am really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one today..

  43. Re: “secondary exposure through antibiotic-administered livestock).” I’ve heard that when you’re on anti-biotics that you should stop taking probiotics because these renders antibiotics innefective. If that is the case, could it be that taking probiotics daily also means it’s (relatively) safe to eat meat from animals that have been raised on antibiotics – i.e., taking probiotics means your body will also be able to handle the antibiotics in the meat?

  44. My mother has diabetes and fibromyalgia. It’s tough to see her struggle and I try to learn as much as I can from great blogs like this one to avoid going down the same path. In spite of eating healthy (chicken, brown rice, sprouted flourless bread, veggies, etc), last year I got relentless IBS-like symptoms literally overnight and spent 8 mos. with a doctor who wanted to prescribe me pills for severe cramps but I refused. I wanted to know the cause and kept asking for test after test that only showed I was healthy as a horse. Yet, I had persistant abdominal pain all throughout my abdomen. My doctor did not suggest any dietary changes, but I cut out caffeine and beer and the pain subsided but not the fatigue and brain fog. Finally, I went to a naturopath and he put me on L-glutamine powder and an insulin-resistant diet that I tailored to be grain-free as well. This healed my gut tremendously. Magnesium glycinate helped with the constipation. Within 4 weeks I was able to eat whatever I wanted again, but I was so impressed with the dietary changes, I’ve since learned to soak and ferment rice and buckwheat and rely more on sweet potatoes.

  45. It is a short put up to state, very merely, thanks a ton. I’ve had an opportunity to atone for this post and the comments as we speak and I’m really grateful for knowing the content of this blog

  46. Wow – this is the post I’ve been searching for.

    After dealing with bizarre RA-like, debilitating joint pain that neither orthopedist nor rheumatologist could identify, but were happy to treat with pharmaceuticals, I casual mention by my chiro – “You know you shouldn’t be eating wheat, right?” got me looking into this whole primal thing.

    I can’t say unequivocally that cutting the grains (though corn and rice still manage to sneak in now and then) has fixed the issue, because I had a full pregnancy-related remission and haven’t had troubles since. I only got serious about cutting grains after I started feeling twinges in those same joints and panicked about needing to go back on injectable TNF blockers.

    I have found a lot of advice – don’t eat gluten, don’t eat sugar, don’t eat grains, etc, but until now I was missing the underlying, big fat scientific WHY. I feel like I have my answer now. I never knew exactly why grains were so awful, other than that “humans were never supposed to eat them.”

    I read this with big, wide open eyes wanting to jump up and scream, “YES YES YES!” Light bulbs turned on, sirens went off. Thank you thank you thank you.

  47. Really if you are going to eat lectin foods, cook them well and at high temps. Also soak when you can. This raw food idea is way off. There is a reason why people cook things.

    1. Thank you for your post, Dinkle! I find it interesting that the original article mentions soaking and fermenting but not cooking, and that out of a million responses, almost nobody mentions this. I guess it would turn this whole conversation into a non-issue, since everybody cooks beans, anyway.

  48. Hmm…The only thing I eat for my evening meal is boiled egg and peas. I love it. And now it’s bad? 🙁

    1. Peas nor eggs have harmful lectins for any Blood Type. Ultimately no food is inherently “bad.” It just depends on how susceptible you are to it. This is dependent on several other factors including overall gut health, level of consciousness, belief systems…etc…

  49. It appears that you’ve got put loads of effort and exhausting work into your submit and I require way more of these on the web in current times. I sincerely received a kick out of your post. I don’t really have considerably to say responding, I solely wished to remark to answer very good work.

  50. Here is an excellent write-up on lectins:

    Given all the blood-type bashing going on above, I probly shouldn’t say it, but there is a lot of info to be learned from it — especially about lectins. For Susie above, diving into the sequence of blood-type books will enlighten you a lot about why gluten is bad, etc. For Pam above, with all your frustration and lack of solution still… give the blood type diet a look. You may be surprised (as I was) to find it solve some of your issues.

    I admit some of the blood type info “seems” non-scientific and unjustified (I don’t know if it is or isn’t)… But most of what I learned from it has proven itself true to me, my friends, my family, and my patients (I’m a dentist). I don’t want to perpetuate a debate, but based on my experience, I’d definitely recommend reading into it. Take it all with a grain of salt if you must. It may not be always correct and it may not apply to everyone equally or at all. But it sure works miracles for many.

    I’ve learned things about myself and other genetic issues such as what it means to be a non-secretor and why non-secretors are so much more health-sensitive to foods. The blood type theories have been the most helpful discoveries I’ve ever made for my own health issues. I’m sure it will help others too.

    And to Luke above who argues against the blood type diet so fiercely, you keep stating that the blood type diet works on type O’s because it happens to match primal. What about the converse? Maybe the primal diet works for O’s because it happens to match the O diet? I don’t know anything about the primal diet (I’m new here), so am not making any claims or discrediting it. I just thought it was funny how one-sided your argument is 😛

    1. Hey Chris,

      Thanks for your comment man. It’s good that you are a critical thinker and make an effort to understand both sides to any argument. All of my clients benefit when they avoid harmful lectins, you can even see the research just by using Google. Did you know that the HIV Virus is bound and inhibited by the Banana Lectin? Nature rocks….

    2. Hey Chris,

      Welcome – and I hope you actually take the time to read and learn about the Primal diet.

      If you read my posts I explain why it can’t be the other way around… I don’t have the time to repeat it all, but the reason essentially boils down to the fact that:

      1) The author contradicts himself between books and his two diets… it cannot be science based if the rules are not consistent… you cannot say cherries are super food, and THEN in the same book say they are toxic, and in another diet say that they are BENEFICIAL to the people you said they were toxic for before.

      2) Regarding the primal O’s etc… this is based on the fact that as I have repeatedly stated… I am an AB, and I was told that meat etc was bad for me and I should consume soy… and this FAILED… however when I eat Primal (NO soy and definitely meat), I get results… if you look at the people that are positive to the Blood diet they are O’s.. so this is why it isn’t the other way around… if only the O’s (that get essentially a “primal diet”) do well, but the A’s, B’s and AB’s tend to fail, then this shows that the blood type diet isn’t working (otherwise why would all the A’s, B’s and AB’s FAIL), but it is because it is all the O’s on a primal diet!!!

      If it was the other way around… ALL the types, O’s, A’s, B’s and AB’s would WORK, and as a result, if these people went on a primal diet, then ONLY the O’s would do well… but this is NOT what happens…

      It is the first case… when O’s switch to primal (not much change, as they essentially are cutting out wheat etc and eating meat), then they still do well, but all the A’s, B’s and AB’s that FAIL on the blood type, switch to primal and do WELL.

