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Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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November 12 2013

How to Engineer a Successful Day of Sunbathing

By Mark Sisson
83 Comments

SunbathingLast week, I walked you through the typical day of someone pulling out all the stops in the pursuit of a perfect night’s sleep. Today, I’m going to show you how to optimize the pursuit of another vital factor in our health: sun exposure. Unlike sleep, too much sunlight can hurt you if given enough time and the improper context. As much as we like to chuckle at the people scurrying for the shadows at the first hint of UV, and those that slather on 100 SPF sunblock at 5 PM, taking certain precautions and getting correct dosage is crucial. This is something I have to be particularly mindful of here in sunny southern California.

When we sunbathe, we’re trying to do several things at once. We want the vitamin D and all the other sunlight-related metabolites our bodies produce in response to UV-rays. Our eyes want the brilliant natural light to get our circadian rhythms aligned. The melanin-deficient among us often want to obtain and maintain a nice healthy tan. And we want to accomplish all these goals without damaging our skin and our DNA. This is crucial, because, except for white-skinned youngsters who don’t use sunscreen in the summer, most people are simply not getting enough vitamin D (via sunlight or supplementation).

So, what does your day look like?

You awake after the greatest sleep of your life, having gone to bed at the appropriate time. This is essential for successful, safe sunbathing, since our ability to repair UV-derived damage depends on a well-functioning circadian rhythm. If you didn’t sleep well or are running on a chronic sleep deficit, you may want to hold off on the sunbathing until you get your sleep in order as your skin won’t recover as well.

If you eat breakfast, you lay out an impressive spread of smoked wild salmon (or krill smoothie) and pastured eggs in butter. The salmon has astaxanthin, a photoprotective compound, as well as EPA and DHA, which have been linked to UV-protection. Omega-6 levels were linked to worse UV-protection in that same study, and pastured eggs have a better omega-3:omega-6 ratio than normal eggs. The butter is a good source of saturated fat, which offers more protection against sun damage than polyunsaturated fat.

You enjoy a large cup of coffee or a mug of good green tea (or both). Consumption of both coffee and green tea have been shown to increase UV-protection, probably due to both the caffeine content and the phytochemicals present in tea and coffee. Throw some pastured cream in that coffee for good measure if you have it.

You consider going out to sunbathe at midmorning when the sun is aslant, because as “everyone knows” the safest times to sunbathe are in the morning and late afternoon – anytime you can avoid the mighty and terrible midday sun. Luckily, you catch yourself and remember that UVA is highest in the morning and late afternoon, while UVB is lowest (nonexistent, even). Why is this a problem?

  • UVA penetrates skin rather deeply, passes through clouds, window panes, water, and ozone, and has been implicated in melanoma (the most serious and deadly kind of skin cancer) and DNA damage (PDF). And it doesn’t even make vitamin D.
  • Not only does UVA provide no vitamin D, it actually breaks down vitamin D by binding to the vitamin D receptor. Combined with UVB exposure, this is probably a mechanism for vitamin D regulation, but without the UVB, you’re just losing vitamin D.
  • UVA does not readily burn you, so you have no indication if you’re getting too much like you do with UVB.
  • We’re meant to get a balance of UVA and UVB together.

If you only have the morning (or late afternoon) available, go out and get sun anyway; some is better than none. The light exposure is important for your circadian rhythm, too.

For lunch, you enjoy a Big Ass Salad with a dressing made from something rich in monounsaturated fats, like olive oil or macadamia nut oil. MUFAs aren’t just oxidatively stable. They (or at least oleic acid) are also a precursor to oleamide, a sleep-inducing endogenous compound that may offer protection against the metastasis of melanoma cells. All the phytonutrients from the vegetables can’t hurt, either.

You grab that nice red you’ve been holding onto and slip it into your beach bag. Nothing like a glass of zin as you bask in the sun, plus the proanthocyanidines from grape seeds (which show up in red wine) offer photoprotection.

You nearly forget to pack a bar of really good, really dark chocolate with 85% cacao. Dark chocolate is rich in stable saturated fat while providing flavanols that help against UV damage. Note that the best quality chocolate with the highest cacao content will have the most protective flavanols.

It’s now right around noon, and the midday sun is directly overhead, your shadow nonexistent. It’s time to get some sun. UVB exposure, and thus vitamin D production, is at its peak (PDF). UVB burns, but it also tans (thus giving warning), and it doesn’t penetrate deep enough into the epidermis to trigger melanoma. At noon, you’re getting both UVB and UVA. UVB counteracts the UVA damage; UVA keeps the vitamin D synthesis from getting out of hand. If we upset the balance and get too much UVA without enough UVB, melanoma may result.

