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Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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March 11, 2009

Pepper and Salt: Not So Basic After All

By Mark Sisson
20 Comments

I dined at a Sichuan Chinese place recently and was struck by the interesting properties of the dishes. Rather than blasting my mouth with simple, overwhelming spiciness (which I’ve always heard about in Sichuan cooking), the dishes presented a more nuanced, almost narcotic heat. It was definitely spicy, but much more than that – my mouth was tingling and even a bit numb (which I soon realized – after plucking one of the things from my kung pao and chewing it whole – was thanks to the eponymous brand of peppercorn used in the cuisine). The food was delicious and I’d go back in a heart beat, but I left more intrigued with the strange little Sichuan peppercorn than the excellent food. And, like with most things nowadays, I got to thinking about how I could turn this into a Daily Apple post.

Further research showed that the Sichuan peppercorn isn’t even really related to the black, green, and white peppercorns commonly used in Western cooking (it’s actually a dried fruit from a completely different family). Cooking with the Sichuan peppercorn seemed to be a fairly daunting culinary endeavor (one about which I’m not convinced I’m qualified to write definitively). I then remembered a couple recent reader requests for info on Primal salt and figured perhaps a shift of focus to salt and pepper might work out. From tingly tongues to obscure Western Chinese dried fruits to a post about salt and pepper: the journey is always a strange one, fraught with arbitrary stops and random dalliances, but I think the destination proves worthy in the end.

Did Grok use salt? Loren Cordain’s Paleo diet eschews all forms of salt, but I think our ancestors had as much a “salt tooth” as we do. Blood and meat have natural salts, and wild animals certainly seek out natural sources of salt. It’s why pet rabbits need salt licks, and why Japanese macaques soak their vegetables in salt water. Of course, like with honey, though Grok had a taste for salt, access was limited, so we should use moderate amounts. The bottom line, though, is that salt makes things taste great and, as long as we’re controlling the dosage rather than eating sodium-rich pre-packaged swill, using a bit is totally in line with a Primal life. The Primal Blueprint isn’t an exercise in asceticism, remember, and our tastebuds (all five varieties, not just sour and bitter) are there for a reason.

So what kind of salt is best? I’d go with the unprocessed stuff (surprise, surprise): sea salts, mineral salts, and rock salts. These unrefined salts contain tons of minerals, and subtly different flavor profiles and textures. Fleur de sel (hand-harvested French sea salt), for example, varies wildly in taste depending on which beach it comes from. But more than just improved taste and texture, unrefined sea/rock/mineral salts are far healthier than refined table salt and more in line with what Grok would have used. Table salt is pure sodium chloride (sometimes with iodine, too), which is a natural electrolyte. But sea salt contains all four types of electrolytes – sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium – making it better for cavemen on the go.

Fleur de Sel
Don’t cook with this stuff, or else it’ll just dissolve and taste like any basic salt. Use this expensive hand-harvested sea salt to top dishes and finish plates.

Celtic Grey Salt
This actually isn’t sea salt, but rather “pond salt” hauled out of salt ponds. It’s grey because of the clay lining the ponds, and it makes a good table salt, but not in a grinder or shaker – this stuff is moist, so pinch with your fingers.

Himalayan Pink Salt
This unrefined salt is mined in the Himalayas and usually sold in huge chunks with a grater. Grate fresh over salads or other dishes to add a nice pink salty sheen.

Hawaiian Alaea Red Sea Salt
This is actually sea salt mixed with volcanic clay. I’m not sure of any health benefits, but it sounds really cool. This stuff apparently doesn’t melt well, so use it to crust meat.

Smoked Sea Salt
There are several varieties of smoked sea salt, but they all offer the same benefit: an intense, smoky flavor perfect for dry rubs, barbecue, and steaks. This is usually pricy stuff, but a little bit goes a long way.

Pepper varieties are just as extensive. Without even going into the “pepper-like” varieties, you have black, white, green, pink, and red peppercorns to deal with.