      I trust as a dentist you can understand this?!?! If only ONE subset of a diet works, then it is clearly FALSE.

      And if the people that FAIL on the parts of the diet (blood type A’s, B’s and AB’s) that are wrong, switch to another diet (primal) and it WORKS AND the people that were essentially following the other diet (i.e. primal) on the first diet (blood type O’s) switch to primal and it STILL works, then it is the PRIMAL part that is true and the blood type that is WRONG.

      That is WHY I repeat my observation – it is almost ALWAYS O’s that praise the blood type diet and defend it. And I see this is the case here – ALL the people that defend the diet are O’s (i.e. eating more primal) and all the people who hate it (like me) tend to be A’s, B’s and AB’s… this is EMPIRICAL evidence that the diet ONLY works for O’s because they are essentially eating primal, and primal is the actual reason, cause all the A’s, B’s and AB’s that hate the blood type diet cause it is rubbish, find that primal (i.e. eating like an O) world for them… and that is why it isn’t the other way around, if A’s, B’s and AB’s start eating primal which is eating an diet for O’s (which they are TOLD emphatically by the blood type diet they SHOULD NOT – as it is toxic for them) and it works for them then it is the blood type diet that is FALSE. SURELY as a dentist, you understand this?!

      Sorry, I cannot explain this any more.. this is LOGIC and deduction… I don’t say that to imply you can’t understand logic and deduction, I simply say this is the process… and there are only so many ways you can explain it.

      In the end, I OBJECT to the blood type diet, because as I have stated before, if you release a diet with certain rules, that are in fact FALSE and cause health damage, and then release a NEW diet book that CONTRADICTS the first, yet STILL sell the first, you are ethical bankrupt.

      If you do keep reading here you will see that Mark gives all the information you need away for free on this blog… you can buy his books, but they are just a way to quickly get the essential information without spending time reading all the posts here. He is not pushing a diet that only works for SOME… it is based on genetics and evolution and as a result, it will work for all.

      I wasted a lot of money on the blood type books and as you can see from all the people that dislike it here (again all the A’s, B’s and AB’s) they feel the same way too.

      If Steve and you can tell me you are NOT O’s, then that would be a start to proving me wrong.

      It isn’t critical thinking just because you agree with each other… critical thinking involves differentiating between correlation and causation.

      There is a correlation between type O diet and primal diet, but the causation of the results that Type O’s get is due to the primal nature of it, and this is evidenced by the effects a primal diet (i.e. a O diet) has on people that according to blood type dieting should suffer due to their blood type.

      Anyway – I have added all I can here, I KNOW I am repeating myself, and in the end, my posts are not for people that wish to admit they know nothing about a subject, but still challenge it… I can ONLY implore yo to keep reading, and you will see what I saw when I discovered Mark’s Daily Apple whilst being miserable on an AB blood type diet.

      Steve has a business based on this stuff, so he also won’t budge… that is fine.

      I have NO business or profit motive… my only motive is to HOPEFULLY explain to the people that are reading all this to not buy into the blood type hype and rubbish, and present a point of view I have (and yes it is emphatic and fierce – because when people’s health is at stake, and you have looked at the evidence as I have and have the conclusion I have it is reprehensible NOT to be emphatic and try as many ways as possible to persuade). I may be wrong, I am willing to admit that… but I’m admitting the blood type diet works for O’s, I am just reaching out to the A’s, B’s and AB’s like me to save themselves the pain, and the money.

      And if one A, B or AB read all this and realises they would be better off eating primal (or more like an O), then like the many that have posted here as well, they will be better off. I make no money from it, but I do feel good knowing someone isn’t putting themselves through the hell I went through when I was also conned by all the “endorsements” by O’s raving on about a diet that only works because it is primal.

      Regarding lectins… I agree with this… but you don’t have to adhere to the blood type diet to avoid lectins…. it is the blood type fan brigade that have hijacked this post about that… the impact of lectins was raised well before the author of the blood type diet… he jumped onto that bandwagon (again I feel like I am repeating myself).

      And here endeth the rant… because if you still want to follow the blood type diet after all that I AND may others smarter than me have written here (and elsewhere) about it, then all I can say is I pray you are an O and all the very best of luck to you. To those that reconsider and avoid this rubbish as a result of my rants… even if it is just one of you, then it was worth the time and effort.



      1. Hi Luke, thanks for your detailed explanation. Of course the logic and deduction you present is plain. IF the blood type diet works only for type O’s, then I would agree with everything you said. However, my implied question was: “Why do you think the blood type diet fails for A’s, B’s, and AB’s?”

        Your personal experience is one thing, but where is the statistically significant data that confirms it? I don’t have any data that proves it works. But you claim to have data that proves it doesn’t. Why do you claim that?

        I have anecdotal evidence that makes me believe it is accurate. I have met at least 20 type A’s, who know nothing about the blood type diet, but all claim to thrive on what they describe as the blood type A diet. I.e., every single type A I’ve interviewed (20-ish) claim that eating red meat makes them feel lethargic.

        I have met at least 40 type O’s, who confirm their diet matches the O diet or the primal diet.

        It’s the B’s that throw me… they all love chicken and tomatoes, the 2 worst foods for them. However, they all do very well with dairy (the only blood type that does well on dairy). This “confirms” one more aspect of the blood type diet.

        The ABs are a crazy group. I haven’t found any correlations between their reported diets / lifestyles and the blood type AB diet. I’m not surprised the AB diet didn’t work for you. It’s a difficult one. Did you discover your secretor status btw? That will alter the diet quite a bit.

  51. If you can’t afford to go “primal”, then soaking grains and legumes overnight does work. My autistic son can handle these things so much better when I soak them.
    Also, make sure you have probiotic foods like cultured veggies or kefir. I can’t tell you how much that has helped our digestion.

  52. Regarding pork, you should avoid it because it’s not a very clean animal in regards to digestion, and tends to hold more parasites like worms.
    Just ask the jewish people this. That’s why they don’t eat pork or shellfish (which are the bottom feeders of the ocean and consume the ocean’s crap). They are not clean food sources.

  53. Helena,
    You might want to check and see if you have a thyroid disorder. I started reacting like crazy to all sorts of foods that never bothered me before, and found out I have Hashimoto’s disease. Once I started on Armour Thyroid, my crazy food allergies calmed down quite a bit.
    I think this is due to an overreacting immune system, and metabolic issues. I also had chronic yeast infections as well.
    I’m sorry for your situation. It can be hard.

