10 Natural Sleep Aids: What Works and Why

By now, the average person grasps just how important sleep is for our overall health. It seems like every month there’s a new popular science book extolling the virtues of sleep. Parents remember the zombified newborn days and can see (and hear), firsthand, what happens when a toddler doesn’t get enough sleep. And on a visceral level, we feel the need for slumber. Even if we’re unaware of or refuse to accept the health dangers of long-term sleep restriction, there’s no getting around the abject misery of a bad night’s sleep.

We all want better sleep. We all need better sleep. But how?

Sleeping pills are not the answer for most people.

(But please note: Don’t discontinue or alter a prescribed treatment or medication regimen without consulting your doctor…and, likewise, don’t begin a new regimen—like those below—without running it by your physician.)

In one recent “positive” study on the effects of sleeping pills, almost every single subject suffered one or more side effects, ranging from headaches to nausea to irritability to dizziness to dysgeusia (a condition where your sense of taste is altered).

In another, taking Ambien the night before decreased cognitive performance and increased subjective sleepiness the next morning.

Studies aside, there are thousands of horror stories about people ruining their lives (or behaving in a way that had the potential to do so) after taking sleeping pills. Twitter rants that get you fired, sleep driving, tooth grinding, furniture rearranging, sleep eating. And those are just the ones that people live to tell.

That’s not to say sleeping pills are useless. They’re legitimate drugs to be used for specific medical conditions, in specific patient circumstances. They aren’t to be trifled with. But if you’re just trying to “get better sleep,” you’ve got options. And I’m not even mentioning the lifestyle and behavioral modifications you can make to improve your sleep.

Here are my favorite natural sleep aids….


GABA is the inhibitory neurotransmitter. It calms the brain. It soothes the brain. It de-stresses the brain. And it’s a major factor in the creation of melatonin, the hormone our brain uses to trigger sleep onset. Insomniacs have reduced brain GABA levels compared to non-insomniacs; the same goes for people with sleep apnea. Restoring physiological levels of GABA, then, is a first line of defense against poor sleep.

Oral GABA has a blood-brain barrier problem—it doesn’t cross it particularly well. Children have more permissive BBBs, but most of my readers aren’t children. Nitric oxide tends to increase GABA diffusion across the blood brain barrier, and there are a couple of ways to increase nitric oxide in conjunction with taking GABA to make the latter more effective for sleep.

You could sunbathe. That increases nitric oxide release. The only problem is that most sunbathing occurs during the midday hours, not at night. It’s unclear how long the boost from sunlight lasts, though it certainly can’t hurt.

You could take apocynum venetum, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine that increases nitric oxide release. In fact, one study showed that taking GABA with apcynum ventum improves sleep quality.

Before you start sedating yourself, see if GABA has an effect.

2. Melatonin

When it’s bedtime for your brain, your pineal gland starts pumping out a hormone called melatonin. This initiates the onset of sleep and triggers subjective feelings of sleepiness; it also sets your circadian rhythm.

Supplemental melatonin crosses the blood brain barrier and acts very similarly to endogenous melatonin.

Don’t use melatonin every night. Not because you’ll get “addicted” (you won’t) or “your natural production will stop” (it won’t), but because you should focus on producing your own. If I get a big dose of late night blue light, I might nibble on a little melatonin. If I have more than a single glass of wine at night, I’ll have some melatonin before bed as alcohol depresses its production. And when I travel, I always take a few milligrams an hour before my desired bedtime in the new time zone.

The main reason you shouldn’t rely on melatonin for everyday use is that supplemental melatonin pharmacology doesn’t quite emulate endogenous melatonin pharmacology. The way most people take it is in a single dose before bed. The way the brain produces it is consistently through the night. If you want to emulate physiological levels of melatonin, you’re better off taking a single dose of instant release melatonin followed by a dose of slow release melatonin, or a supplement that includes both forms. Even then, it’s not the same.

3. Collagen

I still remember the first time I drank a big mug of bone broth at night. It was one of the not-as-rare-as-you’d-think cold “winter” nights in Malibu. I was sitting on the couch, reading a book, and got about 3/4 of the way through a mug of chicken foot broth before, apparently, falling asleep right then and there. A bit of research the next day revealed that glycine, the primary amino acid in collagen/gelatin/broth, can have a powerful effect on sleep quality. Not only that, glycine also lowers body temperature (an important part of the sleep process) and improves wakefulness the next day. And if you’ve got REM sleep behavior disorder, glycine may be the solution.

