Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
16 May

Nuts and Phytic Acid: Should You Be Concerned?

nuts3Who doesn’t like nuts? They’re crunchy, fatty, nutritious, and convenient. They travel well. Tossing them into the air and catching them with your mouth is a fun way to impress any onlookers (this effect is enhanced if you sit in a chair backward at the same time). They even turn into butter. Nuts are the common bond between all dietary sects, it seems. Vegans love them for the protein. Ancestral eaters accept them, some begrudgingly. Weston A. Pricers have to soak, sprout, dehydrate, and ferment them before they’ll even consider eating nuts, but in the end, they love them. Mainstream healthy dieters dig their “healthy fats.” Epidemiologists, squirrels, and birds laud them. They’re self-contained little morsels of instant edibility, good raw and roasted alike. What’s not to like?

Well, there’s the phytic acid. Wait – isn’t that the stuff you find in grains and legumes? Yes. Should we be concerned? Let’s take a look…

Hi Mark,

I was hoping to get your take on phytic acid in nuts. If nuts are so good for us, and beans and grains so bad, but all three contain a good amount of phytic acid, what’s the deal?

I like nuts. I guess what I’m really asking is: can I still eat them?

Thanks,

Cindy

Yes, it’s true. Nuts contain a lot of phytic acid, AKA phytate, AKA IP-6, AKA the storage form of a plant’s phosphorus, and antioxidant to the seed in times of oxidative stress (PDF). When something that contains it is eaten, phytic acid binds to minerals like zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, chromium, and manganese in the gastrointestinal tract, unless it’s reduced or nullified by soaking, sprouting, and/or fermentation. Bound minerals generally cannot be absorbed in the intestine, and too many bound minerals can lead to mineral deficiencies. Animals who produce phytase – the enzyme that breaks down phytate – can thrive on phytate-rich foods. Rats, for example, produce ample amounts of phytase and can handle more dietary phytate without exhibiting signs of mineral deficiencies. Since humans produce around 30 times less phytase than rats, phytate-heavy diets might be problematic for humans.

By dry weight, nuts generally contain more phytic acid than similar amounts of grains and legumes. If you don’t believe me, take a look at this table, pulled from Chris Kresser’s excellent article on phytic acid in nuts:

In milligrams per 100 grams of dry weight

Brazil nuts    1719
Cocoa powder    1684-1796
Oat flakes    1174
Almond    1138 – 1400
Walnut    982
Peanut roasted    952
Brown rice    840-990
Peanut ungerminated    821
Lentils    779
Peanut germinated    610
Hazelnuts    648 – 1000
Wild rice flour    634 – 752.5
Yam meal    637
Refried beans    622
Corn tortillas    448
Coconut    357
Corn    367
Entire coconut meat    270
White flour    258
White flour tortillas    123
Polished rice    11.5 – 66
Strawberries    12

So, 100 grams of almonds has between 1138 and 1400 mg of phytic acid. Walnuts have 982 mg, and 100 grams of Brazil nuts tops the list with over 1700 mg!

Meanwhile, 100 grams of brown rice has between 840 and 990 mg, lentils have 779 mg per 100 grams, and oats contain just over 1100 milligrams.

So what’s the deal? Why do nuts get a pass, while grains and legumes get condemned?

First of all, grains and legumes are generally seen as dietary staples. They form the foundation of meals. People don’t have a “small handful” of refried pinto beans (and not just because that’s an incredibly messy way to eat them) or “one or two” grains of brown rice. They eat plates of this stuff, they rely on them for protein and calories, and sure enough, cultures whose diets are based on (improperly prepared) grains and legumes often suffer the symptoms of widespread mineral deficiencies, like nutritional rickets.

Nuts, on the other hand, are an adornment to a meal or a snack in between. A condiment. They are not meals themselves. And though I hear stories of people going Primal and subsequently going crazy with nuts, eating almond flour bread with every meal and downing a pound of pecans each day, I just don’t see it. I could be mistaken, of course. If I am wrong, and you guys are indeed eating large quantities of phytate-rich nuts every day, don’t do that. Keep it to about a handful (which is between one and two ounces, depending on the hand) per day. But my general sense is that people aren’t eating copious amounts of nuts. They’re eating some nuts in between meals, on those days when they just need a snack. They’re making almond meal pancakes once or twice a month (cause let’s face it – they’re kind of a drag to make and clean up after).