Now, before you go out, let’s figure how much time you need to spend. How much sun time you require for optimal vitamin D production depends on a few variables.

If you’re young, lean, and light-skinned, ten to fifteen minutes should be enough for vitamin D.

If you’re elderly, your skin probably doesn’t synthesize as much vitamin D in response to sunlight. You may need more time.

If you’re dark skinned, you need more time in the sun to make vitamin D. Those living in northern (or far southern) climes may need to supplement vitamin D to meet their requirements, as their ancestors likely evolved in warmer, more tropical climates with more intense sunlight.

If you’re obese, you won’t make and absorb as much vitamin D in response to UVB.

According to the Vitamin D council (link above), these groups may need about three times more sun exposure to hit regular vitamin D levels.

Information and plan in hand, you take a furtive glance around and remove as many articles of clothing as possible. Remove all your clothes if possible to increase exposure. Men, open your legs, prop a leg up on a chair while gazing off into the distance, or practice handstand splits – legend has it that exposing your testicles to the midday sun can actually increase testosterone levels. Maybe it’s the UV-B increasing localized vitamin D biosynthesis increasing testosterone production. Or maybe it’s the freedom, the sway, the breeze. Either way, I know I saw a link to the research previously. I’ll try to dig it up.

You lie down on the ground to optimize UVB exposure. Remember, part of the reason why we took over this world is our obligate bipedalism, which allowed us to move around without receiving the full brunt of the harsh African sun (it also explains why we evolved the fedora).

You stay in the sun until it stops feeling good. When the warmth turns to heat, you remove yourself. When basking turns to cringing, you get out of there or put some clothes on. When you can feel your skin burning, you’re too late. You won’t die or get cancer tomorrow because of it, but next time, get out before you reach that point. That burns are unhealthy is one of the things CW gets right.

If you want to stay out in the sun, put on some clothing or use a quality broad-spectrum sunblock (that blocks both UVA and UVB). Browse this post for non-toxic, full-spectrum options.

If you’re still around when late afternoon hits, you hightail it out of there or cover up. As the sun dips toward the horizon, UVB is waning and UVA remains. You don’t need any more UVA. U’VAd-enough! Get it? (Sorry.)

For dinner, you eat some Primal chili, or something else with cooked tomatoes, canned tomatoes, or tomato paste. The lycopene (which is far higher in cooked tomato products) will offer photoprotection. Insider tip: add a bar of dark chocolate to the chili just before serving for improved taste and UV protection.

Have some yogurt and berries for dessert. Apart from being a delicious treat, this is also a functional dessert that provides a specific probiotic – Lactobacillus reuteri – shown to increase vitamin D levels by almost 15 ng/mL in humans under controlled conditions (PDF). Even if you didn’t get enough UVB, keeping your gut healthy and colonized by specific probiotics will optimize your ability to synthesize vitamin D.

You’re sleepy, in a good way – sunbathing’ll do that to you – and you find yourself nodding off a bit earlier than usual. With more good weather forecast for tomorrow and a beach barbecue planned, you turn in for the night to ensure another night of excellent sleep and even better photoprotection.

As there are genetic components to sun resistance, this isn’t foolproof. But clearly, getting some sun is better than avoiding it altogether. If you’re going to get some sun, you want to stack the deck in your favor, and you could do a whole lot worse than a day like this.

Thanks for reading, folks. What did I miss?

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83 thoughts on “How to Engineer a Successful Day of Sunbathing”

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  1. “Thanks for reading, folks. What did I miss?”

    You missed Step 1: Ensure you’re not currently in the UK.
    :p

    1. Or in northern Germany! I can’t remember the last time I “witnessed” the sun.

      1. Or in central Germany for that matter. Gotta move sometime in the next 2-3 decades.

      2. I am from Florida and currently studying in Germany . . . number one thing I miss is sunlight!

        1. There has to be some sun in England.
          George Harrison: Here comes the sun, da da da da da

        2. Nocona, I’m certain that song was from the one and only time it came out!

    2. Oh ye southeners in your balmy climate. Here in the Northern Finland we are about to enter polar night and will see sun again in a month or two…

      1. I really feel for you. i can’t imagine surviving that. Do you hibernate? I think I would…

    3. And I thought it was bad in Atlanta, Georgia in the winter …. I feel for y’all.

      1. C’mon, bro. Atlanta? Winter isn’t always a picnic in Georgia but even if you’ve never lived anywhere else, did you really think it was all that bad?