In fact, the glycine-sleep effect was another consideration in creating Collagen Fuel and Peptides. Everyone talks about the benefits to joint health, performance, skin, nails, hair, and general inflammation, but I want folks to also discover the benefit of glycine-enhanced sleep, too.

If you take collagen, aim for at least 10 grams at night. If you’re taking straight glycine, 3 grams is the minimum dose. Those are threshold doses; more may help even more.

4. Magnesium

We talk a lot about “age-related” declines in health, vitality, performance, and basic physiological functions. We also talk about how much of what we call “age-related” isn’t inevitable. It’s not so much that the passage of time degrades our bodies and how they work, but that we become more susceptible to poor lifestyle, dietary, and exercise choices because of compounding negative interest. We’re born with robust health and if we fail to maintain it, our health worsens as time progresses. If we never stop moving, lifting weights, and eating right, aging doesn’t happen to the same degree.

One thing that changes with age is how we sleep. In older people, sleep architecture is different: More time is spent awake and there’s less slow wave sleep. Sleep spindles, those oscillating bursts of brain wave activity, begin disappearing. Sounds inevitable, right? Except that research shows that taking magnesium reverses these age-related changes to sleep architecture.

Taking some Natural Calm (a great magnesium supplement) after your CrossFit workout and falling asleep faster is one thing. But to actually restore youthful sleep architecture? Amazing.

5. CBD Oil

As I wrote a couple weeks ago, CBD is the non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.

And to me, the most interesting aspect of CBD lies in its potential to improve sleep. A 2017 review provides a nice summary of the effects of CBD on sleep:

In insomnia patients, 160 mg/day of CBD increased sleep time and reduced the number of arousals (not that kind) during the night.

Lower doses are linked to increased arousals and greater wakefulness. Higher dose CBD improved sleep.

In preliminary research with Parkinson’s patients, CBD reduced REM-related behavioral disorder—which is when you basically act out your dreams as they’re happening.

More recently, a large case series (big bunch of case studies done at once) was performed giving CBD to anxiety patients who had trouble sleeping. Almost 80% had improvements in anxiety and 66% had improvements in sleep (although the sleep improvements fluctuated over time).

Here’s how to find a good CBD oil.

6. Theanine

Theanine is a chemical found in tea, especially tea grown in shady conditions. Because it is structurally similar to glutamate and easily passes the blood brain barrier, theanine binds to various glutamate receptors in the brain, inhibiting the action of some and promoting the action of others. It also increases serotonin, GABA, and glycine in the brain—all chemicals that can pave the way for better sleep.

Theanine is another of those sleep aids that isn’t expressly about sleep. It’s about relaxation, about letting you get out of your own way. If in the course of relaxation and stress reduction you end up taking care of the thing that’s messing up your sleep, theanine can be said to be a big sleep aid.

This is a good theanine. I also make a supplement (Adaptogenic Calm) that contains theanine and other stress-reducing compounds.

7. Lutein and Zeaxanthin

One of the most powerful sleep aids is wearing a pair of orange safety goggles that blocks blue light after dark. Viewed after dark, blue (and green) light suppresses melatonin secretion, pushes back sleep onset, and throws off your entire circadian rhythm. Blocking the light with goggles allows normal melatonin production to proceed and promotes earlier bedtimes and better, deeper sleeps.

What if you could take a supplement that simulated the blue-blocking effect of a pair of orange safety goggles? Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids, plant-based pigments found in colorful produce and pasture-raised eggs that are actually incorporated into the eye where they offer protection from sunlight and inhibit the melatonin-reducing effect of nighttime light exposure. Human studies show that taking lutein and zeaxanthin on a regular basis improves sleep quality, reduces sleep disturbances, and lowers dependence on supplemental or pharmaceutical sleep aids.

Here’s a good one. Trader Joe’s also has a good supplement called Super Vision.

The best natural sleep aids restore the ancestral sleep baseline. At baseline, humans should be walking around with good GABA levels. They should be getting enough magnesium, collagen/glycine, and carotenoids from their diet. It’s normal to produce melatonin after dark. And even though humans haven’t been dosing themselves with CBD or theanine for very long, it also isn’t normal to be inundated with chronic, low level stress and persistent anxiety—the type of stress that ruins our sleep, the type of anxiety that CBD and theanine can regulate.

What else?

