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Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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July 07, 2008

Dear Mark: Primal Compromises for Athletes

By Mark Sisson
88 Comments

I’ve been getting a slew of emails lately from marathon runners and other endurance athletes among our group, many in response to our 30-Day Primal Health Challenge. Questions have run the gamut but generally get at how to combine endurance training and Primal Blueprint methodology:

How do I combine a low carb diet with marathon training? (Hint: you generally can’t)

What would you recommend for carb refueling post-race?

Can I even do the PB challenge if I have to adapt the diet for training purposes?

As most of you know, I can relate to these folks’ stories. Elite athletes, commonly seen as the epitome of health, actually face pretty strenuous challenges balancing the moderation required for wellness and the extreme demands of their sport. My own marathon years were among the best of my life, but the physical strain and progressive damage of my training – and the diet – eventually resulted in my serious change of heart and lifestyle (as well as the origination of my Primal Blueprint philosophy).

As I’ve said in the past, the Primal Blueprint is an overarching, synergistic design for living that encompasses all the major aspects of basic health: diet, exercise, sleep, and stress management. Optimum well-being results from healthy practices in each area. Our genes literally want us to be healthy, so we look for behaviors that support that. Nonetheless, many of us choose to make compromises to accommodate various needs/goals we have. While the Primal Blueprint doesn’t encourage or endorse endurance training, I recognize that a number of our readers find fulfillment in that kind of training. I consider it a conscious compromise that people can make as they live out their own adaptation of the Primal Blueprint. Additionally, I appreciate readers’ interest in staying as true to the rest of the PB as possible while they pursue their athletic goals. Modifying one critical aspect of the PB methodology (such as including regular and intensive endurance training) will inevitably change your results. If you eat a hot fudge sundae or only get 5 hours of sleep every day but go 100% primal in every other aspect, the end picture isn’t going to be the same. Nonetheless, the more you can do to maximize your efforts in the other aspects (diet, sleep, stress relief), the more advantage you’ll gain in terms of long-term health and overall well-being. You might even race faster.

Marathon

So, how does an endurance athlete go as “primal as possible”? Here’s my take. When you go for endurance training, you face (among other physical strains) the necessity of increased carb intake and all its negative results (e.g. inflammation, AGEs, impaired immune function, etc.). Myself, I had a half-gallon of ice cream, loaf of bread and cereal habit going to refuel every day for years. At the time, I didn’t see an obvious impact on my performance, but I later realized I was causing long term damage. A better, more Primal approach to a training diet includes meals full of veggies (universal recommendation, yes) as well as the judicious use of fruits and tubers for added “healthier than grains” carb sources. (Of course, your diet should include a hefty supply of protein and natural fats.)

On a PB-style low carb diet, with PB-style low training time, the body makes 200 grams of glycogen each day from fats and protein (and then we figure another 100 or so from your veggies and fruits). That gives you enough glycogen to fuel your brain, cruise through an average day and to be able to do a short hard workout – and then do it again the next day. However, when you train long every day (over an hour), your carb needs will increase. The key is discovering EXACTLY how many additional carb grams you need each day to refuel muscles, but also to keep insulin and fat storage to a minimum. Too few and you won’t recover from day-to-day. Too many and you’ll set yourself up for inflammation and unnecessary weight-gain.

Post Race Beer

Right after a long training session or race, you’re in a critical period for glycogen refueling. That first hour offers the most efficient opportunity for glycogen storage, and it’s fine to refuel initially with simpler (faster uptake) sugars. Take it slow and go for drinks first until you think you can safely move onto solid food. When you’re ready, try some fruits or yogurt with honey to get both carbs and protein in that initial window. As you move past that first hour, tubers and more complex carb sources are good to include. As I tell everyone, try to avoid grain-products as much as possible when increasing carbs. Depending on the length and intensity of your workouts (and races) you’ll need anywhere between 60-100 extra grams of carbs (beyond what we discuss above on a low carb plan) each day per hour of intense endurance work. It’s well worth the trial and error efforts to gauge your personal need and dial it in precisely.

I’d also suggest redirecting your training toward long and slow stuff with occasional fast and intense interspersed. Doing so will allow you to keep building endurance capacity while better “training” your body in fat burning efficiency.

