Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
16 May

Nuts and Phytic Acid: Should You Be Concerned?

Who doesn’t like nuts? They’re crunchy, fatty, nutritious, and convenient. They travel well. Tossing them into the air and catching them with your mouth is a fun way to impress any onlookers (this effect is enhanced if you sit in a chair backward at the same time). They even turn into butter. Nuts are the common bond between all dietary sects, it seems. Vegans love them for the protein. Ancestral eaters accept them, some begrudgingly. Weston A. Pricers have to soak, sprout, dehydrate, and ferment them before they’ll even consider eating nuts, but in the end, they love them. Mainstream healthy dieters dig their “healthy fats.” Epidemiologists, squirrels, and birds laud them. They’re self-contained little morsels of instant edibility, good raw and roasted alike. What’s not to like?

Well, there’s the phytic acid. Wait – isn’t that the stuff you find in grains and legumes? Yes. Should we be concerned? Let’s take a look…

Hi Mark,

I was hoping to get your take on phytic acid in nuts. If nuts are so good for us, and beans and grains so bad, but all three contain a good amount of phytic acid, what’s the deal?

I like nuts. I guess what I’m really asking is: can I still eat them?



Yes, it’s true. Nuts contain a lot of phytic acid, AKA phytate, AKA IP-6, AKA the storage form of a plant’s phosphorus, and antioxidant to the seed in times of oxidative stress (PDF). When something that contains it is eaten, phytic acid binds to minerals like zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, chromium, and manganese in the gastrointestinal tract, unless it’s reduced or nullified by soaking, sprouting, and/or fermentation. Bound minerals generally cannot be absorbed in the intestine, and too many bound minerals can lead to mineral deficiencies. Animals who produce phytase – the enzyme that breaks down phytate – can thrive on phytate-rich foods. Rats, for example, produce ample amounts of phytase and can handle more dietary phytate without exhibiting signs of mineral deficiencies. Since humans produce around 30 times less phytase than rats, phytate-heavy diets might be problematic for humans.

By dry weight, nuts generally contain more phytic acid than similar amounts of grains and legumes. If you don’t believe me, take a look at this table, pulled from Chris Kresser’s excellent article on phytic acid in nuts:

In milligrams per 100 grams of dry weight

Brazil nuts    1719
Cocoa powder    1684-1796
Oat flakes    1174
Almond    1138 – 1400
Walnut    982
Peanut roasted    952
Brown rice    840-990
Peanut ungerminated    821
Lentils    779
Peanut germinated    610
Hazelnuts    648 – 1000
Wild rice flour    634 – 752.5
Yam meal    637
Refried beans    622
Corn tortillas    448
Coconut    357
Corn    367
Entire coconut meat    270
White flour    258
White flour tortillas    123
Polished rice    11.5 – 66
Strawberries    12

So, 100 grams of almonds has between 1138 and 1400 mg of phytic acid. Walnuts have 982 mg, and 100 grams of Brazil nuts tops the list with over 1700 mg!

Meanwhile, 100 grams of brown rice has between 840 and 990 mg, lentils have 779 mg per 100 grams, and oats contain just over 1100 milligrams.

So what’s the deal? Why do nuts get a pass, while grains and legumes get condemned?

First of all, grains and legumes are generally seen as dietary staples. They form the foundation of meals. People don’t have a “small handful” of refried pinto beans (and not just because that’s an incredibly messy way to eat them) or “one or two” grains of brown rice. They eat plates of this stuff, they rely on them for protein and calories, and sure enough, cultures whose diets are based on (improperly prepared) grains and legumes often suffer the symptoms of widespread mineral deficiencies, like nutritional rickets.

Nuts, on the other hand, are an adornment to a meal or a snack in between. A condiment. They are not meals themselves. And though I hear stories of people going Primal and subsequently going crazy with nuts, eating almond flour bread with every meal and downing a pound of pecans each day, I just don’t see it. I could be mistaken, of course. If I am wrong, and you guys are indeed eating large quantities of phytate-rich nuts every day, don’t do that. Keep it to about a handful (which is between one and two ounces, depending on the hand) per day. But my general sense is that people aren’t eating copious amounts of nuts. They’re eating some nuts in between meals, on those days when they just need a snack. They’re making almond meal pancakes once or twice a month (cause let’s face it – they’re kind of a drag to make and clean up after).