      1. I guess all of us northern Europeans will have to stock up on pickled herring and smoked salmon to survive our sun-less winter existence….

  2. I love my vitamin D – especially during the winter months. I believe there’s a strong connection to the lack of it and increase in flu. I work in a hospital so getting outside for 30 minutes to sit in the sun is essential for me during my lunch break so I can get away from the artificial light.

  3. ahhh makes me miss summer already. this morning I woke up to see snow on the ground (I’m a Midwesterner).

  4. Yeah I’m in MN and can barely stand having even my face uncovered. 12 degrees this morning. Supplements for me, unfortunately 🙁

  5. hehe! Yep I’m in Scotland! Inside writing a PhD thesis. Despite this, I’m still inspired so I’m off outside after reading this (possibly wearing my ski gear though, as it’s cold and starting to get dark!)

  6. I’ll add to the Midwestern Blues … windchill of 10 degrees and snow on the ground here in Iowa. But the sun is shining brilliantly in a gorgeous blue sky, so I’ll let the my cheeks and nose soak up some of that lovely sunshine!

    1. Yay for fellow primal Iowan…I wasn’t sure any of them existed 🙂

  7. What timing! I just came inside from sunbathing. I live in the upstate of South Carolina, and it’s a beautiful Fall day here. It’s sunny and warm with a bright blue sky. There’s a cold front coming, and the temperature is supposed to be in the 20s tonight. There’s even snow in the forecast for tonight for the mountains of western North Carolina. So I thought I’d take advantage of this opportunity. It’s so warm right now that I was able to go outside with a just a pair of shorts on. I may not be able to sunbathe again until next Spring.

  8. Southern California blond/blue-eyed Swede reporting in. It’s odd how eating enough salmon and other primal foods I don’t burn or even really tan as much as I used to. I kind of feel relatively immune to the sun now. Even if I do burn the burn never lasts very long and isn’t quite as severe as it used to be.

    I suppose being a So Cal guy, you should write about this in the months when the rest of the world feels safe to go outside without their insulating layers but we on the coast are looking at the gloom of fog. I don’t think anybody but other So Cal coastal people feel the same sense of the weather finally getting really good that we do.

  9. Mark, you are torturing me!! Do you realize the sun is setting at about 5:00pm where I live? I am riding my bike home from work in the dark. Add to the fact that it is freezing outside, I don’t think I’ll be taking off any clothes in the noon day sun soon.

    Can you write a post for how to get sun through the winter?

    1. I agree! haha I drive to work at 8 am and the sun is just barely coming up. I get off at 5.30 and it’s been gone for about 45 minutes already. Not to mention we’re losing about 7 minutes a day, and that’ll increase until the solstice (I’m in Anchorage, AK).

      I do manage to get outside during my lunch hour for a walk to the grocery store, but seeing how it’s 30 degrees or less most days I’m not getting much sun exposure, save for my barely uncovered face.

      1. I live in south central NJ (Camden Co.) and won’t see any B rays until 20 March, the stolstice.

    2. I second your sentiment.

      Mark, it seems like subtle mockery of all the people living in northern hemisphere temperate climates to give advice on sunbathing in the middle of Movember (not a typo).

      I’m from Germany currently living in northern England. I think it wasn’t below zero (°C) yet, but it’s getting close… I’ve recently started the Vitamin D supplementation.

  10. Glad to know my naked midday handstand splits are contributing to my health! I was just doing them to annoy the neighbors…

  11. Haha new zealand here… its bit cold today so not in the shorts… but we nearly hit summer… sun coming up as I get to work at 5.30…

  12. And if you are lying on the grass, dirt or concrete without a towel you are grounding yourself too. its all good.

  13. Mark, thanks for the detailed info although I’m having trouble reading the entire post because the mid-day sun here in So. Cal is causing too much glare and I keep dripping water onto my Kindle after I get out of the pool. I’m trying to keep up a good attitude but sometimes it’s tough, ya’ know?

    1. I am also having trouble reading this post, my view is blocked by 25 young women in bikinis. Whatever, I’ll read when the sun goes down…there are perfect peeling knee slappers that need to be surfed right now!