    I am so sorry to

  54. Not to stir the debate back up yet again on the blood type diet pros/cons but I’m an A+ that ate lots of meat,cheeses, and drank lots of milk throughout my youth and even more so in my 20’s as I was into weightlifting. Bottom line is I felt like crap more and more as I went through my 20’s. So much so that after picking up a copy of the blood type diet, juice fasting for a month, then eating a veggie diet that evolved back to a modified Mediterranean diet w/ a fair amount of fish, I can say I feel a world better at 40 than when I was in my 20’s. I’ve since read D’Adamo’s new book on genotypes and am very impressed w/the emerging field of epigenetics. The study of how our genes are in fact not static at conception but constantly interacting w/our environment (even and especially in utero)modifying them to a surprising degree.

    Just wanted to chime in as an A blood type due to someone earlier saying that they thought no one other than O’s rave about D’Adamo’s stuff. I know plenty of A’s and B’s that subscribe to his work to some degree. I being one of them.

  55. Hi everyone! First time commenting, but my husband and I have been reading MDA on and off for a while now.

    I’m a 26 yr. old epileptic with FMS and anxiety. I make a conscious effort to listen and be in tune with my body, and it’s telling me that I need meat, green veggies, and fruit. I have a natural aversion to pork, shellfish and catfish , white potatoes, oats and other grains, and sometimes tomatoes. I don’t seem to have an issue with rice or beans, though, and I’m glad to know that soaking/sprouting/fermenting does well to reduce/eliminate lectins. I have a serious problem with sugar and bread, and it’s a constant battle to cut those things out of my diet, which I know I should do (there are obvious side effects for me.) Luckily, I don’t drink sodas, coffee, or add sugar to my tea! Reading this article confirms some things for me, which is pretty exciting, but pretty overwhelming, since I’ve had to do so much independent research to get the nutritional info I need. I second a more specific article in the future – one with examples of recipes, etc., to help us who are still struggling. If anyone has tips on weaning off sugars, let me know. (I love fruit, but will eat more fruit than veggies if I’m not careful.)

    One thing I find interesting about the nightshades is reflected in someone’s comment that “anyone that eats a raw potato will tell you how toxic they are,” which my husband would tell you just isn’t true. He’s eaten more than one raw potato and has had no noticeable issues. Of course, he has a stomach of steel! When I mentioned it to him, he said that he’s never eaten a raw potato that’s sprouted, so he must be safe. Not trying to start an argument, just commenting that there is something to be said for catering to the individual’s needs when it comes to nutrition. Unfortunately, there’s some grey area, which makes things complicated.

    Thanks again!

  56. Hi, I am new to this website and trying to get a handle on what to try with my daughter who is 7 and has IBD (diagnosed at 4yrs). We cut out dairy, citrus, chocolate, pork. Been in good health until a stomach bug which has causd a flare up.

    I recently had some wheat germ which I was allergic to. This brought me to WGA, lectins etc. Then I have that blood group book and have just seen the SCD.

    I want to eliminate lectins as it seems to make sense. Then stumbling on SCD and trying to correct the bacteria balance also makes sense. Where the 2 seems to diverge in my limited knowledge so far is the mucilanginous foods and herbs like okra, slippery elm, aloe etc. In papers I have read they act as lectin decoys which is great. N acetylglucosamine acts as a decoy or binds with wheat lectins etc. But in SCD it says these are illegal.

    I am confused and can anyome shed some light please. Thanks

    1. If you have a pressing medical concern here is my advice…. You need to get yourself into ketosis by just eating protein once or twice a day… You feel anxious and weird at first because repressed emotions will come to the surface…. all carbohydrates repress feelings (hence our addiction to them) so eventually the body develops illness… If you get yourself into ketosis by following an atkins (but eating right for your type protein selection ) every medical problem will go away forever.. it’s just if you’re willing…..

  57. hey everyone, love all the comments…i was wondering if anyone has had any experiences like mine…i’m 30 years old and after suffering from bowel problems for over 10 years, i’m finally having part of my small bowel removed in a few weeks from what was diagnosed as crohn’s a few years ago. I went paleo for a while but didn’t have a lot of success because all the fiber from the fruits and veggies had a hard time getting through the scar tissue built up in my intestine. i plan on starting again and wondered if anyone had any success with this sort of thing. i really don’t want to be on meds the rest of my life like they’re telling me…

    1. Here’s the deal Steve… Carbohydrates are non essential and you don’t need them… fruits and vegetables are non essential… no one can dispute this…..they are the most gentle carbohydrate that exists so if you can not eat them don’t eat carbs at all.. Flours, sugar, beans, legumes.. all are more assaultive on the body itself and you may not feel the hit on your gut right away because veggies are like a slow knife so it hurts (warning warning), but sugar, wheat and processed stuff is like a super sharp fast knife so there is trauma, but its almost so quick and insidious your body doesn’t know how what happened…. (does this make sense at all?)

      You just need protein with a little fat… and you don’t need to eat three meals per day… If you eat a little bit of a protein source that is right 4 your blood type (red meat if type 0) once for breakfast and once for lunch… you will fall into ketosis and your levels of butyrate will skyrocket… (butyrate heals the intestines)…. butyrate is inversely related to carbs in the diet….

      Fact- You will release held up emotional resistance…. Do not eat when anxious and do not eat anything at night…… If you want to make progress prepare for some emotional “releasing.”

      Are society is an emotion denying one that treats symptoms and not at the level of which they have been caused… If you stop eating at night and allow fasting periods throughout the day (by only eating 2 meals).. emotions will release from your body ….. anger, fear, sadness…….

      Emotional resentment begins the disease process which always takes its toll on the physical body eventually… no one can escape this… we all are responsible for the physical because it ultimately starts mentally…..

      As crazy as this sounds you a life force/energetic being within the human “machine.” Healing begins with your mind… Food really is just an illusion and people (like me in the past) have become obsessed with it as the answer…. Ultimately you need very little food for survival…. and the longer you go between meals the better… (even skipping days at a time through fasting) – with limited water intake

      I’m dealing with something similar because I am having to choose whether I want to feel my old emotions, ) or deal with the physical consequences of not……. many people choose not to deal with the emotions and choose surgery and meds.. nothing is “wrong” with this but it ultimately doesn’t create happiness and freedom in your life… If you can solve the problem mentally and emotionally and with only 1 of 2 meals of the right protein /day… you will rapidly regenerate… the body is always regenerating… the only one interfering with this is you…

      Affirmations of love, support and encouragement from your mind actually radically decrease inflammation in your intestines …. use gratitude and love as high vibrational words … expressed in a journal …. even just chanting these words ( saying them over and over for several minutes) effects levels of pain and gut flora….