It’s quite telling that all the studies looking at the effect of phytate on mineral bioavailability focus on grains and legumes, not nuts, because grains and legumes are what people are actually eating and relying on for nutrients. In 2007, the average American ate 610 grain calories and just 89 nut calories per day. I strongly suspect those numbers would look a little different for a Primal eater, but my point stands: you don’t see any studies examining the effect of almond intake on mineral bioavailability because nobody’s relying on almonds for their nutrition.

Second, those figures are for “phytate per 100 grams dry weight.” 100 grams of almonds is a little different than 100 grams of brown rice in the real world, on your plate, and in your mouth. The brown rice is about 362 calories, while the almonds are 575 calories. You’re far more likely to plop 362 calories of brown rice onto a plate and go back for seconds than you are to eat almost an entire cup of almonds in a sitting. 100 grams of rice is a standard meal; 100 grams of almonds is veering out of “snack” and into “meal” territory.

Is there an “ideal” way to eat nuts with respect to the phytic acid content?

Although asking “What would Grok do?” doesn’t give us definitive prescriptions for what we ought to do, it can be a helpful starting point. How would our ancestors have eaten nuts? By the plastic shrinkwrapped pre-shelled and salted bagful? Or by the laboriously gathered and hand-shelled occasional handful? Eating nuts is effortless now, but it wasn’t always like that. Ever crack a macadamia shell by hand? A Brazil nut? An almond? It’s hard work. You’re either trying to break open a rock-hard shell or sifting through fragments of shell and nut to find something edible. If you eat your nuts like you had to gather and shell them yourself – rather than gorging on them by the handful – you won’t be able to consume a significant amount of phytic acid.

If you’re still worried about phytic acid from nuts, you can play around with food timing. In order for phytate to impair absorption, it has to physically come into contact with the minerals in question. Since mineral absorption – or non-absorption caused by phytate chelation – happens in the gastrointestinal tract, that wild and crazy place where masticated and partially digested food particles gather, mingle, and sometimes pair up, keeping the food in your gut away from the phytic acid in your gut by eating the nuts separate from other foods might improve your mineral status. The minerals in the foods with the phytic acid will presumably be affected, but the impact on other sources of minerals should be reduced. Eat your nuts apart from other sources of minerals. Sorry, those Brazil nut-crusted oysters, while delicious, might be a bad idea for zinc absorption.

This is in stark contrast to the way most people eat their phytate. The average person out for Mexican food, who eats grains and legumes with relish, is having four corn tortillas (448 mg phytate) with a small scoop of refried beans (622 mg) and some brown rice to, ya know, be healthy (990 mg). He throws in a few hefty slices of carne asada, but the combined 2060 milligrams of phytic acid for that meal will impact its overall mineral contribution.

The average Primal person, who avoids grains and legumes, has an ounce, or a small handful of almonds as an afternoon snack (350 mg phytate) with a couple Brazil nuts (171 mg) for the selenium. Being snacks, they’re separate from his meals. Being separate from his meals, the antinutrient effect of the phytate on the other minerals is lessened. If he bumped that up to 100 grams of each nut for over 3000 mg of phytate and over 1200 calories, then, yeah, he’d have a phytate problem (and an omega-6 problem). But he’s not doing that.

Unless you’re a Hadza, you shouldn’t be relying on nuts for the bulk of your nutrients and calories. And that’s the important thing: you don’t have to, nor are you compelled to, because the Primal eating plan is an overall nutritious one, full of mineral-rich vegetation, animals, and yes, the occasional handful of nuts. You’re not relying on plant foods for your zinc – you’re eating shellfish and beef and lamb for the far-more-bioavailable animal-based zinc. According to the evidence I was able to find, phytic acid simply isn’t a major concern in the context of a nutritious diet, especially one that contains ample amounts of  animal-based minerals and protein.

Besides, you wouldn’t want to completely eliminate phytate from your diet, even if it were possible. There are a number of possible beneficial health effects of a moderate amount of phytic acid which I’d be remiss if I didn’t mention, like:

So to answer your final question, yes, I’d say you can definitely eat and enjoy nuts in moderation, an ounce or two (especially soaked) as long as you’re eating an otherwise nutrient-dense diet.