      Sent from Southern California

  14. Great post to plan my family summer vacations in January (southern hemisphere): don’t forget the chocolate!

  15. My area’s vitamin D window has closed (Neb.) and it’s 13 degrees here — but I will remember this for when it reopens, though! Nice to know that sunbathing at noon is the best time!

    1. Check the website that has the angle of the Sun, it has to be above 50 degrees
      in my area best time is between 20 Mar and 20 Sep 10:00 and 14:00 hrs.

  16. Have fun with your naked splits, Mark. It’s going to be 8°F and bitingly windy, but hey at least the sun’s up so the bridge of my nose may get a little vitamin D as I walk around wrapped up more than a Saudi.

  17. Hi Mark! Have you researched much about Vitamin D absorption? I thought you might want to add that you shouldn’t shower with soap for awhile after sun exposure, because Vit D takes quite some time to absorb into the skin…I’m not sure exactly how long it takes, maybe a day or two? Do you know?

    1. I’m under the impression that cholcalciferol (Vit. D3) was synthesized from cholesterol in the skin via a chain of chemical reactions caused/enabled by photons with the energy corresponding to UVB light.
      That is, it’s my understanding that we don’t absorb Vit. D, we make it — and that while exposed to the light, not after.

      1. Bill-I’m aware that we synthesize Vit D from cholesterol, but I thought the reaction occurred on the surface of the skin and therefore the vitamin still had to be absorbed into the body…?

        1. The outer surface of your skin is predominantly dead, as I understand. I doubt our body I’d doing much of anything among dead cells.

        2. Vit D is produced in the 2 (of 5 total) innermost layers of the epidermis, which is the “top” of our skin.

    2. Can someone on this site speak to this question? I’ve read similar advice on another site about not washing for 1-2 days so the Vit D precursors are adsorbed into the blood, but can’t find any scientific references. Thanks.

  18. I’m from Australia originally and we were basically taught to treat the sun as an enemy. Avoid it at all costs. There was a “Slip, Slop, Slap” public slogan when I was growing up – “Slip on a shirt, slop on some sunscreen and slap on a hat”. It’s only now at the age of 50 that I’ve realized that the sun is a natural and necessary part of life. I’m enjoying some sunshine every day (hopefully) now and I’m happy for it. I’m so glad not to be putting all those nasty artificial chemicals on my skin via the sunscreen (which I now only use in times of high exposure).

    1. Me too… Im in my 40s and my mum died of skin cancer, and was a big advocate of slip slop slap… the thing is she never went out in the sun, wore driving gloves, sunscreen, long sleeved shirts, massive floppy hats and avoided sun at all costs… I still remember having sun cream in a jar applied to me as a small child back in the early 70s and it stinging really really badly… but I was held down while it was slathered on… I now live on the sunshine coast, and Ive never felt more liberated then when I go out to my pool at midday and lay in the sun… I just wish my mother was alive to see it…

  19. Great article!
    Mark, or anyone else from you knowledgeable lot- does anyone have any advice or know of anywhere I can find non CW/primal advice regarding sun exposure when pregnant?
    I’m off to St Lucia for a baby moon in 3 weeks. Already got my non toxic sun cream bought and packed but keen to know how much sun I should/can have. Any advice would be massively appreciated! Thanks all

  20. What about 1-3 hour sun exposure on the face/neck most days? Would that be enough Vitamin D?

  21. Here we have no problems with the excessive sun a good 8 months out of the year. Including now. Parkas are great in blocking the UVA and UVBs and any other stuff sun attempts to get through the blizzards.

  22. Will use of sunglasses affect any of this? Someone once told me that when one wears sunglasses, the eyes can’t tell the body how sunny it is and the skin is more likely to get burned. I gave up sunglasses and have not gotten burned, but also eat paleo. Any thoughts?

  23. Seriously, do you want us to get depressed!!!!
    It;s the bloody beginning of winter here! For the last two weeks it has been so dark outside that I wonder if the sun suddenly collapsed. Not to mention the first night of frost we had here…

    I’m already longing for the sun and I am sinking into depression.
    Mark, please.. as a companion to this post, do one on how to survive the winter depression?

    1. Agreed! I always get gloomy/depressed this time of year, and it’s been pretty consistent since I moved to Alaska.

      Personally, I’ve found being primal to help already, but I still had a bit of that depressed feeling as winter came around the corner. Exercise helps too, but man, lack of sun (especially after the glorious summer we had!) really puts a damper on the beginning of this season. My advice? Find something you enjoy doing outdoors to help you through winter. I started cross country skiing, and the combination of at least seeing the sun here and there, the exercise, and being in nature always put me in a good mood. Hope that helps you!