Races or any intensive training session lasting over 90 minutes often call for added carb refueling on the fly, too. Over the years coaching athletes, I’ve found that drinking 10-20 grams of sugars every 15 minutes after the first 60-90 minutes helps keep glucose in the bloodstream and thereby spares muscle glycogen. Any more than that and you run the risk of stomach upset. Once again, sports drinks are probably the most efficient source for carb energy, electrolytes and hydration. Though a piece of fruit might work for borderline training days, eating solid foods during a race generally backfires. Additionally, sport drinks have some advantages over straight juices. There’s a reason these drinks have been around for a while. I’d do some comparison shopping and personal trials to find one you prefer.

Finally, wise (i.e. comprehensive and potent) supplementation is an absolute must. In comparison with the average Joe or Jane, endurance training inevitably depletes the body. You’re doing more than the body was naturally designed to do. Moreover, the amount of oxidation (and free-radical damage) taking place during that time is tens or hundreds of times greater than what you experience at resting metabolic rates. Consequently, your nutrition needs will be higher – especially the need for extra antioxidants. It’s critical you refuel all nutrient stores and take in higher levels of anti-oxidants that can help repair the damage training (in addition to everyday living) causes. (Disclaimer here: that’s why I developed the Damage Control Master Formula, the most impressive collection of antioxidants in any sports recovery formula anywhere in the world).

As always, thanks for your questions, and keep ‘em coming. I’ll look forward to hearing more of your stories and experiences.

Photocapy, lanier67, Trina Ritchie Flickr Photos (CC)

Further Reading:

What Happens to Your Body When… You CARB BINGE?

A Case Against Cardio

Chronic Cardio 1, 2

Sprint for Health

What Happens to Your Body When… You Haven’t Properly Trained for Your Marathon?

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88 Comments on "Dear Mark: Primal Compromises for Athletes"

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Arthur
Arthur
8 years 2 months ago
Another great post. Being a “former” triathlete, I often faced several questions: 1. How much 2. When 3. What kind Of course, this didn’t just refer to carbohydrates. It referred to fat, protein, and above all, micronutrients. I have read that the oxidative stresses on an endurance athlete’s body are much higher due to the increased uptake of oxygen (higher breathing rates during exercise). Mark is right when he says that one must supplement. While I have yet to take the Damage Control master formula – I’m waiting for my current supply of micronutrients to finish first – a broad… Read more »
Justus
Justus
8 years 2 months ago

I’m competing in MTB and have had some success with a modified Paleo diet this year. There’s a book called “The Paleo Diet for Athletes: A Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance” by Joe Friel that I have recently ordered, it will be interesting to read it.
http://www.amazon.com/Paleo-Diet-Athletes-Nutritional-Performance/dp/1594860890/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1215464013&sr=8-1

Al.
Al.
8 years 2 months ago

Justus,

I have read the Paleo diet for athletes. It is in mostly in par with what Mark recommends. The only major diversion I found is that they still eliminate saturated fat while Mark believes it is no taboo.

Branden
8 years 2 months ago
A great post and it helps to confirm what I was expecting and what I am finding while on my primal challenge. You can’t follow the guidelines 100% and expect to be able to train hard every day to race a marathon. After my last 100km run 2 months ago I have been in a hard training cycle in preparation for a marathon at the end of July. Think 2-3 quality sessions per week often exceeding 25 miles total for the day. And while I was progressivly seeing an improvement in my performance and fitness I was quickly slipping into… Read more »
Mark Sisson
8 years 2 months ago

Branden,

Keep us posted on your progress. I will blog on it eventually, but there is a way to adapt fully to a higher fat-burning state. It takes a few months and you have to be willing to go a little slower in your training for a while, but one of my buds just finished a six-month transition and can now hang with his cat 1-2 cycling pals on a 3-4 hour hard ride on a low-carb routine because he’s burning more fats. Exciting stuff.

