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What Is Autophagy?

Biological systems are self-maintaining. They have to be. Your cells are little factories, performing tasks crucial to maintaining this thing we call life. And just like in factories, machinery (organelles) break down. Waste (metabolic byproducts) must be managed. Security teams need to be in place to keep intruders (bacteria and viruses) from disrupting operations. 

For life to sustain itself, cells must perform this crucial work themselves. It’s not like we can send in microscopic maintenance workers, mechanics, and security details to handle the dirty work from the outside. Not really, not yet anyway. One of the most important types of biological maintenance is a process called autophagy.

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New and Noteworthy: What I Read This Week—Edition 215

Research of the Week
Blending blackberries and apples has a lower glycemic response than eating whole apples and blackberries, possibly due to the pulverized blackberry seeds.

Persian traders interbred with local East African women beginning in 1000 AD, and modern Swahili people are the result.

The state of food systems worldwide.

Stressed plants scream.

Centenarians possess a uniquely robust immune response that lasts well into old age.

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9 Types of Protein Powder

Whey protein isolate is the gold standard of protein powders, and it’s the only one I take besides collagen, but it’s not the only one out there. There are reasons for branching out beyond whey into other types of protein powder. Maybe you’d like some variety once in awhile. Maybe you’re just curious about what else is out there, or perhaps you don’t want any animal protein at all. Whatever the reason, I figured I’d give you some info on some of the more popular types of protein powder, including whether or not they contribute meaningfully to our intake of essential amino acids.

Before we begin, let’s talk about how we can measure a protein’s usability.

The BV (biological value) is one way to measure a protein’s “usability.” Biological value testing measures the amount of nitrogen that appears in the urine and feces after eating it to determine how much was retained and utilized by the body. If very little nitrogen appears in the toilet after eating a given protein, that protein has a high BV. If a good amount appears in the toilet, that protein has a lower BV.

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New and Noteworthy: What I Read This Week—Edition 214

Research of the Week
High cord levels of unmetabolized folic acid (from fortification and synthetic vitamins) is a strong risk factor for autism.

Preliminary results with a new cancer drug are very positive.

Why the combo of fat and sweet is so potent.

High HDL protects against LDL oxidation.

Ancient ancestors consumed dairy from many different species.

Reminder to sit less and lift more.

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New and Noteworthy: What I Read This Week—Edition 213

Research of the Week
Semaglutide fails to improve or resolve non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Slavery, captivity, and rowing in Malta.

Leaders with low self esteem have toxic effects.

Strength training for female sprint athletes.

Wild blueberries increase fat oxidation in endurance athletes during moderate activity.

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New and Noteworthy: What I Read This Week—Edition 212

Research of the Week
Chili pepper consumption linked to more gastric cancer in North America, Africa, and Asia but less gastric cancer in South America and Europe.

It appears as if nitrate-free salami is viable and safe.

How the proposed “healthy diet for the world” falls short.

More yogurt, longer life.

Caffeine works even if you’re habituated to it.

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