    2. My idea is to come home and turn on as many lights in your house as possible. That helps me to stay awake until at least 8PM, otherwise my body would like to pass out about 6:30PM since it’s been dark for so long. Of course, if that happened I’d wake up about 9PM unable to go back to sleep. OH well, winter, the older I get the shorter it is.

  24. I miss my lunch outside with my bare feet on the ground, soaking up the sun. We had a fabulous summer here in NW Oregon but it’s all cloudy and cold now so I will have to wait until it clears up.
    During the days by the pool I would sit out midday and then move to the shade when it got later. Worked very well, no burns for me.

  25. Cold here in central Illinois, too – snow on the ground this morning, high of 32. However, the sun is shining and I was determined to get out for a walk at lunchtime today. Not sure how much sun I soaked up all bundled up, but my face and head were exposed, so it’s got to be worth something.

    I’m determined to continue hiking this winter, even in the snow. I have too much energy to be cooped up inside for the next 4-6 months.

  26. Whelp, I’m over here in New Zealand and it’s getting into Summer. Since we have a particularly thin ozone over here, the period of time it takes to get that burning feeling in the sun is about 5 minutes, sometimes less. My boyfriend recently took a trip to Europe (it was Summer), and didn’t use any sunscreen, but spent almost all day out in the sun. He didn’t even get burnt! Does anyone have any advice about getting safe sun in my particular geographical location?

    1. I would be interested in hearing about this too, also from New Zealand and a red head… those two don’t go well together.

  27. Please remember that altitude can have an effect on burning. Mark is writing about sea level. I live a mile high and can burn in very little time. My face can burn in 10 minutes especially if there is snow reflection – I never ski! So watch out if you are fair skinned and at high altitude. My son received 2 2nd degree burns on his back before he finally took my advice on sunscreen. He now lives at sea level. Thank goodness for supplements.

  28. Mark,
    Please write a post on how we can obtain vitamin D during the winter. I live in the mid south so I don’t have it too bad, but I can definetly tell a difference in my mood once the time changes and I am not able to get outside as much. I would also like to know if anyone else notices a correlation between eating grass fed meat and not burning. I literally wore no sunscreen this past summer and didn’t burn once. I wasn’t at the beach, but at my neighbors pool daily. I also noticed I didn’t have to reapply sunscreen to my children either. They never burned. This is the first summer we switched our meat to pastured/grass fed. Anyone else notice this?

  29. This is pretty much how my days go in the summertime. Work in the AM, sunbathe around noon, then grab lunch and go back to work. Ah, the joys of working from home. Thanks for justifying my routine.

    I find this bit funny: “and pastured eggs have a better omega-3:omega-6 ratio than normal eggs”. As if pastured wasn’t “normal”. 😀

  30. Great post for our climate here in Perth, Western Australia. 32-42 degrees celsius every day for the next 4 months (90-107 degrees Fahrenheit). Bring it on!

  31. I work outside from sun up till 4pm through winter, spring and summer – so now when my boss finds me running naked around the orchard with a red wine in hand I’ll have the perfect excuse!

  32. I agree with all who find the timing of this post a bit weird 🙂

    Mark – as for what you have missed, I believe I heard/read somewhere that calcium is crucial for vitamin D synthesis and thus for avoiding burns. (chole-CALCI-ferol, right?)

    Thus, eggshells or other supplements may be a good idea for breakfast.

  33. Aargh!! It’s hard to imagine sunbathing when I am sitting here shivering in the UK with a frost outside. Brr!!

  34. Nice post! I live in Olympia, Washington where the slant of the sun is too low from mid-September until mid-April to make vitamin D. Luckily there is lots of salmon to eat, I wish I could love herring like my Sweedish ancestors. I miss the sun so much this time of year and I feel like I’m slipping into a hibernation mode, which would be fine if my family and employer would be OK with me doing 1/2 the amount they expect of me. In summer I can go all day, 16 hours, but am ready to sleep after about 8 in winter. Any primal info about that? Anyway, since we do live in the modern world we are spending the week in Cozumel to get our sun fix before the ski season starts!

  35. Wow that is a lot of steps for engineered sun bathing. It is good to have all that knowledge on how to optimize but what ever happened to putting on some SPF 20 and lounging by the pool for a few hours with a good book or some friends?