It’s quite telling that all the studies looking at the effect of phytate on mineral bioavailability focus on grains and legumes, not nuts, because grains and legumes are what people are actually eating and relying on for nutrients. In 2007, the average American ate 610 grain calories and just 89 nut calories per day. I strongly suspect those numbers would look a little different for a Primal eater, but my point stands: you don’t see any studies examining the effect of almond intake on mineral bioavailability because nobody’s relying on almonds for their nutrition.

Second, those figures are for “phytate per 100 grams dry weight.” 100 grams of almonds is a little different than 100 grams of brown rice in the real world, on your plate, and in your mouth. The brown rice is about 362 calories, while the almonds are 575 calories. You’re far more likely to plop 362 calories of brown rice onto a plate and go back for seconds than you are to eat almost an entire cup of almonds in a sitting. 100 grams of rice is a standard meal; 100 grams of almonds is veering out of “snack” and into “meal” territory.

Is there an “ideal” way to eat nuts with respect to the phytic acid content?

Although asking “What would Grok do?” doesn’t give us definitive prescriptions for what we ought to do, it can be a helpful starting point. How would our ancestors have eaten nuts? By the plastic shrinkwrapped pre-shelled and salted bagful? Or by the laboriously gathered and hand-shelled occasional handful? Eating nuts is effortless now, but it wasn’t always like that. Ever crack a macadamia shell by hand? A Brazil nut? An almond? It’s hard work. You’re either trying to break open a rock-hard shell or sifting through fragments of shell and nut to find something edible. If you eat your nuts like you had to gather and shell them yourself – rather than gorging on them by the handful – you won’t be able to consume a significant amount of phytic acid.

If you’re still worried about phytic acid from nuts, you can play around with food timing. In order for phytate to impair absorption, it has to physically come into contact with the minerals in question. Since mineral absorption – or non-absorption caused by phytate chelation – happens in the gastrointestinal tract, that wild and crazy place where masticated and partially digested food particles gather, mingle, and sometimes pair up, keeping the food in your gut away from the phytic acid in your gut by eating the nuts separate from other foods might improve your mineral status. The minerals in the foods with the phytic acid will presumably be affected, but the impact on other sources of minerals should be reduced. Eat your nuts apart from other sources of minerals. Sorry, those Brazil nut-crusted oysters, while delicious, might be a bad idea for zinc absorption.

This is in stark contrast to the way most people eat their phytate. The average person out for Mexican food, who eats grains and legumes with relish, is having four corn tortillas (448 mg phytate) with a small scoop of refried beans (622 mg) and some brown rice to, ya know, be healthy (990 mg). He throws in a few hefty slices of carne asada, but the combined 2060 milligrams of phytic acid for that meal will impact its overall mineral contribution.

The average Primal person, who avoids grains and legumes, has an ounce, or a small handful of almonds as an afternoon snack (350 mg phytate) with a couple Brazil nuts (171 mg) for the selenium. Being snacks, they’re separate from his meals. Being separate from his meals, the antinutrient effect of the phytate on the other minerals is lessened. If he bumped that up to 100 grams of each nut for over 3000 mg of phytate and over 1200 calories, then, yeah, he’d have a phytate problem (and an omega-6 problem). But he’s not doing that.

Unless you’re a Hadza, you shouldn’t be relying on nuts for the bulk of your nutrients and calories. And that’s the important thing: you don’t have to, nor are you compelled to, because the Primal eating plan is an overall nutritious one, full of mineral-rich vegetation, animals, and yes, the occasional handful of nuts. You’re not relying on plant foods for your zinc – you’re eating shellfish and beef and lamb for the far-more-bioavailable animal-based zinc. According to the evidence I was able to find, phytic acid simply isn’t a major concern in the context of a nutritious diet, especially one that contains ample amounts of  animal-based minerals and protein.

Besides, you wouldn’t want to completely eliminate phytate from your diet, even if it were possible. There are a number of possible beneficial health effects of a moderate amount of phytic acid which I’d be remiss if I didn’t mention, like:

So to answer your final question, yes, I’d say you can definitely eat and enjoy nuts in moderation, an ounce or two (especially soaked) as long as you’re eating an otherwise nutrient-dense diet.