Black Peppercorn
Black, white, and green pepper come from the same plant – the piper nigrum. Black peppercorns are derived from the unripe, green, whole fruits of the plant. After a quick soak in hot water, the cell walls are ruptured, causing the peppercorn to darken as it dries. The fruit surrounding the seed turns black and wrinkly after a few days, giving us the classic black peppercorn. Try the Tellicherry variety, from India’s Malabar Coast, for use in anything you’d usually put black pepper in – cheeses, steaks, eggs.

White Peppercorn
White pepper comes from just the seed; ripe peppercorns are soaked until the fruit falls off, and the naked seed is left to dry. Black pepper has a more complex flavor (given that you’re eating the skin and all its components), whereas white pepper is milder, and more aromatic. Use white pepper in lighter dishes (both color and flavor-wise) and seafood.

Green Peppercorn
Green peppercorns are unripe berries freeze-dried or treated with sulfur dioxide. Their flavor is fresh and lively, with a larger bouquet. Can also come brined. Good in sauces and with fish.

Pink/Peruvian Peppercorn
These come from a different plant altogether – the South American Baies rose plant – but they greatly resemble the classic peppercorns, albeit with milder heat and berrylike sweetness. These are apt to be pricey, but they’re perfect for salads and sweet dishes (luckily, we don’t eat too many sweets!).

Cubeb Peppercorn
These are similar to black peppercorns (and they even come from a related tree, the piper cubeba), only more pungent, with a bitterness that goes well with grass-fed meat and wild game. It’s also used in Moroccan cooking.

As for whether or not Grok used pepper, he probably generally did not. Black peppercorns are native to South India, so the stuff wasn’t available to Groks the world over. But that’s not to say it runs contrary to the Primal Blueprint; it enhances food with no nutritional detriment, making it the perfect addition to any Primal pantry. Just be sure to buy whole peppercorns and grind them yourself as needed (pepper, once ground, loses potency and flavor within a month or so).

I hope I’ve enlightened, rather than confused you. Now get out there and buy some sea salt and peppercorns!

Brett Arnett, niznoz Flickr Photo (CC)

Further Reading:

A Visual Guide to Peppers

10 Ingredients that Will Make Your Meals Pop

The Truth on Truvia

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20 Comments on "Pepper and Salt: Not So Basic After All"

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Son of Grok
8 years 6 months ago

Who hasn’t tasted their own sweat and enjoyed the little tinge of salt? Or maybe I am really weird. I think Grok would have had some access to salt as well. Salt rock is actually quite tasty to just lick… Grok near the ocean would have been exposed to the saltiness of the sea via fish, clams, sea vegetables etc. I don’t think the ingesting of salt is a new phenomina by any means. Of course.. that is just speculation on my part. Thank you again for answering my question about salt and iodine as well Mark!

The SoG

Christine
Christine
8 years 6 months ago

I read an article not to long ago at Natural News about he benefits of adding pepper to your food. It was information pulled from a study that showed nutrient absorption from foods was increased by like 200% when you added pepperine, which comes from piper nigrum. Since then I’ve felt more justified in the load of pepper I love in my food.

emergefit
8 years 6 months ago

Three words; Portugese Sea Salt.

Shannon
8 years 6 months ago

We like Real Salt in our home. It has many of the same properties as Celtic Sea Salt, but is much more affordable.

David Chambers
David Chambers
8 years 6 months ago

I discovered Sichuan pepper with this recipe for “Szechuan-Crusted Flat Iron with Pico de Gallo” – it’s in the pdf (page 6) at

http://www.wilsoncreekwinery.com/App_Images/PDFs/issue_43_200808_200809.pdf

The recommended wine pairing (Montvedre) was spectacular – the first time I’d tried that variety. I went right out and bought a big bag of Sichuan peppercorns from Penzey’s Spices – a great source of bulk spices.

Tara
8 years 6 months ago

I used some smoked sea salt last night for marinating and grilling smelt! Mmmm. I just bought some grey salt too, but havent tried it yet.