  36. My successful day of sunbathing was going to Spain, walking on the promenade along the beach for 4 hours, getting burnt and then peeling 🙂

  37. I live in the Northeast so it is getting toward the end of Autumn. Our sunniest winter days are also our coldest.

    I have placed a wood pew on the covered garage porch that is protected from the prevailing winds and faces south. A nice warm spot. I plan to eat my lunch there on sunny days this winter. It also faces my neighbor so I don’t think being naked is an option.

    Probably the sun is too low to provide Vit D but at least it should feel good.

  38. The timing of this post does seem like a cruel joke for those of us who have suddenly been plunged into darkness at 4:30 pm. Now, how about a companion post for us northerners on how to stay sane for the next 6 months?

  39. I have always joked that I am solar powered 🙂 If I don’t get enough sun regularly I get grouchy. Luckily here in Santa Cruz we have lots of sunny days and I try to get on the water as often as possible- even in winter. I feel sorry for all those stuck in dark climates.

  40. Would love to indulge in the glorious noon sun – but those of us with lupus suffer and risk a flare up of symptoms! any ideas??

  41. Interesting article! I didn’t know that about UVA vs UVB rays.

    The sun is confusing for me. Or more to the point, how much I need. I am very, very fair skinned and burn fast. But I also get seasonal depression and supplementing vitamin D helps tremendously (as in, I’m in my 40’s and last winter was the first ever without seasonal depression! Thanks D3 drops 🙂 )

    So I don’t understand why my body needs sun but burns so easily. It’s just weird. I get more sun now than I used to, but mid day sun like that, I can maybe take 15 minutes and I can feel a burn starting.

  42. That’s really interesting Mark. I wasn’t aware of the impact our sleep had on our skins ability to recover from sun exposure. It makes perfect sense though.

    Thanks for the post 🙂

    – Trevor

  43. Mark, this is such good stuff. I never believed the fear mongering, less than truthful dangers of sun exposure. I would like to make note that the UVB spectrum of light is highly susceptible to filtering. I believe that the sun needs to be at least a 50 degree angle in the sky before any UVB can filter through the atmosphere. After that moisture haze, dust particles and aerosol spray (weather modification high altitude spraying) can also work against UVB reaching the ground. I time my sun exposure by using the Navy’s “Sun or Moon Altitude/Azimuth Table” found at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/AltAz.php to determine my best bang for my buck. Another note is that of time of absorption of the D3 produced on the skin. I believe It takes about 36 hours for complete absorption and that UVA light can destroy what is left on the skin from earlier exposures. Also washing with commercial soap and detergents can was off the cholesterol and D3. Washing with water alone will remove grime but will not wash off the D3. Time is required for absorption as mentioned earlier. The reason we call it sun “bathing” might be because the UV kills bacteria from the exposed skin, and body odor is a buildup of bacteria. Daily exposures to UVB keeps the supply going, but exposure to UVA only (early and late day, less than a 50deg. Elevation) will undo whatever remains on your skin. I live in San Diego County so I can expect 5 to 6 months of UVB presence. I am then reduced to supplementation. I prefer liquid spray D3 under my tongue to reduce possible digestive reductions of the D3. I’m on a strict budget after all. Or, as Mark mentioned in another article, I could lick my dog. I am afraid of scaring my dog though. I think he thinks I’m Hungary.

  44. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you, However I am going through difficulties with your RSS.
    I don’t know why I am unable to subscribe to it. Is there
    anybody having identical RSS problems? Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond?
    Thanks!!

  45. I was only looking for info on when is the sun most intense, but I gleaned so much more. Particularly fascinating was the bit about testicles and testosterone. Gonna try that since I have the privacy! I didn’t read ALL the comments but it seems most folks overlooked your question “What did I miss?” (besides being way off subject) I think one thing you should’ve added to your “recipe” is water. I would think sun exposure should require us to drink more.

  46. 15 minutes, does that go for the whole body? I tend to lie on my back and then on my stomach ..

  47. Astaxanathin is super healthy for the skin and eyes. Chlorella. Spirullina. A healthy diet help prevent skin problems.
    Windows defract sun rays blocking the good rays and may deplete vitamin D.
    Many theorize that the best time is from 11 am or noon till 1 or 2 pm, adjustments for lovation and daylight savings time.
    More colds in the winter months when there is less immune system vitamin D.

    1. What about the seasons? In winter, the sun never reaches it’s zenith. It stays kinda flat in the sky and there is a shadow even at midday.