Which you are, right?

Thanks for reading, everyone. Be sure to leave your thoughts in the comment section.

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. I’ve found that if I use nuts as a snack or drink nut milk – I feel like I’m starving to death and no matter how much I eat I never feel full. I used to eat a lot of nuts, until we went away for a few days and I didn’t take any nuts – I wasn’t hungry or “snacky” while gone. So I guess they don’t really work for me. At home I usually snack on some leftover meat, vegetables or just don’t snack.

    Tanya wrote on May 16th, 2012
  2. Adding 10 macadamia nuts as a snack sometime during the day every day has been both a great way to help me control hunger and I believe is responsible (along with some primal eating) for lowering my cholesterol naturally these last few months!

    Chance Bunger wrote on May 16th, 2012
  3. Mark, what’s the content of macadamia nuts?

    Miguel wrote on May 16th, 2012
  4. Should we drink unsweetened coconut milk as opposed to unsweetened almond milk?

    lynn thiessen wrote on May 16th, 2012
  5. Good article, I think we do tend to worry way to much sometimes. However I was wondering why you did not mention the soaking and dehydrating as a good option, for those who consume more nuts and seeds than others. You mentioned the weston a price ers briefly but, not as a viable option. I think its a good way to bridge the gap.

    Katie wrote on May 16th, 2012
  6. I’m glad Mark addresses this issue – I read Chris Kesser’s take on nuts and thought “Oh, crap, more contradictory diet info!” Seriously, there are SO many published paleo recipes that call for nuts, nut flours, nut butters, etc. (including Mark’s own recipe book) that it is not unreasonable for folks to be misled.

    I think moving forward, and in future editions of Mark Sisson books and blog content, this nut-phytate issue should be clearly addressed. Truly, incorporating the best available information into publications is the way to go.

    Kudos for accepting the new info and not getting hung up on ego!! The Paleo community will benefit! :)

    AmyC wrote on May 16th, 2012
  7. There a bunch of inconsistency in this article about the use of grains, just look at the Mexicans way of living, the Chinese, Japanese, etc. as far as I know there is not a mass problem in demineralization in those cultures… be careful with conclusions without reasoning…

    Luis wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • It took about 3 seconds to find this reference Luis. I would be careful about making sweeping generalised statements before you had thoroughly researched them yourself.

      Brad wrote on May 16th, 2012
  8. My head is falling into my hands at my desk right now!! I eat WAY more than a handful of nuts each day. Heck I have a nut dispenser on my counter top! I also eat nut butters and use almond flour in tons of Paleo recipes. Gonna have to rethink things!!

    Danna Seevers wrote on May 16th, 2012
  9. I posted this on another article and wanted to post here too, because I haven’t really gotten any feedback:

    I’m so confused about soaking cashews. I’ve heard no more than 2 hours, and I’ve heard no more than 7. I’ve heard you need warm water, and I’ve heard that overnight in the fridge is fine. And I was pretty sure about using salt, until I saw this from the FAQ at http://www.westonaprice.org:

    Q. When soaking nuts, why is the salt needed?

    A. The salt helps activate enzymes that de-activate the enzyme inhibitors. For grains, we soak in an acidic solution to get rid of phytic acid. Nuts do not contain much phytic acid but do contain high levels of enzyme inhibitors. The method imitates the way the native peoples in Central America treated their nuts and seeds–by soaking them in seawater and then dehydrating them.

    If the problem with cashews is the phytic acid, should we soak in an acidic solution? Would an acid AND salt work?? I’d love some speculation on this subject, even if there are no definitive answers. Nuts aren’t always fantastic in smoothies, but cashews are amazing, so I’d love to figure out how to make them healthy (:

    Read more: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/is-it-primal-8-foods-scrutinized/#ixzz1v4aezZFz

    Alyssa wrote on May 16th, 2012
  10. I have 2 questions:

    #1 – Why can’t we eat peanuts? I understand that they are legumes, but I personally eat them the same way that is recommended here for nuts (a few at a time, not very often, not with other foods). So, why is it that peanuts are bad when eaten like this but brazil nuts, etc. are okay?