Arthur
Arthur
8 years 2 months ago
Mark, I agree with you totally and I have taken your advice now. Especially after reading about Mark Allen – I have a feeling you might even know him personally. He kept his training to easy aerobic training for 3/4 of the year before trying to peak for Kona. This ensured that he could efficiently burn fat as a fuel. He capped his heart rate at a low level. I’m trying to do that myself now. As it’s such a huge change, I’m limiting myself to very slow (and at the moment, short) work. Yesterday, for the first time, I… Read more »
markus
markus
8 years 2 months ago
OK – there really isn’t any conclusive science testing the high carb / low carb – endurance athletics stuff but the body does change under a chronic high carb regime for years 20 years of high carb will cause all sorts of changes to glucose and fat cell receptors and metabolic pathways any test of the “neccessity” for carbs in any sporting efforts has to accommodate adjustment capabilities i run distances very well on little or no carbs – but only after a good time adjusting to the diet (making sure i ate enough fat was key) i reckon most… Read more »
Danny J Albers
4 years 2 months ago

There is over 30 years of conclusive testing by Dr. Phinney and Volek, compiled into the Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance, a wonderful read endurance athletes should pay attention to.

Ryan Critchett
3 years 18 days ago
I’m completely with you here. The need for carbohydrates could totally be an evolved need, based not on natural evolution, but on people consuming carbs for fuel for years. Like you said, it changes metabolic machinery. I, myself, am former military, so I still run a moderately (4-7 mile runs, 2-3 times a week) and have found it a lot harder initially to sustain during those runs while transitioning to basically a ketogenic diet, but it’s gotten profoundly easier to use fat for fuel, and consume very little carbs, nearly none, and still maintain endurance and muscle strength during those… Read more »
Arthur
Arthur
8 years 2 months ago
Great point, Markus. When I was training for the Ironman last year, I switched to a grains based and generally high carbo diet. Big mistake. I had been the leanest I had ever been earlier in the season when i was doing base work. At that time, I was about 8% bodyfat, 148 lbs. Lifting weights as well. Then I switched to eating breads and pasta as I got lazy with my nutrition… I didn’t have energy to make proper food. Anyway, I ended up gaining weight before Ironman Florida – ballooned to about 155 lbs. That really sucked. This… Read more »
JDS
JDS
8 years 2 months ago

I’m inclined to agree with Markus…
can you train your body to adjust to running mostly on fatty acids as an athlete? And would that possibly be advantageous?

Arthur
Arthur
8 years 2 months ago

JDS, the answer is a resounding YES.

And for endurance athletes in events lasting longer than 2 hours (when glycogen depletion is of concern), having the ability to metabolize fatty acids for energy will allow you to keep going, when the glycogen-dependent competitor has to slow down.

Branden
8 years 2 months ago
Good points made by all. From my experience I can say that for myself I can run for many hours (longer than marathon distance) in a fasted state with little or no nutrition but for shorter more intense efforts my performance is affected when I am in a low-carb phase. When I am back to training for and running ultras I think I can perform to my optimum when relying on fatty acids for fuel rather than my glycogen stores. Experience I have gained during trail runs longer than 10 hours support this. Yesterday I ran 1 mile short of… Read more »
Brett
8 years 2 months ago
I agree with the above posters. If you give it enough time, it’s fairly easy to adapt to a low carb routine, even while training for endurance sports. I am currently training for my second Ironman, and have found that cutting carbs to veggies and fruit is helping my training, rather than deterring. I have experimented with IF in the past, sometimes running five to 10 miles or swimming an hour in a fasted to state. It doesn’t phase you once you have switched to a fat burning mode. I am convinced that high carb is completely overblown in endurance… Read more »
Huw
8 years 1 month ago
Hi Mark and all commenters, There’s another point about the endurance/carbs issue that I don’t think has been made so far: there is this massive assumption that you need to refuel with preferably simple carbs in the ‘golden sponge window’ of up to c 2hrs after exercise. This is only true if you need to train again soon, and need to train long or hard. Otherwise there is a normalisation process that means that normal eating at normal times will bring your fuel stocks back up again. It’s possible to be a [non-PB] endurance athlete, yet train every other day,… Read more »
Anders
Anders
8 years 23 days ago
Even if posts like this are interesting, they leave me more confused than enlightend. The rather common discussion stating that you need to add carbs to reach a reasonalbe race speed, and then others saying it is more a matter of time and adoption, and that you will get there eventually, and even maintain the good aspects of low carb approach. No bonking etc. My own experience says that I on a PB oriented diet have endurance that is good, or even better, then pre-PB diet. High output power on bike is considerably less. I cannot maintain my VO2max power… Read more »
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[…] regards to the special dietary needs of endurance athletes. Once again, I’m going to defer to Mark Sisson’s recommendations: When you go for endurance training, you face (among other physical strains) the necessity of […]