      I wish you the best and pray you have the courage to change…. a feeling of joy and contentment you have never known before is waiting for you on the other side…….


      ([email protected])

      1. Wow, I’m very immpressed with everything you’ve said here, especially the affirmations decreasing inflammation.

  58. Hey ya’ll,

    First wanted to say I’ve been paleodieting and crossfitting for about a year and I totally love it. My body has completely changed and it’s awesome. My friends give me a lot of flack though, especially when it comes to legumes and stuff like quinoa. I try to tell them about the lectins and phylates but they don’t believe me especially when they put articles like this one on my facebook wall.

    What’s the deal with cooking legumes? Does cooking neutralize all of the anti nutrients? Do lectins, when consuming a moderate amount of legumes, actually eliminate cancerous cells? Are we primal people crazy for not wanting to eat legumes? And what the heck is up with quinoa?

    Thanks and sorry if my questions have been answered a million times already!

  59. Thank you, Mark, for all the information this article provided!

    I had the I-95 allergy panel done in December and it showed me to be highly allergic to beef, casein, egg whites and kidney beans as well as moderately allergic to garlic, strawberries, pineapple and green beans.

    I am currently on a modified juice fast while on the elimination diet because water and juice are simpler. I drink carrot juice, lemonade (lemon juice and agave syrup in water), and sometimes fruit juice mixed 50/50 with water during the day at work, and then I prepare baked meat (chicken or pork usually) along with potatoes and vegetables in the evening when I get home. I am not eating much pasta, as I want other things to go with it that I am not allowed to eat, so again, easier.

    I was drinking herbal tea because I like dairy in my coffee but I cannot have dairy right now, and soya milk is so gross, but on a friends advice I have been buying chocolate flavored soy milk and drinking coffee again. I also add blackstrap molasses to my coffee for the iron, as I have iron deficiency anemia and cannot afford to let my iron stores go down while on the diet and iron pills are hard on my tummy.

    I do slow burn strength training on Mondays and Thursdays and some kind of cardio on Tuesdays and Wednesdays (before work), and I have no problems going without food or even liquids until after the workout. I have been drinking 2 liters of water daily for years. I am getting stronger, my clothes are looser and I have more stamina.

    Problem is, I got the allergy test because I was diagnosed with H.Pylori last summer and treated with antibiotics, but I still have bouts of stomach problems- mostly gas and bloating and a general pain. And I still have the stomach problems while on the elimination diet as well.

    I had the best health in my life with the Atkins induction phase, which is quite paleo. What I liked best about it was the philosophy of the many people I met in forums who just said don’t try to make substitute food, just learn to not eat bread or muffins or high G.I foods, and that made sense to me. If bread is bad, why keep trying to eat it in some form? There are lots of foods out there to eat.

    So here I am on an elimination diet, eating bread because I am not allergic to it (???), as well as potatoes, tomatoes, peanut butter (usually on a sprouted wheat bread) and feeling crappier than ever. As soon as I am officially done with the “elimination” diet, I am going to eliminate the items on the lectin list that I have been eating to see which one is offending my stomach the most. I appreciate that you put this information forward, and I enjoy reading all the newsletters I get from MDA- especially the most recent ones on fasting 😉

    And for the blood type debate, I am A- and I tried that diet but I want to eat red meat and I like it. And obviously it is not the cause of my stomach troubles (or at least not all the cause). I think I do best with meat, veg and berries and the odd piece of sprouted bread, toasted with ghee. I can live without coffee and cream if I have to (the jury is still out on that one), but do not take away my t-bone steak!!

  60. As someone with myriad food sensitivies, the scales fell from my eyes when I discovered lectins. Though I gave up grains and soy decades ago, I’m currently using okra to mitigate the harmful effects of lectins and have ordered via the internet some stuff that’s supposed to counteract their harmful effects. I’ve passed this information along to my children, who are also trying to cope with food sensitivies.

  61. Instead of focusing on diet, I focus on wealth and success. My sensitivities have all gone by the wayside since I incorporate the advice that’s on my website…

  62. Kind advise to visit Jack Kruse’s site. Our health is compromised by more than the wrong food. You need a 3-way health strategy:

    1: the rigt food (paleo; agreed)
    2: food timing in line with circadian rythm
    3: cold adaptation to re-awake that other build-in biochemistry that 90% of all living creatures on this planet use to thrive.

    There is more than just food. For your own good: take a look at Very fascinating stuff.

  63. Yes, avoiding lectins and eating primarily does wonderful for your health, mood, and finances too. I’ve certainly noticed a huge increase in my cash flow

  64. Sorry if this has already been asked, but should wheat grass, such as that used in green powders, be avoided?

  65. One question about lectins that may have been answered already in the comments but I couldn’t find it. Are lectins affected (read changed, neutralized, made less of a problem…) by processing them. In particular I am wondering about tomatoes and potatoes. Or is the only viable option avoidance. Thanks for your help.

  66. It is my understanding that magnesium deficiency is very common among those on the SAD diet. I was just searching for foods that are good sources of magnesium, and they include nuts and seeds (especially good are pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds) and green leafy vegetables such as Swiss chard and spinach. After reading this post, it occurs to me that the lectins in these foods will bind the magnesium and it will be unavailable for absorption. Anyone have any ideas about good sources of magnesium ?

    I’m especially concerned about my 85-year-old mother who is having major problems with severe and painful night cramps in her legs. I think she could benefit from more magnesium, but supplements can have too much of a laxative effect, which is why I’m researching food sources of magnesium.

    I suspect she has diabetic neuropathy, although no doctor has ever been able to tell her exactly what is wrong. I think the primal diet is what she needs, but it’s going to be really tough to have to tell her that cereal and orange juice for breakfast is taboo. I’m afraid it’s going to make her very unhappy and add a lot of stress on top of everything else.

    She’s on pain medications, now muscle relaxants. I’m trying to get her to adjust her diet. But she thinks she eats fine (according to CW). I’ve convinced her to get her blood glucose checked. Unfortunately, I live 2000 miles away, otherwise I would be making primal meals for her. Instead I have to convince her to do it for herself. She also lives in a small town, so food choices are more limited.

    Has anyone else had any experience with leg cramps like this? If so, I would greatly appreciate any suggestions as to what to suggest to her.