Which you are, right?

Thanks for reading, everyone. Be sure to leave your thoughts in the comment section.

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. AWE NUTS! I probably eat too many nuts. They have become a staple snack for me and I eat them almost daily. I have Almonds, Cashews, Walnuts and sometime Macadamia Nuts in my desk at the office. Guess I need to pull back a bit from these. UGH. Good post though! THX

    Scott wrote on May 16th, 2012
  2. I suffered IBS symptoms nearly every day for as long as I can remember and it’s only recently that I realized that nuts are one of the contributing factors. I can’t even eat a tablespoon of them without getting doubling-over intestinal cramps the next day.

    So for me, nuts are categorized right in with grains and legumes, as things with a shell that make my belly hurt.

    Lisa wrote on May 16th, 2012
  3. Great point about actually having to crack/de-shell nuts before eating them. This would also cause you to feel the effects of satiety as you are slowly working to de-shell these balls of butter, as opposed to throwing a handful down your gullet and bypassing the onset of satiety. However, it’s a hell of a lot easier to find de-shelled nuts than shelled varieties these days. I just avoid them altogether…too expensive for the most healthful varieties, aka macs :)

    Rhys wrote on May 16th, 2012
  4. I’m going to have to vehemently disagree with the statement “Nuts are not meals themselves.” Anyone who states this has never had a package of Trader Joe’s Sweet and Spicy Pecans. I could seriously die eating these… and I very well may! :)

    Bizzie wrote on May 16th, 2012
  5. Nuts are so dangerously addictive! Seems to be the case for so many of us. Fresh homemade almond milk I have found a little easier to tolerate. I just posted a recipe for that today.

    Peggy The Primal Parent wrote on May 16th, 2012
  6. Blanched almonds I imagine have negligible amounts of phystc acid. Don’t most of the phytates remain on the skin?

    gian wrote on May 16th, 2012
  7. This is a timely post for me. I LOVE nuts and eat them regularly – probably more than usual since I went primal one month ago. Here is another reason to keep an eye on nut consumption, especially for cold sore sufferers: nuts are high in the amino acid arginine. I picked up that lovely virus on my hand somehow a few years ago. I get a painful recurrence regularly, almost monthly, especially when I don’t take my VERY expensive anti-viral medication. I got one last week (and was out of my medicine), so I started researching whether there is a dietary link to cold sores. As it turns out, a lot of people recommend a diet which is relatively higher in the amino acid lysine and lower in the amino acid arginine. I found this chart which compares the two for those who might also suffer from this lovely virus (nuts are at the wrong end of the chart):
    I have also started a Lysine supplement. It seems to be doing the trick while I wait for my anti-viral meds to arrive in the mail. Funny, my doctor didn’t tell me to watch what I eat – he just prescribed this medicine I’ve paid a ton for over the past several years.

    Melanie wrote on May 16th, 2012
  8. Dear Mark –Thanks for the suggestion of eating nuts separately from meals wherein you’re concentrating on getting your mineral intake (and absorbtion). I am one of those who goes way overboard on the nut butter. Though I am working on reducing the amount I’m consuming, I think that ensuring my mineral intake is high at my regular meals and the nut and nut butter consumed at snack time will help reduce the likelihood of losing the minerals. I hope that’s the case… I’ll stay tuned-in.

    Note: a recent blood test showed normal mineral levels, so even with my moderate-to-high intake, I must be timing it pretty well already.

    norm wrote on May 16th, 2012
  9. Oh my. I just started this way of eatting two weeks ago and have been eating a tin of nuts as I hate to stop and eat and rely on nuts throughout the day for snacking. I also made a great “granola” with nuts and coconut oil roasted in the oven and eat it with whole milk yogurt for breakfast. I have to rethink my menu big time!

    Nina wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • I relied heavily on nuts and nut butters and almond flour when I first started eating this way. I’m only a few months in and am still using them semi-regularly. If I tried to go 100% pure from the start, I never would have made it.
      If you’re just starting out, even eating a lot of nuts is probably a better change from what you were doing a few weeks ago!