gary d
7 years 10 months ago
I posted in another place the same info, but I’ll repeat it here “for the record” if it’s ok. I am by no means an elite athlete, but I have been low carbing for 4 years now, and I run and bike “as much as I can” since last summer. My best race so far has been a 19.35 5k. I have been told by other lc’ers as well that you can exercise sans carbs once you get used to it. My experience has been that this is true as long as the exercise is low-intensity. I can run or… Read more »
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[…] usual, Mark Sisson has some great points here about paleo and the needs of athletes. […]

Jillian
Jillian
7 years 8 months ago

What if I don’t have enough fat to really “burn” fat in my endurance running? I am a 5′ 7″ girl who weighs 105 pounds…I NEED TO GAIN WEIGHT to perform how I want to. I am a competitive collegiate distance runner…how do I gain the body fat that I need while still following a healthy diet? I have the worst time trying to eat healthy and gain weight at the same time, as you might imagine. Please offer your advice.

D Ashford
D Ashford
3 years 22 days ago

My husband is a skinny no carb marathon runner. He trains and runs on less than 5 carbs/ day: high fat low protein. This was necessary to reverse insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome and pre diabetes
– memphis

D Ashford
D Ashford
3 years 22 days ago

He must increase his fat intake to not lose weight.
themythicalrun.com

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[…] further in the text (e.g. – experimenting with adding 100g of carbs per hour of training per day), on this site and in a future “Primal” book dedicated to endurance athletes. Herein is my […]

ebrunner
ebrunner
7 years 7 months ago

Anders,

Interesting that your HR reaches high levels (but at a lower power level) on a LC diet – my experience has been the opposite. I can’t seem to get my heart rate up when I’m glycogen depleted (legs just don’t turn fast enough). Besides dead, chronically sore legs, I deal with muscle cramps and pulls.

However, low intensity efforts are no problem (though sometimes I start cramping at the end of my longer runs).

D Ashford
D Ashford
3 years 22 days ago

Muscle cramps can be from low calcium or low potassium or low magnesium…. The low carb electrolyte drinks will replace these… My no carb marathon running husband supplements with all of these vitamins and lite salt ( salt and potassium). Memphis

Anders
Anders
7 years 7 months ago
ebrunner, Glycogen depleted, I fully agree with you. Out of gas, I can’t generate enough output to drive my heart into the high revs. But eating a fairly standard Paleo oriented way, I can go somewhere 0.5 to 1 hour before that happens, and that is during that period I had the issue with heart rate. I did my post five months ago, today I would say that both my power numbers, and my heart rate is back to normal/as before. High, i.e. close to max heart rate, is reached a bit easier than before, but overall everything works perfectly… Read more »
ebrunner
ebrunner
7 years 7 months ago
One thing that still baffles me, though, is that I’ve been keeping my workouts to ~1hr, which falls within Mark’s recommended volume of daily exercise. The difference is that some days, this hour run would include 25-minutes tempo or 12×400. From what I understand, I should still be able to create enough glycogen from fat and protein to fuel this short workout; however, I just can’t seem to generate the intensity. Is this normal, even after a year of PB eating? Another thought: since protein can be converted to glucose, can one simply consume more protein to recover (i.e, eat… Read more »
Mark Sisson
7 years 7 months ago
ebrunner, those workouts may be a bit too intense or long, and glucose-driven to refuel fully each time. I advocate most workouts in the 35 minute range if they are glycogen-dependent. If you work out intensely an hour every day, you won’t be able to refill glycogen stores on a low-carb program…but if you keep your intense stuff generally well under an hour on most dyas, you’ll have the reserves to do the hammer session tempo or 12 x 400 once a week or so. Of course, low level aerobic stuff generally won’t affect this as long as it’s TRULY… Read more »
ebrunner
ebrunner
7 years 7 months ago

Thanks, Mark. Forgive me, but I’m not sure if you mean that I can do 35 minutes of intense running daily, or once/week (both of the sessions I mentioned are under 35 minutes of “real” work).