    #2 – Are the nuts purchased at a fruit and vegetable stand raw? Are they pasteurized? They are not cooked and are in the shells. The ones that
    I buy are a mix of walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts.

    Sorry for the rather asinine questions. I’m new to the whole Primal Eating thing!

    Mike

    mhynson wrote on May 16th, 2012
  11. OH no :(
    I eat nuts and seed with oil as a lunch time meal and then raw veggies with meat at night, if I cut out nuts I will not be eating much at all!!!

    I usually eat several raw almonds, several half walnuts, 4 brazil nuts and a handful of macademias daily with seeds and oil..

    natalie wrote on May 16th, 2012
  12. I have a hypothesis that has been circling around my head for months now…

    A few months after I started eating, in my own words, “the healthiest I’ve ever eaten”, I started to get severe acne. At that time, eating healthy to me meant eating something along the lines of a conventional healthy diet, which included “healthy fats” (i.e. almonds), brown rice, beans, various kinds of meat, fish oil supplements, and a multivitamin. I have always been slim and I exercised regularly. I tried to understand what was causing my acne, which meant going to more than one doctor and getting tested for any hormonal issues, which always came up negative.

    Still suffering from pretty bad acne, I found information about taking Zinc supplements both on this site (the acne post) and on acne.org. I decided it was pretty low risk and got some capsules. Well, they worked. What I have now is very mild compared to what I had before. I noticed a difference in a week, which is something I hadn’t noticed with anything else I’d tried before. After reading this article, I am again wondering if it wasn’t a coincidence that I was eating “healthy” and that I got very bad acne. Could I have caused some kind of deficiency or allergic reaction in my attempt to eat foods that were supposed to be good for me? Probably. So here’s my take:

    Nutrition is extremely complicated and we are only beginning to understand its complex interaction with the human body. Reading that food X is good for you and then loading up on said food can backfire. It is entirely possible that food X was good in the population scientists studied only because it was prepared a certain way, or because it was combined with food Y, which neutralized its deleterious effects. Reasoning something along these lines I think can lead you down dangerous paths:

    “Well, population A is healthy, and population A eats a lot of B, and B has nutrient C, so eating a lot of things with C will be good for me.”

    My 2 cents? Moderation is key.

    Megan wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • I don’t even know what “moderation” means. “Balance” is probably a better word, but NOT in the current mainstream sense of “balanced diet” where you get X number of foods from group A and Y number of foods from group B. More like, “Eat more of the foods that contribute to your health than the foods that take away from it.” Unfortunately you’re not going to get a straight answer about that from the modern so-called food “culture.”

      Dana wrote on May 16th, 2012
  13. I don’t know man. I find it very hard to get enough calories from meat, veggies and some fruit. Thus nuts are a great way for me to get more calories.

    I have at times eaten upwards of 1/2-1c nuts per day for their calories. I’ve tried to cut back partly due to the reasons listed above.

    So, some people may get a lot, but in the end you’re right. I doubt many people are going crazy on eating too many nuts, after all most Amercians still fear them a little because their “fatty”

    Mark wrote on May 16th, 2012
  14. I would be interested to hear your views on this paper that I just read (flagged by Seth Roberts)suggesting that IP6 is actually a good guy with many characteristics of a vitamin. This paper suggests that phytate has potent anticancer potential through it’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-enhancing activities.

    Katy wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • IP-6 has some interesting info n relation to cancer, at least in dogs. When I was researching about our dog with cancer I ran across some good info on it.

      Mark wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • FYI, they’re trying to develop phytic acid into an anticancer drug. I’m very, very leery about any purported benefits they may be trumpeting. They say that about every drug they try to develop, and then we find out too late it was all smoke and mirrors and people are getting hurt or worse.

      Dana wrote on May 16th, 2012
  15. Great post…I’ve been taking 2-3 Brazil nuts a day for the selenium. My dad is eating them for the same reason, but by the bowlful. Hopefully he’ll cut back after he finds this article in his inbox. Also interesting to see the phytic acid difference between brown and white rice: it’s just astonishing.