    1. Hi Bonnie,
      I’m not an expert on this but I can offer one idea with regards to magnesium supplements. In order to allow the body to adapt to the supplement start with a low dose and gradually increase it. The indication that you have reached your upper limit is when your stools start to become to lose. That is when you back off a bit and give your body a chance to adjust and then increase it a little again later. Eventually she will reach the max her body needs or can handle. It can be a slow process so don’t get discouraged. Like I said I’m not am expert and if she is on meds she should probably talk to her doctor to make sure the magnesium won’t cause any problems with her meds. Also I have just started reading an interesting book on magnesium you might want to read. It’s “The Magnesium Miricale” by Dr. Carolyn Dean

  67. so what to eat then???? i belive on moderation for anything we put into our body.only if i knew this 10 years back i wont be so sick today.ugh.i got Celiac and i get bloated no matter what i eat.

  68. I’ve just been tested extensively at my chrioprator’s office. Turns out I’m extremely intolerant to ALL grains, eggs and a few other things. Unfortunately most MDs do not do this type of testing. Here is a youtube video from a Texas chiro that explains this testing:

  69. Great article! Didn’t know the extent of the damage that lectins could cause, as well as the ways to modulate that damage. I’m a gluten-free, soy-free, sugar-free vegan but I still enjoy my brown rice cakes/bread and simply can’t give that up. Knowing ways to reduce the lectin from that helps.

  70. Thank you for this article. I felt like I was continually hitting a brick wall of foods that would set me off and I couldn’t find a reasonable connection. I would cut out one thing and another would still be a problem, it seemed endless. This has really helped me so much, thank you.

  71. I am a 64 year old female with many food
    sensitivities that I have devloped within the last two years. I am TypeONeg. Have you heard of the supplement Lectin Lock from Vitamin Research Products in Carson City, NV? It supposedly binds to lectins and moves
    them out of the body keeping them from
    causing inflammation. I can only eat meats and vegetables, no fruits except berries and no carbs. I don’t mind being on a diet to lose weight, but this is so extreme, its hard to stay on.
    I am losing weight, but I especially hate not being able to eat fruits! Fruits are that little extra treat that
    help you stay on a diet. I seem to be okay with pinto beans as long as I take
    my Betaine/Pepsin capsules before eating
    them. My doctor practices holistic medicine. By the way, I love pinto beans and don’t soak them. I had never
    heard of lectins until two days ago when
    my neighbor gave me one of VRP’s newsletters that was in Digestive Health
    Solutions. Carolyn Pierini, CLS, CNC
    developed this Lectin Lock. They refer
    to Dr. Peter D’Adamo in the newsletter.
    Ms. Pierini was working in the area of
    blood typing when she discovered this
    product. It would be wonderful if it
    worked. I have asked my doctor (Linda
    Yeatts) to look into it. She said she
    is already getting some products from
    VRP, but she had not heard of Lectin Lock. I have not heard back from her
    yet. This is the first time that I have
    been on your website. Very informative.
    I discovered it when I researched lectin. Thank you!

  72. Hi Mark! My doctor is ordering the Lectin Lock for me to try. She said it
    might help. I forgot to mention that I
    also have hypothyroidism. I will let you know if the Lectin Lock works, but if you know anything about it please let
    me know. I left off the mail part of my e-mail address. Don’t know if that made a difference or not. Thanks.

  73. Why is organic, nonGMO sprouted soy so bad? The asian cultures have been consuming it for eons and have no problems with it. 12g of soy protein a day has many anti-cancer benefits. It is the processed stuff (TVP, powders) that are the ones used in the anti-soy research—not the natural/healthy forms of soy

  74. Great article as usual.
    I´d like to add that it seems reasonble to distinguish between two types of lectins regarding origin: animal and plant lectins. Animal lectins such as mannose-binding lectin usually stimulate various immune reactions and in my opinion good example is a beneficial health effect of “JEWISH PENICILLIN”. Plant lectins usually have many negative health effects, e.g. there is experimental evidence that peanut lectins may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, colon cancer, renal tubular disorders etc. Wheat germ aglutinin may play important role in leaky gut syndrome, leptin resistance etc. However, it should be also noted that some plant lectins (e.g. those from mushrooms) may have beneficial health effects, e.g. strong anticancer properties.

  75. Healing or curing digestive difficulties takes a while. One must give the gut a rest, using a famous Indian dish called Kitcharie (mung beans and basmati rice), go through Pancha Karma and/or restorative body therapies for a 3-10 days period of time, taking appropriate herbs to correc the digestive symptoms and then learn about and introduce foods for your Ayurvedic constitution (it IS different for each individual. Stay on a healthy wholesome, non processed, non GMO, organic diet and appropriate herbs and probiotics for the rest of your life and after a few years the gut will heal. You cannot go back to the Standard America Diet. It is the processed foods which are killing us. Ayurveda is an ancient natural medicine that if practiced will produce good health. I am a testimony to this: curing arthritis, IBS, gastritis, and heavy metal poisoning in myself. Seek out a qualified Ayurvedic Clinical Specialist to help you with this.

  76. This is such a great article! Thank you for writing in laymans terms. Kinda difficult to shuffle through the scientific wordage on so many other sites. It would seem as though I am super duper lectin sensitive. Currently on a pretty extreme elimination diet to figure things out after years and years of doctor visits found nothing concrete. I realized this week apples bother me. So I started doing some research and am finding some good links and things are making sense. Although redesigning my entire eating regimen is a bit overwhelming. At any rate…thank you for this information!

  77. I have not read all the comments because they are so many, but this sounds depressing to me. It gives me an awful feeling in my belly to know we live in such a toxic world and everything is toxic. Toxic by nature or toxic by mandkind. Is there anything safe to eat? Everybody talks about “organic, free range, no GMO, etc” but all that is so expensive. Not all of us can afford tu buy “organic” or do we have it available. Any way, I have been asking over and over if somebody has some good info about nixtamalization to make corn “edible”. I have searched every where and CW says nixtamalization eliminates most of the aflotoxins but they do not say anything about lectins. I just want to know if there are studies that can tell me if nixtamalization does make corn at least 99% edible for humans (to much to ask?) lol. Any way, I have eliminated grains and legumes from my diet and honestly, I have not felt any different. Maybe it´s too soon. I started this diet almost a month ago. I eliminated them because of the high carb content, but reading about lectins makes me freak out!! But I still haven´t felt any significant change in my way of feeling by eliminating them from my diet. Thanks for any informative comments.

  78. I’ve been sick for the last 2 years. I lost my job a year ago due to my medical issues. I have a hypermobile joints anyway and have recently had surgery on a couple of those to help them out but things have been getting steadily worse.