Low carb or not, 12 x 400 isn’t a workout to do
more than once/week, but what would you suggest I do on the off-days? 35 minutes medium (~80% of VO2max)? 90 minutes slow (60-70%)? For me, a shorter faster run seems like less overall pounding and more fun, but would that hamper recovery too much?

ebrunner
ebrunner
7 years 7 months ago
You know, the more I think about it, the more I realize that the kind of training you are advocating isn’t that far off from the current endurance training recommendations. I think in your marathon days, there was a greater emphasis on steady state runs, but the latest trend seems to be running a high volume at low intensity, with 1-2 true workouts per week. Lance Armstrong is an example of this approach – since he came back from cancer, he emphasized long (5-6+ hour) rides at ~60% of his max HR. Of course, he increased is intensity as he… Read more »
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[…] one day I stumbled across this post on Mark’s Daily Apple, the blog of Mark Sisson.  It opened my eyes to Primal.  Mark, […]

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7 years 4 months ago

[…] usual, Mark Sisson has some great points here about paleo and the needs of […]

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[…] athletes adapt their training and diet regimens to maximize fat burning efficiency. Check out Primal Compromises for Athletes for more on that discussion. As always, thanks for your questions and keep ‘em […]

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[…] Dear Mark: Primal Compromises for Athletes […]

Ben
Ben
6 years 11 months ago
I’m currently training for Navy Officer Candidate School and lets just say the military is a devoted follower of CW. But a balance can be found. I do 3 days of lift heavy things about 45-50 minutes each, 2 days of 50 minute cardio exercises (plyometric jumping and capoeira but I almost think of that as play), 1 day of yoga for flexibility, and on my lifting days I might do a 2 mile run in 14minutes, 6 400m sprints, or just 20 minutes around the track. But I do need to make some compromises. I eat more on lifting… Read more »
kayrock12
kayrock12
6 years 10 months ago

I am so glad my friend told me about this site, the info obtain is awesome!!!! I am a runner distance 1/2 marathons and marathons and also have afib/aflutter. Since i started this my attacks of flutter have significantly decreased. Thanks Mark and my bud Paul for all this info, hope it makes me run faster at disney marathon.

Mark Sisson
6 years 10 months ago

kayrock, ironically (or not) I had dinner last night with one of the world’s most accomplished afib experts, Dr. David Cannom. He is on a mission to show how dangerous “chronic cardio” training can be if not approached appropriately.

kayrock12
kayrock12
6 years 10 months ago

I would love to hear more on this, so far I feel awesome, hardly any afib or flutter(still on meds) and when i do have an episode it is not bad at all. Thanks

Grok
6 years 10 months ago

The comments is this post are pure gold. This one is getting a bookmark.

Green Onion
Green Onion
6 years 8 months ago

I found MDA by Simon Whitfield’s blog – an olympian triathlete. If he’s going by it, it can’t be wrong in my opinion. 🙂

Paige Harrison
Paige Harrison
6 years 8 months ago
I have been training for the LA Marathon for about two months now. I have yet to eat pasta or bread or any other grain (or processed carb) and I feel great. Vegetables, fruit and protein are working really well for me. I am trying to be smart about the training as well….not over-doing it, but putting in the bare minimum of miles to reach the goal. I find this site to be very encouraging, as I have heard many, many criticisms of my diet as a long distance runner. Oh, wait, I do drink wine, I guess that counts… Read more »
D Ashford
D Ashford
3 years 22 days ago

Hang in there! You are not alone! My husband is a no carb marathoner!
You can do this!!!
themythicalrun.com
-memphis

trackback

[…] perpetual state of fatigue, inflammation, and system stress back in my endurance days. I’ve made overtures in the past to PBers who refuse to give up endurance work, and last week a good friend gave his […]

trackback

[…] regards to the special dietary needs of endurance athletes. Once again, I’m going to defer to Mark Sisson’s recommendations: When you go for endurance training, you face (among other physical strains) the necessity of […]

trackback

[…] further in the book (e.g. – experimenting with adding 100g of carbs per hour of training per day), on MarksDailyApple.com and in a future “primal” book dedicated to endurance athletes. Here then is my “Primal […]

fixed gear
6 years 4 months ago
What do you recommend as far a preventing chronic cardio induced MUSCLE LOSS? I don’t purposely endurance train, but I do like to surf. And when it gets good, I can be out there for 2+ hours at a time. As much as I try to keep it a sprint-rest-sprint-rest endeavor, on big days it quickly degrades to a chronic cardio type situation. If I do a long surf like that my strength falls across the board in the gym. I can’t get as many reps on deadlift, pull-ups, anything. I know why, I’m losing muscle, because of the intensity… Read more »
trackback
6 years 3 months ago