    Daniel wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • I would maybe mention to your dad the potency of Brazil nuts. If he’s eating 10 Brazil nuts a day, he’s getting 1369.3% (958.5 mcg) RDA of selenium, which is not good being that the UL is 400 mcg.

      Kev wrote on May 17th, 2012
  16. Up that amount as nut butters are also part of my diet.

    Mark wrote on May 16th, 2012
  17. What kind of nuts are these guys eating in the wild?

    http://youtu.be/2N34Fcn3J00

    and how much of their diet is it?

    Ryan wrote on May 16th, 2012
  18. I feel so much better when I nix the nut habit. They can be quite high in copper (displacing zinc), negatively affect my skin, are prone to rancidity depending on the source/PUFA content and send me into a loco nut-munching spiral of calorific despair. Can roll to macadamias. Aussie pride yo.

    Catie wrote on May 16th, 2012
  19. Hi Mark

    I thought the best nuts and your favourite were macadamia nuts

    lara wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • That’s absolutely right, lara.

      Mark Sisson wrote on May 17th, 2012
      • Have you found any reliable information on if macadamia nuts are high/low in phytic acid?

        Would be great to know being that I would like to make macadamia nuts a staple in my diet.

        Kev wrote on May 17th, 2012
  20. Wow, I’m definitely in the minority, I really don’t like nuts. They don’t cause me any discomfort (as far as I know, since I rarely eat them), but they just aren’t satisfying at all to me. The only exception might be macadamia nuts, but only when they’re covered in chocolate, and I only get those for Christmas.

    Jacqui wrote on May 16th, 2012
  21. Mark apparently never met me. I think I am addicted to nuts — no, seriously, I know I overeat nuts. I am lucky if a small jar of almond butter lasts more than two days. A bag of trail mix will be gone in one sitting. I buy those prepackaged Planters mixed nuts, the ones with the macadamias, because the pre-portioned ones have more macadamias than the tins, and I will eat four of those bags in one sitting.

    I want to lean out a little bit, and I know there’s so much anecdotal evidence on this site about how nuts impede weight loss, so maybe I need to go cold turkey and stop eating nuts until I can make them just a snack.

    Deanna wrote on May 16th, 2012
  22. YEY … I’ve given up so much I was hoping I didn’t have to give up nuts as well. I’m a huge fan of walnuts as an in-between snack. Like to think they are nourishing my brain ….
    Thanks for all the incredible information.
    So much to digest (pardon the pun – but this is all very new to me)
    Erica

    Erica Jean wrote on May 16th, 2012
  23. I’m like the rest of the people, If i bring em….its like that movie “gone in 60 seconds” around raw cashew, discipline is not an option.

    Liz wrote on May 16th, 2012
  24. What about Macademia nuts? I could live on them! I am sure I eat too many. They weren’t
    On the list. Thanks!

    SJ wrote on May 16th, 2012
  25. It’s a wonder that the human race has managed to survive as long as it has. Clearly God created every food except maybe raw broccoli and dandelions for the express purpose of killing us. It wasnt just the apple in the Garden of Eden we needed to watch out for, it was every damn thing in it. Or so some of you phytic acid, omega fat counting, mufu-pufa nutters seem to believe. It started back in the 70s with people counting calories and now we’re expected to determine whether our diets have the proper fat ratios, too much phytic acid, too much or the wrong ratio of cholesterol, sodium intake, enough but not too much vitamins and so on. Here’s my philosophy – eat what you’re hungry for and exercise. Forget the rest of the crap. You people arent just driving yourselves crazy, you’ve already arrived.

    Matt wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • What if I’m hungry for three large servings of McDonald’s fries a day?

      (I’m not really. But what if?)

      Dana wrote on May 16th, 2012
  26. You can soak nuts overnight in salty water, so i hear, to reduce the bad stuff. Then roast them. I’ve tried it and the nuts taste just fine after so doing. I’m not sure if it makes them a whole lot better for you.

    dmunro wrote on May 16th, 2012
  27. Good read after I just ate a billion almonds.