8. Lemon Balm

Lemon balm is an herb in the mint family. The fragrance is intoxicating (I’ve even used lemon balm in a roasted chicken), but not the effects. It doesn’t directly induce sleep—it’s not a sedative or a hypnotic—but if stress and anxiety are getting in the way of your sleep, lemon balm will help clear them out.

9. Valerian

Valerian root has a long history as an anti-insomnia herb. The ancient Greeks used it and traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medical traditions continue to use to it to treat bad sleep. Valerian contains a compound that slows down the brain’s metabolism of GABA, thereby increasing GABA levels and letting what the brain already produces hang around even longer.

I’ll admit I’m more ambivalent about these last two options. While they’re certainly gentler than pharmaceutical sleep pills, and lemon balm in particular is a legit way to deal with stress and anxiety, their efficacy for sleep is questionable. The evidence just isn’t there, though I grant that many people report good results.

10. Combinations

Many of these individual compounds become more powerful and more effective combined with each other. Since these aren’t pharmaceutical drugs with very narrow safety profiles rife with contraindications, taking them together usually isn’t an issue, but check in with your doctor anyway (especially if you’re taking other medications or have known health conditions).

And today’s list isn’t exhaustive. There are other compounds, herbs, and supplements that can probably help people improve their sleep.

Most of the adaptogens, like ashwagandha or rhodiola rosea, have been shown in one study or another to improve sleep in humans. Anything that helps get you back to baseline, back to homeostasis, back to normal—will restore your sleep if it’s suffering. And if you’re suffering, your sleep is likely suffering because sleep is such a fundamental aspect of the human experience. Anything that improves your health will also probably improve your sleep.

This goes without saying, but don’t limit yourself to natural sleep supplements. Don’t forget about the importance of lifestyle, of exercise, of diet, of morning light exposure and nighttime light avoidance. Supplements can help, but they can’t be the foundation for good sleep hygiene. You’re just asking for trouble—or subpar results.

Thanks for reading, everyone. Now, let’s hear from you. What natural sleep aids have you found most useful? Is there anything I overlooked or forgot? Let me know down below.


Pinto LR, Bittencourt LR, Treptow EC, Braga LR, Tufik S. Eszopiclone versus zopiclone in the treatment of insomnia. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2016;71(1):5-9.

Dinges DF, Basner M, Ecker AJ, Baskin P, Johnston S. Effects of Zolpidem and Zaleplon on Cognitive Performance After Emergent Tmax and Morning Awakenings: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Sleep. 2018;

Yamatsu A, Yamashita Y, Maru I, Yang J, Tatsuzaki J, Kim M. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2015;61(2):182-7.

Held K, Antonijevic IA, Künzel H, et al. Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002;35(4):135-43.

Kim S, Jo K, Hong KB, Han SH, Suh HJ. GABA and l-theanine mixture decreases sleep latency and improves NREM sleep. Pharm Biol. 2019;57(1):65-73.

Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Monteferrario F, Antoniello N, Manni R, Klersy C. The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(1):82-90.

About the Author

Mark Sisson is the founder of Mark’s Daily Apple, godfather to the Primal food and lifestyle movement, and the New York Times bestselling author of The Keto Reset Diet. His latest book is Keto for Life, where he discusses how he combines the keto diet with a Primal lifestyle for optimal health and longevity. Mark is the author of numerous other books as well, including The Primal Blueprint, which was credited with turbocharging the growth of the primal/paleo movement back in 2009. After spending three decades researching and educating folks on why food is the key component to achieving and maintaining optimal wellness, Mark launched Primal Kitchen, a real-food company that creates Primal/paleo, keto, and Whole30-friendly kitchen staples.

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32 thoughts on “10 Natural Sleep Aids: What Works and Why”

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  1. GABA gave me stomach ache. CBD oil makes me a bit jittery. You forgot the most important substance of all: Tryphtophane.

  2. Lavender essential oil. My friend has had sleep trouble as long as I have known her – about 25 years. I got her some lavender essential oil and she started sleeping well.

    1. I rub a few drops on my forehead, temples and back of neck before I go to bed. Maybe it’s a placebo but it does seem to help!

  3. Man-oh-man … the number of hours I’ve spent researching this important subject. Excellent suggestions as always from Mr. Sisson. As we get older we do not produce as much melatonin, I take a very low dose EXTENDED RELEASE (which is important IMHO) capsule every night. About 10% of people get a headache if they take valerian, and unfortunately I fall into that category. I have a low functioning thyroid (which I am slowly but surely improving) and I read that lemon balm should be avoided if you have hypothyroidism, which is a bummer because it’s definitely relaxing.