    Pain. Oh the pain. Now joint swelling (not with my genetic condition). Intestinal issues, trouble walking, muscle pain and now bone pain (scary), rashes and now irritated skin all over that even plain shower water irritates. Foggy brain, forever sleeping or insomina (pick a day/night), I can’t sit or stand for more than 10 minutes. I can’t even do basic food shopping or cooking anymore.

    I have always eaten unprocessed foods. I was vege for 18 years and started eating meat 11 years ago. I have my own chickens (fantastic eggs) and have family raised pork in my freezer, which I eat very little of.

    About a year ago I changed my diet to eliminate gluten and dairy which helped. In the past 4-5 months I have let that slide a bit to “mostly” eliminate. I don’t do soy and have cut out most nuts as they upset my stomach. Actually most things upset my stomach.

    I have been living on chia seed, hemp seed and almond milk smoothies as they sit well on my belly.

    I have some really bad flares every so often and my last one was right around New years which lasted a week. Probably all the crap I ate around that time in retrospect.

    About a week and a half ago I ate 2 sandwiches and some pizza. That put me in bed for a week in agony. Its what the FBI would call a clue.

    So I have been researching lectins. Thus here I am.


    Milk. If I want a cup of tea what do I do? I’m from the Commonwealth and I NEED milk in my tea and I NEED my cup of tea. Rice milk? Lactose free cows milk or almond milk? Which would be better for me?

    I get the soaking of the beans. If I am super sensitive, would that be enough for me?

    What about split peas? Split pea and ham soup out of the question? (My husband wants to make it and I don’t think I can eat it).

    I read somewhere that rice is also bad. True? Bummer as this was going to be my fall back carb.

    I assume the nightshade family is also a no go?

    I read that millet is OK but quinoa is not. True?

    Sorry for the 100 questions but I need to redo my entire diet again and figure out what to feed my kids…..

    Thanks in advance! Glad my hands are working today!

  79. Been reading with some interest. Started the 4-hour body diet, close to the Atkins. No wheat/starchy carbs or sugar.

    So were do I get my carbs and fats from? Mostly lean meats/fish/poultry/eggs, beans and lentils. Beans and lentils being an excellent source.

    Now after reading this article, which lets be honest gives massive warnings on lectins/beans and lentils, I feel like I shouldn’t be eating them at all.

    So what should I eat? Someone said Fish/Meat/Fruit.

    So to get this straight, we read an article on beans/lentils, yet there are no figures stating the rate if lectins. We then find little time reducing peoples fears by then giving the amounts left after proper preparation (canned/sprouted) etc, so we have nothing to go on in regards to hard data.

    All the remaining choices fish/meat/fruit have lectins and fruit which is worse has fructose which is very bad for you. Fruit shouldn’t be eaten at all, so that leaves Fish/meat.

    You cannot live off Meat/fish alone (well you probably could but who would?).

    My point is, surely its better to say how much lectins are in beans/lentils and other foods (which is most). How much is left after proper preparation in beans/lentils compared to the safe limits you should digest. That way we can make informed choices, add them as part of our diet, for their benefits which are many and we can all breath a sigh of relief. Or we can say, yep, even after preparation they are still too high (beans/lentils) and then avoid them.
    Sorry mark you have bothered to do none of this, and as such, your article is nothing but pointless gesture, that only scares people and doesn’t really inform them.

    This is either because you are lazy or you lack the real data, which leaves your argument redundant.

    This article is nothing but rubbish, lazy, overblown investigative stabbing at one part of a food source and the negative side of that one part.

    This article is misinformation at it s best.

    Please next time do something better than just scarring people.

  80. I did a search on lectins because i was reading the food list of restrictions on the blood type diet and the foods that are restricted for he specific types are based on specific lectins found in research.

    I knew that plants had defense mechanisms and that fermentation is a positive thing but I had not placed a name on those defence mechanisms yet so thank you for that.

    Good luck to all of us trying to make our way through this food jungle to find the path that is the healthiest! 😉

  81. Its come to my attention, after reading all night about lectins and managing to speak to one of the Uk’s front runners in lectin research (all in 8 hours lucky huh?)

    There is a pattern with lectins and one that is not really discussed here, due to marks poor scientific background and essentially data copied and re-woreded from the internet.

    Lectins are highest in seeds. be that beans, lentils tomato seeds etc.
    After speaking to a leading scientist, many of the items listed can be drastically reduced of lectin count by simply removing the seeds, like a tomato.

    So you will see things like cucumber, garlic, tomatoes, listed, because they contain seeds. Remove the seeds, and in theory you will remove the lectins or so the logic goes.

    To deseed your tomatoes, aubergines, etc dont eat seeds, if you have a problem nuts etc, and if you can eat fermented products, as this seems to be the only reliable way to reduce the lectin count (I say ‘seems’)

    Garlic is a seed but why is leek on the list? Leek, is from the onion family but it is the flower you are eating, and not the seed.

    NOtice how all the plants that aren’t listed, broccoli, cauliflower etc aren’t the seed bearing part.

    So instead of thinking, I cant eat anything, simply removing seeds could be a great way to enjoy those foods gain.

    Of course im not a scientist, but have had some good information, and the logic of my idea stands up due to the high lectin content of (seeds) and the low content of suggested plant foods that are seedless

    Hope this helps, but dont take my word for it.

    Also think of this. Japanese people have the longest and best health, along with scandinavians. Yeh the eat lectin rich foods, or do they?

    They ferment soy which removes the lectins and anti nutrients (as far as I can ascertain) and the eat sea food and sea weed (see weed apparently blocks the effects of lectins through binding.

    So yes you can eat all the foods you are now scarred of, but just check the process.

    If you really cant eat pulses/grains, thats fine, plenty more food out there, stop winging and get on.

    Today for breakfast, I had 3 eggs free range organic, korean style with some fermented soy bean (soy sauce) with a turkey breast. Yum.

    Lunch cod fillet with a de-seeded tomato and deseeded pickled cucumber salsa, with virgin olive oil. Fresh steam broccoli al with a simple balsamic dressing.

    So ive had almost no lectin intake apart from the eggs. Is that going to cause me any issue? hell no. My diet is too varied, too balanced (if there is such a thing which I dont think there is) and I feel great.


  82. oxalates, lectins, peptides, flouride, arsenic..and on and on… good luck!

  83. If soy and beans are so bad why lots of peoples who consume a variety of legumes are on the list of the longest lived nations in the world?