      Amy wrote on May 16th, 2012
  10. I think everyone is completely overreacting to eating too many nuts. I live primal for the most part and if I want 2 handfuls I’m not going to sweat it. Interesting article.

    Ray Finkle wrote on May 16th, 2012
  11. Question … I thought that if I include nuts in my salad that it is supposed to help with nutrient absorption … is this not true?

    Clay wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • Olive oil will help with absorption too. Fats in general, really.

      Dana wrote on May 16th, 2012
  12. Great post!!!

    Jeffrey wrote on May 16th, 2012
  13. I eat nuts in a smoothie for breakfast.
    1/2 (small handful) pecan, 1/2 Macadamia Nuts.
    2 table spoons Coconut oil
    15 or 20 blueberries and almond milk as the fluid.

    My question(s) – I don’t see Mac nuts listed? Any comments about them?
    And – soaking them for how long to remove the baddies?

    Jonathan wrote on May 16th, 2012
  14. I’m with the Weston A Price group on this one – soaking the nuts overnight with a little salt eliminates most worries of phytic acid and doesn’t greatly affect the taste, nor does it take much time. Just soak and enjoy, it is the best of both worlds.

    Your point about them essentially being a condiment is spot on, though. If your nut consumption (including butters ndobedient baked goods) is really only an ounce or two per day, no

    Taryl wrote on May 16th, 2012
  15. hmm, I make myself a almond pancake almost every morning for breakfast… perhaps I should soak the almonds first before using them?

    Manja wrote on May 16th, 2012
  16. Almond flours are ridiculous, and akin to vegans eating “meat substitutes”. Almond flour has the skins removed, which is where all the anti-oxidants in almonds are found. Again, almond flour is silly.

    A better alternative, if you can’t give up “grains”, is soaked, sprouted, fermented buckwheat. This eliminates almost all of the phytic acid. The sprouting increases vit c, vit e, beta-carotene.

    Makes good waffles, pizza crust, soft tacos, etc.

    Derek wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • I don’t fuss about antioxidants when I am eating food. I’m more interested in the mineral content of nuts than I am in the antioxidants. My bones will not fall apart without antioxidants, but they will if I don’t get my minerals.

      Nut flour isn’t remotely like fake meat. Flour is a plant-based food; nuts are plant-based foods. Not much of a stretch and if you look to traditional cultures you will find that several of *them* have made nut flours as part of their traditional cuisine. For example, several American Indian cultures used acorn that way.

      Vegan fake meat on the other hand is not at all animal based and is contrived from stuff that has nothing to do with animal foods. Huge difference.

      Dana wrote on May 16th, 2012
  17. How do I tell if almonds are rancid? I buy 3 lb. bags of Member’s Mark California whole almonds (already shelled and not salted) from Sam’s Club but they don’t say on the bag whether they are roasted or pasteurized. They always look and smell fine (very little if any smell). The expiration date is about 6 months out.

    Buddy wrote on May 16th, 2012
  18. Buddy,

    100% of almonds sold in this country, unless bought locally directly from a farmer, are pasteurized either by propylene oxide or steam.

    Both of these processed actually increase some anti-oxidant properties. I haven’t found literature addressing the potential for steam pasteurization to effect the PUFA, but I would think that it would.

    As of 2007, and a couple salmonella outbreaks, all almonds are now pasteurized, but can still be labeled raw.

    Derek wrote on May 16th, 2012
  19. i only buy pistachios in the shell – slows me down.

    more than a handful of nuts makes me feel like i’ve o.d.ed on something.

    dave wrote on May 16th, 2012
  20. I will pass this on to Mr. squirrel who I feed cashews to every day! He goes nuts for them,

    Ray k. wrote on May 16th, 2012
  21. I remember the early sixties, when I was a young’un, it was common for middle class households to have a bowl of nuts and nutcracker in the living room for entertaining. Getting them open was hard work. Great way to avoid over-consumption.

    Dave wrote on May 16th, 2012
  22. Unfortunately, there’s more danger than phytic acid. I ate whole almonds almost every day for a decade – until they cracked a tooth this winter and I had to have a root canal. Ugh! Thought I could never live without almonds, especially since going primal, but been off them for 3 months, not going back, and the bottom of my pocketbook has never been cleaner!