I would love to try the Himalayan Pink and the Hawaiian Red… anyone have any inexpenxive resources?!

Tara
8 years 6 months ago

Oh and speaking of salt: Mark what do you think the ideal iodine consumption should be? Apparently a lot of Americans are deficient. Ive been looking into it but would like your opinion. Gonna go eat seaweed now…

Spring Girl
8 years 6 months ago

That’s awesome, thanks Mark. We were actually discussing the nutritional value of pepper at dinner last night. I feel enlightened!

Kristina
Kristina
8 years 6 months ago

My Ex always use to tell me to hold back on the pepper because he heard it causing infertility!!! Ha ha, I shall be copy and pasting this link to him – and shaking my pepper on my dinner in glee!!! THANK-YOU!!!

Rick Strong
8 years 6 months ago

Here in NE Ohio, goiter was very common early in the 20th Century due to the lack of iodine in our glaciated soils. So, here at least, it is important to get some iodine and iodized salt is the easiest way to do it for most folks. some of our stores carry a variety of Haines sea salt which is iodized.

Son of Grok
8 years 6 months ago

Rick and Tara,
What rick says about the Midwest is true and is actually the reason we have idoized salt. It may be the easiest way for people to get idodine but i don’t think it is the best. I recently emailed Mark about wether I needed idodized salt or not because iodized salt (even sea salt) usually comes with other chemicals and anti-caking agents too. I get a lot of iodine from sources like sea vegetables so I don’t really need the crap in iodized salt… I prefer to stick to straight sea salt myself.

The SoG

daniel
daniel
8 years 6 months ago

Warning about Himalayan Pink Salt

I would be were skepitcal towards Himalayan Pink Salt to be could for ones health se link.

http://naturalhealthnews.blogspot.com/2008/01/salt-may-be-health-scam.html#links

Tara
8 years 6 months ago

Rick & SoG I know all about it! I live in OH. I dont use iodized salt. I have been looking into iodine suplementation since a few people I know have developed thyroid disorders. I eat seaweed but not everyday, so I would like a supplement.

Trinkwasser
Trinkwasser
8 years 6 months ago

A friend who usually knows whereof he writes

http://www.phlaunt.com/quentin/

recommends black pepper with turmeric, the piperine and curcumin have a synergistic effect

(had some tonight in a chicken stir fry)

Alex
Alex
8 years 6 months ago

A good natural rock salt is RealSalt from Redmond, Utah. Its fluoride content is only 12.6 PPM

gmi
gmi
7 years 6 months ago

pink peppercorns purchased in the USA (including those in mixed pepper blends) are usually from Schinus molle or S. terebinthefolius). These plants are in the poison ivy family (as are mango, cashew, pistachio), thus some people may have an allergic reaction to them if they are sensitive (similar to the reaction some get from mango skins). Pink peppercorns may also be from the Baies rose plant (Euonymus phellomanus, unrelated to poison ivy), but these are less commonly seen…

Alex
Alex
6 years 10 months ago

What about Kosher salt?

Eagle006
Eagle006
3 years 1 month ago

In my opinion, the best salt bar none is Maldon Sea Salt, made in the UK. It has a unique flavour unlike any other.

http://www.maldonsalt.co.uk/

It’s hard to get in North America, but worth tracking down or having shipped over if you have friends in Blighty.

HLM
HLM
2 years 6 months ago

So what kind of salt would best to cook my veggies in – as in sauteing and roasting? I was using Celtic Grey Salt…but just read that is more of a table salt. Most of the other salts listed are to be used fresh or for meat….what’s best for cooking veggies?

Diane
Diane
2 years 5 months ago

I haven’t read all the comments but I just wanted to check that when you say “our tastebuds (all five varieties, not just sour and bitter)” you are realising that all our tastebuds taste and the tongue tastebud map is no more (even though it is still printed in some text books.
http://www.livescience.com/7113-tongue-map-tasteless-myth-debunked.html

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