  4. Thanks for keeping on this subject. I have trouble sleeping and have been working on it for the last 15 years. A little progress here and there but still wake up often and at about 3 AM every day no matter what. I will see if some of these combo’s will work for me. My adrenal gland is so tired of all the stress of life these last 15 years, I’m currently working on healing that. I try to move but even any scheduled exercise will stress this poor body out too much. Frustrating for sure but I’m still willing to try. This has been encouraging to me so, Thanks again!

    1. 2Rae it is FAR FAR more likely you have compromised mitochondria health (something I’m working on improving, I suffer from panic attacks, much better now but in the past I was a basket case). Adrenal gland fatigue is very rare and a “conventional wisdom myth” that is perpetrated by well meaning holistic folks, there are articles on pubmed indicating it is not a real diagnosis of anything. Even under extreme stress our adrenal gland does not suffer appreciable loss of function, it’s our mitochondria that take a beating. Look at ways to use hormesis to improve mitochondria health (such as hot and cold temperature exposure, deep breathing), that’s what I’m doing and it makes a huge difference. Note that some of the “adrenal gland fatigue” suggestions DO overlap with steps to take to improve mitochondria health, such as the use of adaptogens.

      1. Thank you HH. That could very well be the issue. I live and operate in an environment that is a natural fit for “hot/cold” exposure. Living in northwestern Oregon we have plenty of opportunity, or should I say, cannot escape the exposure to hot and cold. I heat my bathroom up to 80+ in the mornings and then am exposed to very cool to very cold temperatures on my way to work. So far I’ve noticed my body will have a hypothermic type of reaction and if I’m not careful I will pass out from the cold, that’s getting worse. My office is usually 72 degrees, if it drops below I have to put a coat on to keep working. I will do more research on mitochondria health and see if there is something more I can learn. Other than a few little irritating things like lack of sleep and freezing here and there, being an old lady is ok. I am for the most part healthy and don’t get sick much at all. Much of what I’ve changed in my life has helped in the stress area thankfully.

  5. Nice list, I’d add kava to it. It seems to have a relaxing effect, even on my tendency to twitch at night. When I don’t grind my teeth, I wake up less tired, having wasted less energy in the night. That’s the effect on me, anyway.

    Melatonin is overrated imo. My husband’s family has a genetic bad reaction to it and it has almost zero effect on me, even at the 30 MG level. No-yawn.

    When I was in agony because I didn’t realize you could get full body pain from Celiac, I had gone to a pain center where they gave me an evil drug that was an SNRI or something. The norepinephrine lowering (or is it raising?) effect worked perfect. I’m suspicious I have an adrenal nodule.

    At this point I’m averse to having someone tell me once again that the tests say nothing’s wrong, so I haven’t brought it up to my doctor yet. This may sound macabre, but I’m hoping I’ll faint or something and they’ll discover it in the hospital and it will save me a month of arguing with doctors over whether or not I’m making it up all in my own head. Honestly a broken nose would be less agony.

    Or maybe I’m just grouchy because I can’t sleep?

    1. Melatonin doesn’t do much for me either, unless I’m traveling across multiple time zones, then it helps a bit.

  6. My sleep improved when I began mouth taping. I am a mouth breather at night and dry mouth and snoring was a part of my bad sleep. Just a bit of medical tape from the drug store keeps my mouth closed and I breathe from my nose. Google the benefits of mouth taping. There are even strips that are specially made for this. Of course your sinuses and nasal passages can’t be clogged. Keto helped that first :but believe me, I sleep much better.

    1. About a month of mouth taping cured a snoring habit I had developed. Don’t seem to need it any more, at least according to my wife, hah. Mouth breathing is bad in general outside of moderate to intense exercise.

      Last month my wife and I started going to bed 30-60 minutes earlier than we had been and meditating in bed instead of watching TV. We’re sleeping dramatically better.

  7. Taking magnesium glycinate helped me sleep better as did changing shifts. I have the night owl gene and never could get enough sleep when working first shift. 2nd shift would be ideal, but I still saw improvement switching to 3rd shift.