    Paula wrote on May 16th, 2012
  23. I’m a primal girl, but I have to say that posts like this are what scare people away from Primal. I met a Crossfit instructor this weekend who surprisingly isn’t Primal/Paleo. We were talking about P/P and he said “The thing about it is that every week it’s something new to cut out because it’s going to kill you. It makes people scared to eat anything. I bet next week it will be ‘don’t eat nuts because they’re bad for you!'” Well, I guess he was sort of right, this week came and guess what post showed up. I’m all about being informed, but at this point it feels like nothing is safe to eat.

    Plus, how big of stomach’s do you people have, lol? Who on earth can eat 4 tortillas filled with meat, beans and rice all in one meal? I’d explode :)

    Emily wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • “So to answer your final question, yes, I’d say you can definitely eat and enjoy nuts in moderation, an ounce or two (especially soaked) as long as you’re eating an otherwise nutrient-dense diet.”

      Go ahead and eat nuts in moderation. He didn’t say not to. :)

      Leah H wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • > posts like this

      Like what? Thoughtful, nuanced, well-researched? That basically says “nuts are fine in moderation; you shouldn’t get the majority of your calories from them; but then again nobody does that”?

      > are what scare people away from Primal

      Then they’re not reading closely enough.

      So where does your friend the Crossfit instructor get his nutritional guidance? Does he eat wheat? If so, isn’t that alone enough to discount his opinion as at least not in sync with yours, and at worst just totally worthless?

      Larry Clapp wrote on May 16th, 2012
  24. Anyone else think this whole Primal thing has jumped the shark? This is bordering on OCD and anorexia. Nuts? Who cares. Eat em or don’t. It’s not going to matter much either way. Haven’t been on this site in a good year or more, as this entire topic makes my eyes glaze over now.

    Jake wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • > Anyone else think this whole Primal thing has jumped the shark?


      > anorexia

      ITYM “orthorexia”.

      And for some, it might be. But for most, probably not. Mark always stresses “be sensible”, and most Primal folks probably are.

      > Nuts? Who cares. Eat em or don’t. It’s not going to matter much either way

      Except that clearly it could.

      Larry Clapp wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • FWIW, I sort of agree with you :)

      Emily wrote on May 16th, 2012
      • I was referring to agreeing with Jake. I should have mentioned that. If you look at the post above yours Jake, you’ll see my response to the blog post.

        Emily wrote on May 16th, 2012
        • I’m not buying the phytic acid concerns but hope others do so there will be more nuts for me. My faves are hazelnuts followed by macs and then almonds. I generally eat them raw and never get stomach distress from them …never…not even after eating jumbo amounts. Nor do I get the knee/joint pain I get after eating grains. Nor do I get the bloated feeling or weight gain that I do from grains despite grains being far lower in calories. So something else is in grains for me that my body does not like and it sure isn’t the phytic acid. Nuts do however keep my bowels happy and regular. Soaking is for those with weak digestion. What a bother otherwise…Ditto for obsessing about eating nuts away from other foods to purportedly avoid blocking minerals…The only reason I can see to enjoy nuts in moderation a la one small handful per day is for budget reasons.

          Alexandra wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • I can see where you might feel that way, but as someone with an extremely weak digestion and no colon due to ulcerative colitis, concerns like these are legitimate, and could mean the difference between blood/cramping and a happy gut. I envy all of you who can be so carefree.

      Alyssa wrote on May 16th, 2012
      • Hi Alysa,

        Isn’t it the high fiber content of nuts that make them problematic for those with ulcerative colitis rather than the phytic acid?

        My brother has ulcerative colitis and doesn’t do well with much fiber despite having had the surgery. His case is relatively mild and the surgery alleviated most of his symptoms but fiber is still an issue. I had a boyfriend years ago who nearly died from severe ulcerative colitis. He was slender to begin with but lost so much weight that he looked skeletal and had to miss school for much of one year. He had several surgeries but could not seem to tolerate any fiber at all. Even following a strict, very low fiber diet, he fought the cramping and watery, loose stools.

        Alexandra wrote on May 16th, 2012
        • No, it’s definitely not just fiber!! For instance, white wheat flour tears me up, though it has next to no fiber. Obviously, it’s the gluten. With other grains and nuts, I can’t say for sure whether it’s the phytic acid, or anti-nutrients, or lectins, or what, but these toxins that are found in foods can definitely be detrimental to those with sensitive guts.