    Think Sardegna in Italy, Ikaria in Greece and finally Japan..something doesnt add up here. These are ancient traditions, people living long and healthy lives for many generations..but not so far away from us like paleo people..

    1. Healthiest nation now is Iceland, not a single bean in their diet, lots of meat fish and dairy though.

  84. Can’t believe the difference giving up grains has made in a couple of weeks ! Followed the advice and now I just feel not hungry after eating. Not full, not bloated. My abdomen is right down plus I’m losing a couple of lbs a day in weight. I added back a few things to test it out and the problem came back to a MUCH lesser degree. Superb advice so thank you.

  85. Good article. People can complain and say this is extreme eating, however unless they have had inflammatory bowel problems and actually understand how this way of “elimination” may be required for some people, then they need not mock the lifestyle. It’s a real issue and if you don’t suffer from it then kudos to you. As for me, soy, legumes and pasta destroy my gut. Thanks Mark!

  86. Good information from the blogger.
    I am struggling to overcome food addictions and was looking for info that would let me continue to eat the way that I am use to with some modifications. Instead I see good reason to change and to make every effort to eliminate some foods and severely limit others. Thank you to those who shared there experiences and their knowledge, especially that on GMO’s.
    I had wondered why GMO’s were so bad – I thought that there had to be some specific reason(s) for banning them in Europe (or is it parts of) and trying to get the use listed on labels. Now I know that lectins are spliced into the genome(?correct me if I am wrong), meaning that there is a higher level of lectin in GMO crops. I had been so busy with other activities that I had not done research on this.

  87. I agree with the critics. This article mis-represents the lectin danger. I don’t know anyone who eats unsoaked beans other than edamame which, interestingly, is not mentioned. So when you say beans are a danger because they are one of the foods that contain high lectin activity, people think canned or soaked beans.
    The other thing that is mentioned which is also touched upon by Rob Wolf is the whole plant defense thing. Sorry but if this is a plant defense mechanism, it doesn’t work. There was no way for humans for the majority of the time we ate beans to connect beans with any digestive ailment they were having. And the damage it was supposedly doing was not nearly enough to cause people to stop eating beans.
    Thirdly, I don’t see any references to studies or evidence of any kind about what lectins do in your digestive system. Thing that bothered me most was that nuts were on your list. Sorry, but I’m not aware of any nut-soaking or nut fermenting practices that any cultures have engaged in. Nuts are goof for you. Someone reading your article is now going to cut back or eliminate nuts which are a very healthy food.

    1. edamame is soya, it’s mentioned. Can I suggest you don’t follow your own advice and try eating soaked and or sprouted Kidney beans or navy beans, and don’t do anything with castor beans (which contains the lectin known as ricin. Cooking dramatically reduces lectins which is fine for many people, but not all

  88. It sucks that Soy contain lectins. Its one of the most overlooked, worst offenders for weight gain in the Blood type O group.

  89. At 74 a Vegan following mostly the philosophy/ way of eating of Natural Hygiene all my adult life and in excellent health I am sure the way food is produced is so important, just consider the amount of milk a cow produced when I was a child and the enormous quantities demanded of the poor animal today by a dairy industry that in the UK is in spite of this massive increase in quantity economicaly unviable at present. Clearly if you feed cows on soy rather than grass a much different milk will result,and meat. Eggs fed on grain and what they can forage for will be significantly different from cheaper concentrate fed birds. Follow the money,if the bottom line is all food producers are driven to consider its a poor lookout for all of us whatever way of eating we chose.

  90. I had a client walk into my office today asking if I knew of lectin blockers. I told her I did not. After several hours of research and reading I came away with a new appreciation of lectins. I found a few products, very expensive products, that will bind to specific lectins. What I wanted to find is a universal binder that will inhibit most if not all lectins. I found two universal lectin inhibitors. The first is alcohol. The second is vinegar.
    After reading you article everything makes sense. Fermentation creates alcohol which inhibits lectin. The stomach of a cow or goat creates acetic acid, vinegar, which also inhibits lectin.
    After proper cooking techniques which eliminate most lectins, a glass of red wine or a good vinegar dressing will also breakdown lectins.
    If you do not like liquid vinegar, there are vinegar tablets available at most health food stores.

    1. Thanks for this. For those of us with a mold sensitivity, alcohol is totally off limits. However, I will get some apple cider vinegar which I will try as a buffer for those times when I can’t control what I eat. It appears that the vinegar has to be consumed in the same meal, as opposed to taking as a palliative after symptoms start, though. Lectins go right to my brain and create muscular response havoc.

  91. I can tell you all one thing….lectins have destroyed my intestines….grains have, legumes and phytates….I recently went through the low-carb detox and flu. It was brutal but I feel like a million dollars now……I will spend the rest of my life avoiding these foods as much as possible.

  92. I have been eating raw lentils for about a week now (maybe 1/2 lb in all)..just because I found they are inexpensive, healthy, and I just enjoyed the earthy, crunchy taste. I just ate a handful of mixed legumes raw and JUST not started reading online that they are toxic! Am I in danger ?? is there something I could or should do? Is it enough to stop now or should I seek medical help?

    1. We have to varying degrees evolved and adapted to process lectins. If you are not suffering I doubt there is any reason to change what sounds like a healthy diet. Alas we are no all so lucky. Some of us end up with a shopping list of autoimmune conditions becuase of lectin and other sensitivities.

  93. Hi.
    Thanks for the great information provided here.
    My question is about the Anyway’s protein product made from soybeans. Can I presume that the processing done would have rendered it largely free from lectins and anti nutrients?

  94. Finally I have a definition for those foods I already know I can’t eat. For me the consequence is violent leg jerking that totally prevents sleep. It onsets not immediately but a bit later. It has been the source of extreme insomnia. For me, the onset was during a long term undiagnosed toxic mold exposure (hidden pipe leak in a wall) and it took a LONG time for me to determine that this was separate from my response to mold exposure. And I had to also separate it from histamine response, which often accompanied it. But now I have a name, and a list of foods that I already recognize that I cannot eat in quantity without dire consequences. Thank you.

  95. I read recently that after cooking beans, refrigeration gets rid of the rest of the lectins.

    anyone heard of this?