    Christie wrote on May 16th, 2012
  28. I’m glad the problems with nuts were finally, clearly articulated. Out of the 20 people I know personally who are trying to eat Primally or Paleo, they all rely heavily on nuts, daily! For snacks, butter in smoothies and on fruit, roasted for crusts, and subbing in daily Paleo muffins and pancakes.
    Nuts seem to be the lynchpin for those struggling with the transition. With nuts, they get to have crunch and salt and baked goods and “bready” things. It is dangerous to assume this community only has a nut or two. From what I see in the real life patterns of people feeling their way along, they rely on a dangerous amount.

    Wenderful wrote on May 16th, 2012
  29. I love nuts. I have eaten almost a whole bag of trail mix in one sitting. The chocolate plus almonds and cashews are like my crack. I just bought some almond butter the other day and am throug the jar.

    But they definitely prevent weight loss and cause gain. Also i noticed that i wasn’t feeling well with too mich nut consumption. I just need to say No to most nuts of all forms. Sad as they seemed healthy and were fun to snack on.

    Jen wrote on May 16th, 2012
  30. Another really well written article. Thank you Mark

    DaveF wrote on May 16th, 2012
  31. Good article. But the point is moderation. Just like a glass or two of wine can be good for you a bottle can be deadly.

    Scott wrote on May 16th, 2012
  32. Somebody told me that it is better to take 5-6 Almonds (Badam) everyday before going to Gym. I advised my son (16years) also to do the same before going for work out. Was my advise wrong?

    Ram wrote on May 16th, 2012
  33. Mark,

    Great blog! I really needed to hear this, because I do eat waaaayyyy too much nuts…simply love them! :(

    Ok I will make sure I don’t have a 10lb bag laying around to snack on.

    Dan wrote on May 17th, 2012
  34. Wow, am I happy to read this post, just the sort of thing I needed to read! I’ve been way overdoing it on nuts…Yesterday alone I had over 1 lb in one sitting!! Thankfully I’m not overweight, but doing this every other day doesn’t seem like such a good idea, either…:P) I think I’ll have to give them up completely for a while to kick the habit! Also, for others in similar shoes, when you eat so much of them, their carb content adds up to a significant amount as well (especially cashews, I think they are the most ‘sugary’ nut there is).

    foxygodzi wrote on May 17th, 2012
  35. Well this was a good article for me to read. I have suffered from low iron (before going gluten free), and I always find info like this really interesting. I have a bit/massive weaknesses for almond butter (used to be peanut) so I try not to buy it as ill eat it in a week! This info will make me think twice! What about coconut flour?

    Victoria wrote on May 17th, 2012
  36. I eat a handfull of nuts every meal. Around 9 to 15 nuts each meal which makes almost a kilo in a week. Would that be to much then?

    Jack wrote on May 17th, 2012
  37. I think we are all massively over thinking this subject. Grok would not have even considered any of the potential health risks be they big or small. He would have thought ‘FOOD’ end of story. Rather than would Grok have eaten this we should more along the lines of HOW would Grok have eaten this. Certainly with the best will in the world I cannot imagine him turning to his family first thing and saying “Does anyone fancy almond pancakes for breakfast?” As a few here have mentioned , Groks family as hunter gatherers would come across nuts occasionally and enjoyed them when they did. If we copy this kind of intake then I don’t see we can go very wrong..

    steve wrote on May 17th, 2012
    • Damn, there goes that delicious cream, port and onion sauce my husband made for last night’s liver.

      Orielwen wrote on May 17th, 2012
    • The question is, how often is occasionally? Once a day, once a month, once a year? Vastly different results.

      Sofie wrote on May 20th, 2012
  38. I use nuts for breakfast (as a topping over my banana and apple honey meal). Is that a bad combination?

    What Mark is saying is that you don’t have to overdue it, but I’m not sure which combinations are not wise.

    Sascha wrote on May 17th, 2012
  39. Ah, but they DO eat multiple handfuls of nuts. Try as I might to put a few grains of something into a recipe, I get yelled at for not being “primal” and trying to poison her…but she’s perfectly fine eating half a jar of nuts!

    Andy wrote on May 17th, 2012
  40. Raw nuts that have been soaked and dried in a dehydrator (no higher than 115 degrees) are amazing. This process neutralizes the enzyme inhibitors naturally found in nuts. You’ll notice the difference right away. And yes, they are a snack not full meals.

    Tara wrote on May 17th, 2012

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