          Alyssa wrote on May 17th, 2012
  25. I don’t want to sound like a “Mark Groupie”, but darn! I’m always so impressed with how well he has researched, written and explains his topics, and nary a misspelled word…ever. Thanks again for all your insight and this commentary on the subject of nuts has helped me feel better about the adding them to my diet as my “on the fly” snack.

    Kim A. wrote on May 16th, 2012
  26. Darn it, now you’ve made me want to go get a snack. :9

    Larry Clapp wrote on May 16th, 2012
  27. anyone know where pecans or macadamia nuts rank on this list? those are my nuts of choice.

    Chris wrote on May 16th, 2012
  28. Thanks for the info. I will be sure to eat nuts only as a snack and not with my meals.

    What about seeds? Sunflower seeds? Pumpkin seeds? Do they have phytic acid?

    Bonnie wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • I’m guessing all seeds do. It’s a way of storing their phosphorous for the baby plants until they can get roots established. Just so happens it also takes a toll on any un-adapted animal that eats large amounts of them, sort of the plant kingdom’s equivalent of “MAMA BEAR SMASH!!!”

      Dana wrote on May 16th, 2012
  29. Thanks! Great great great information. I’m one of those people who can eat nuts for meals. Wow! Gotta cut back on my nuts and almond butter.

    Pia wrote on May 16th, 2012
  30. Nuts and seeds are awesome, but I also believe we should be obtaining them in their shells, the way our ancestors would have obtained them. This would no doubt lower our phytate consumption, but would also lower the high amount of omega-6’s we would be getting.

    Brandon wrote on May 16th, 2012
  31. Soak the nuts in salted water for 8-12 hours and then rinse them and put them in the lowest temp in your oven for 8-12 hours. I even do this overnight.

    Hazelnuts don’t have any phytates in them so they don’t have to be soaked.

    Suzanne wrote on May 16th, 2012
  32. Has anyone yet to find if macadamia nuts have a lot of phytic acid?

    There are a few people saying no, but haven’t found much on the topic.

    Kev wrote on May 16th, 2012
  33. The article mentions brown rice having 840-990 mg of phytic acid. Anyone know about white rice?

    Meagan Holden wrote on May 16th, 2012
    • White rice is very low. I believe it is the ‘Polished Rice’ at 11.5 – 66.

      Kev wrote on May 16th, 2012
  34. Pop a few almonds in you mouth and a small piece of good chocolate. Yum.

    Ed Ryan wrote on May 16th, 2012
  35. Thanks for this great article – I’d read previously that nuts contained phytic acid AND that phytic acid can be beneficial. I was a litte confused to say the least, considering that phytic acid is one of the many good reasons not to eat grains. But Mark is right – nuts aren’t meant to be a meal unto themselves, at least not day-in day-out. Sometimes I eat a lot of nuts, in Paleo breads/cakes/trail mix etc – sometimes I don’t eat them at all for a few weeks. I don’t know if anyone else has the same thing, but I feel the effects if I over-do the nuts, just feel kind of ‘off’. Anyway for me it’s all about balance, just like with other ‘condiments’, like dark chocolate, red wine, fruit, honey, dairy etc. All can be beneficial, just don’t over-do it :)

    Josephine wrote on May 16th, 2012
  36. I’ve dehydrated walnuts after soaking them and I find them to be more interesting. Guess you could toast them too, but I like the simplicity of leaving them in the dehydrator.

    spicegirl wrote on May 16th, 2012
  37. I know everyone is thinking it….but I’m going to say it….life wouldn’t be the same without my nuts!

    Jani wrote on May 16th, 2012
  38. I’ve learned that nuts don’t do my body good. As Robb Wolf suggests, I’m better off treating them as a condiment, something to put on my main course but something I should not consume in large amounts. It’s good to see that I’m not crazy for not doing the almond flour thing. I’ve noticed that sometimes Paleo/Primal people try to find substitutes that are just like grain products, instead of finding good, satisfying food to nourish themselves with. Too many ‘muffin’ recipes and the like can lead to overindulgence in something we should be careful about.

    Bev wrote on May 16th, 2012

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