  96. Just like with anything, take what you learn and compare it with other information… Being a 100% vegan, Eating ONLY and ALL fruits, veggies, nuts and seeds…. with NO cooked foods and NO bagged goods, canned goods, and NO high fructose corn syrup, No meat, No Dairy, NO GMO foods… is the only way to ultimate health and vitality and NO trips to the doc with inflamed, sensitive, poor digested or leaky gut, clogged arteries, or even a common cold. Now, THIS is God’s plan for His created body!! If you can grow it and eat it raw without harming its enzymes,nutrients and vitamins, then your body will function as it should, and it will eliminate all diseases and everything each one of you have suggested you have wrong with you. Give it a try and with in days you will experience your own body working to heal itself…God’s Design in action alone on raw, healthy, not touched by man and purely ALIVE FOODS! If you want your body to stay alive, eat living foods! Cooking takes away the most important parts of your foods.

    1. Kaitlin, I was Vegan for 20 years and Raw for 2 years and suffered from IBS, Leaky Gut, Psoraisis, Fibrosis, eczma and Chronic Fatigue.

      Currently doing low lectin including meat and fish and it’s working for me, fatigue and eczma gone psoraisis vastly improved.

      You are trying to sell religion rather than science, religion that ignores reality, and given your God is responsible for creating your reality, you appear to be ignoring and contradicting him too. Can I suggest you start paying attention to teh works of God ratehr than making stuff up about him

  97. Excellent article – For what it’s worth , others need a AU Form 1419 , I filled out and esigned a blank form here

  98. I make a homemade granola without oil, just organic thick oats, maple syrup, water substituted for oil, and vanilla extract. It is cooked for a total of 40 – 45 minutes in a 325 degree oven. Will that inactivate the lectins to any degree?

  99. Thank you, Mark and everyone else for wonderful feedback. My question is this, fermentation is mentioned to reduce/eliminate lectin in beans, I like to bake, so if I use ferme3ntation with my GMO free grain, and bake at 450° for 30 m minutes, does that kill off a bunch of bad guy lectin?

  100. This is the third article I have read that confirms similar studies from medical doctors about lectin: Dr. Gundry and Lee. This is an eye opener for me. I have tried to eat healthy and I thought that eating grains and legumes are healthy sources of foods. No wonder my blood pressure and cholesterol are always high.

  101. I believe that there is a conspiracy to suppress knowledge about lectins to protect primarily the food industry and subsequently the tax coffers of the government. I just found out about lectins, yet the scientific community has known about them for years.
    In my opinion this knowledge should have been disseminated to the public immediately upon discovery, yet it was not, spawning my thoughts of conspiracy! I also feel that those responsible for hiding this info should be held responsible! So, basically I believe that the government has suppressed the knowledge to protect the economy at the cost of the health of Americans! That is NOT acceptable!

  102. I understand that most of the lectins in tomatoes are found in it’s skin and seeds. Would juicing eliminate most problematic lectins because neither the skin nor seeds escape the filter of the juicer?

  103. I did not read the answer I was looking for: Does Lecithin contain lectins?

  104. Thanks for the info! Im tight on funds right now and brand from a can has bin the easy, fast food I can grab in between jobs in the city. I have never bin a bean person and this might be the reason for my current problem!

    I’m not going to go into the hole story but aloe really helped in my healing process last summer !!! I was unable to eat most foods for months. Right before the doctor wanted to get a closer look inside I discovered Aloe!!!! It really works!!
    Still working on my food allergys but at least I have a soothing bandade to get me threw my trials.

    Also I would love to chat with anyone who has a reaction of geographical yung, mouth burning with some foods (night shades, some beans, raw peppers , raw tomatoes, acidic fruit ) . Itching mouth with a variety of foods. Urinery track burning without infection that might turn into an infection if I don’t find the food source. Gluten and corn makes me throw up. And gives me rashes around my eyes. And my right foot itches like crazy without a rash. Thanks

  105. My dad was diagnosed with divertiiculitis 37 years ago after eating ham and beans with cornbread. He was given a list of foods to avoid including pinto beans, northern beans, peanuts, raisins, nuts and kidney beans. He is now 92 years old. The VA stopped treating him for bladder cancer 4 years ago. Our family meals excluded beans and nuts. I Thought I would share my dad’s experience.

  106. HI I wonder if there is a full digestive enzyme for antinutrients. hemicellulase is for gluten etc… I know that certain bacteria make uricase for uric acid break down which humans( coming from primates )do not make unlike most other animals/bacteria. living a primal lifestyle organ meats contain high amounts of uric acid. do you know the best probiotics for uric acid? could you eat carnivorous animals pancreas to lower gout? what enzymes digests lectins?… or what probiotics contain lectin degrading enzymes. if certain probiotics are formed in the gut to digest antinutrients wouldn’t it make sense to either eat them often or not at all because without constant exposure to these foods our probiotics with these essential enzymes may die off? it seems like the antinutrients are almost like small vaccines u must be exposed to small amounts in order to have the correct microbiome to have the necessary degrading enzymes otherwise these antinutrients build up causing disease. any input would be much appreciated

    1. also beans contain uricase….. are there any foods with lectin degrading enzymes. like possibly eating animal guts/pancreas with a high affinity for eating beans may increase ability to digest lectin without a problem. or animals that eat a high oxalate diet… possibly eating fermented beans expose you to lectin degrading bacteria. eating fermented high oxalate foods such as purrh tea expose you to oxalate degrading probiotics etc…

  107. I love lentils and have been eating them since I was a child. I am now 67 and have stopped eating them.
    How can I ferment them to reduce or eliminate lectins?
    Thank You very much.

  108. Lentil and other bean pastas are becoming more common now and I have had no luck in finding out if the lectins are destroyed in the pasta making process or not – if anyone has any info on this it would great to know.

    1. I believe that wheat pasta might still have lectins, unless maybe it’s sprouted wheat. White pasta is bad for you, as is white rice, refined flour and potatoes, due to bad starches. So maybe veggie pasta would be the way to go.

  109. I just now came across this site, as I just started reading about lectins. I was on a GAPS diet 6 months ago, because of what I believe is leaky gut syndrome that I’ve had. The diet morphed into a GAPS -plus whole grains- diet, because I couldn’t digest my food without grain fiber after a few weeks on GAPS. A lectin-free diet seems similar to GAPS, and I don’t know what to do. I’ve just started soaking and sprouting. I don’t want to cut out grains. Ideas?

  110. I have been reading Dr Steven Gundry’s Plant Paradox books and programmes about Lectins and it is very much along the lines of this article. However, he says that sprouted legumes should not be eaten and the only way to include them in the diet is to pressure cook them to dramatically cut the lectins. I have always liked to sprout mung beans and lentils and would like to know your views please.

    1. Hi Sandy,

      I found Dr. Gundry’s blog very informational. Actually, the comments here are awesome too. having a condition that is hard to diagnose can be intimidating. I think having a positive attitude and some knowledge of your condition helps a lot.