[…] further in the book (e.g. – experimenting with adding 100g of carbs per hour of training per day), on MarksDailyApple.com and in a future “primal” book dedicated to endurance athletes. Here then is my “Primal […]

Primal Toad
6 years 3 months ago

I enjoy running in 5K’s which I think fit well within the primal blueprint – its simply around a 20-25 minute run.

I may do a few 10K’s this year but I am not sure on ever doing a 25K as it is just too much and our bodies were not “meant” to run that far for that long.

Sure, I can do a 25K if I run, walk, run, walk…. but would I really do that in a race?

trackback

[…] regards to the special dietary needs of endurance athletes. Once again, I’m going to defer to Mark Sisson’s recommendations: When you go for endurance training, you face (among other physical strains) the necessity of […]

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[…] interested in overall strength, joint health, muscular balance, and general fitness functionality. Athletes need to be able to produce the most power in the safest, most efficient way possible, and that can […]

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[…] are a handful of situations that oblige a few modest accommodations. In the past I’ve suggested Primally-minded adaptations for endurance athletes. Today I’ll take up the question of nursing. Do the long-term, intensive demands of breastfeeding […]

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[…] under Uncategorized Leave a Comment  Great post over at Mark’s Daily Apple about “Primal Compromises for Athletes.” […]

Glenn
Glenn
6 years 11 days ago

Let’s not forget our Primal principles:
We are all the descendants of successful hunters.

Grok would spend a morning stalking an animal. Two or three hours of walking, sprinting, hiding, sprinting again.

Once the animal was killed, he would rip it open and eat the liver raw. That was his “post workout replenishment window”

Jena
Jena
4 years 8 months ago

Oh, I agree!!! I’ve been thinking a lot about the best primal recovery meal and liver is what they would eat…. I’ve just started using liver now as my post training meal. I’m hoping to recover faster and gain a lot more strength than SAD diet people.

Andrei
Andrei
5 years 10 months ago
Hi all, Any wrestlers or judokas/bjjrs on this site? I’m having a hard time sticking to my training regime of twice a day 5 days a week with the primal diet. I have not measured what I eat but I eat something similar to what Mark usually eats. I seem to last a week at training then have a day when I feel completely depleted and feel like I need to load up on rice or a bunch of sports drinks if I need to keep training. Usually I need to take 2 days off because I am completely exhausted.… Read more »
Grok
5 years 10 months ago

Andrei, easy… eat more carbs. You’re going to be glycogen depleted after a 90 minute hard workout. You need them… and you might need a few hundred of them.

Sweet potatoes and yams are approved pretty much across the board. Decent portion of fruit and berries post-workout will get you fueled back up. Very satisfying as well 🙂

Stay away from grains and sports drinks. Those are crap fuel.

If you need a sports drink blend up some dates or bananas with water.

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[…] sweet potatoes. In fact, it’s quite likely that the vast majority of my readers – even the active ones including more carbohydrate in their diets – have never tasted a true yam. The reason for this discrepancy is simple marketing: back in the […]

Jen
Jen
5 years 10 months ago
Hi I am 5 ft 3 inch middle aged woman, who needs to lose weight (weight at present >170lb aaahhh!), but I am also someone who cycles 10 miles a day ( at an easy pace, but uphill all the way home!) commuting to work and walks 10-20 miles with 3+ k feet ascent up mountains at the weekends. I can keep to LC and see weight reduction if I don’t do these activities, but struggle to keep to LC and exercise. Last year I followed a protein sparing modified fast which was basically the same as the low carb… Read more »
Linda
Linda
4 years 11 months ago

I would suggest adding some weight training. You will find you can actually get through it all easier if you add some muscle. Other people can tell you the science but personal experience has been if the cardio portion of your exercise leaves you sore, it is because you have not built up enough muscle to buffer the experience.

Jena
Jena
4 years 8 months ago

Sounds like you may need to eat a lot more fat.

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