  8. Another one for sleep is Passionflower. Helps me sometimes, but not always. The best combination I’ve found is GABA and L-Theanine in a supplement called ZenMind. Seems to work for me the majority of the time. I also take magnesium before bed. I need all the help I can get 🙂

  9. Super informative!! I feel like everyone struggles with sleep at some point in their life, and it’s no joke. Sleep impacts so many bodily functions, so it should be taken more seriously. These tips are a great start.

  10. * 4.5 grams of glycine doubles my Deep Sleep on most nights. It is the most effective supplement I can think of. *
    Just think of the benefits over 10 years.

    Now if everyone knows what downsides there could be and if totally annihilates the benefits of my 12-13 hours of evening-night fast.

    Ashwagandha + L-Theanine is very good if falling asleep is your problem. (Took this advice from a NFL trainer)

  11. I don’t think we should be drinking teas grown in ‘Shady Conditions’…
    all kidding aside, magnesium works well for me until about after 5pm, and then it wires me up and I can’t sleep.

  12. I recently started drinking a big glass of Gerolsteiner in the evening and suddenly started sleeping like a champ. Magnesium, I guess?

  13. Full red wine contains melatonin (and also resveratrol and up to 11 types of probiotic strains). Carbs help you sleep through more serotonin production. Tyrosine acts as a precursor for GABA and might be better than GABA itself since it can’t pass effectively through brain blood barrier. Also chamomile tea/extract is often mentioned for better sleep. Good night!

  14. I remember Mark saying before that chicken fat seems to induce sleep. I was thinking of that the other night while having chicken gravy on chicken + pork “lunchmeat” and beef stock + pork gelatin consommé. It was getting late but that meal did seem to somewhat sedate me. I love gravies and broths and such.

    1. I tried taking a bunch of valerian capsules to see if it would help me sleep and it didn’t seem to do anything.
      Don’t take a month’s worth of melatonin at once. I tried that too, ignoring the “may cause nausea” warning and was suffering and dry-heaving through much of the next day.
      First comment I was still working through the post; I read on and after seeing “-xanthin” now I want salmon. I’ve got some cans of it but I’m trying to ration them.
      I haven’t been getting enough quality sleep and I had to wake myself up today with some espresso-strength instant coffee. Otherwise I haven’t consumed anything but a bit of plain water.
      However, tonight I plan on using some cannabis and BBQing and feasting on a bunch of ribs and then probably continuing to read One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, so I’ll see how much that’ll facilitate my winding down process. Often a nice big dinner and reading helps me relax at night.
      I lost sleep two nights ago because I had a raccoon under siege in a tree and wouldn’t let it down for a while even though I wanted to sleep. It came practically right up to me and tried to bluff me out of my campsite with growls so it could steal my food. I chased it up the tree and then I tried to shake the branch it was on enough to make it fall but that wasn’t really possible because I would have had to climb out dangerously far.

  15. I’m a 61 yo female. A leisurely walk after dinner, plus a magnesium/potassium supplement and a cbd capsule at bedtime really does it for me.

  16. Valerian root is the holy grail for deep, satisfying sleep, as far as I a concerned. I take the Sleep Aid supplement from Phi Naturals and my sleep is always top notch. It’s particularly helpful if I’ve had a few drinks or if I had caffeine too late in the day. I also like to take l-tryptophan in conjunction and sometimes also a nighttime amino acid supplement. I need good sleep or I am useless the next day.

    I saw a comment about lavender EO. You need to be careful with EOs and Lavender in particular. Some of the substances in EOs are estrogen mimickers and can cause a lot of issues for people like me with hormone imbalances (often caused from taking birth control, which I did before I knew better).

  17. please research Phenibut. it is basically GABA that is capable of crossing the brain blood barrier. it is still sold as a supplement but I doubt that will be the case in the coming years. it has a clear and profound effect on most people that uses it.

  18. Hi Mark,

    I really appreciate the research that goes into your work and the range of topics you cover.

    One criticism I would like you to address is the supplements. Grok would have eaten a wide variety of foods that would include some herbal elements (probably for flavour more than a pharmaceutical effect) and you are big on diet, yet you promote a lot of supplementation (including your own brand). Is there a reason that you don’t stick to a “natural” diet but also supplement which seems a reductionist/anti-paleo way of doing things. It is a method that seems to go against the philosophy you espouse (which I generally love).


  19. Google “sleep restriction therapy” – Ive had issues waking up in the middle of the night for 5 or 6 years, and this technique seems to be working for me. The first 2 weeks are difficult, but the payoff is worth it