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Posted By Worker Bee On February 14, 2008 @ 2:49 pm In Aging,Fitness,Health,Men's Health,Nutrition,Prevention,Women's Health | 18 Comments
A few weeks ago we tackled the importance of lean muscle mass in aging  and its typical correlation with organ reserve. Conventional wisdom tells us that muscle is easiest to develop when you are young, that we tend to lose muscle as we age, and that it becomes more difficult to put on muscle as we grow older. We thought we’d investigate and give you a clearer picture of what the research has to say.
Just to review, we’re talking skeletal muscle here, which includes two types of fibers. Type I fibers are associated with endurance training, while type II fibers are associated with weight training. It’s true that adults do tend to lose muscle mass during typical aging (typical being the operative word here), and it’s the type II fibers that are depleted. Type I fibers are generally preserved. But the type II fibers, research is finding, play a crucial role in regulating the body’s metabolism . These guys help direct the activities of tissues in other systems of the body. Given their influential roles, maintaining type II fibers (i.e. muscle mass) as we age can reduce the risk for diabetes and obesity.
The fact is, resistance training can allow anyone to gain muscle mass at any age, and older adults, in most respects, can indeed keep up with their younger counterparts.
Let’s take a closer look.
A recent study  examined the theory that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the loss of muscle mass as we age. The study compared older adult subjects’ strength levels and “gene expression profiles” before and after six months of weight training. Their tissue samples and strength levels were also compared with those of young adult subjects. Ready for some good news? Results showed that the weight training had allowed the older subjects to not only dramatically increase their strength but to reverse the aging process itself. Their genetic fingerprints had been “reversed to levels similar to those seen in the younger adults.” Granted, the older adults didn’t achieve the same strength levels as those of the younger set within the six month period. This result, however, isn’t to be taken as an absolute lesson in limitation.
An Ohio University study  found that older subjects gained strength “at the same rate as untrained young men.” The older men didn’t achieve the same “heft,” but researchers noted that the difference in muscle size could at least partly be attributed to the “smaller, less developed” state of their muscle tissue upon beginning the study. Still, the older subjects experienced a 30-40 % growth in muscle and up to a 100% stamina increase at the end of 16 weeks.
With all this said, our upper years do take their toll on muscle mass. Research  out the University of Minnesota (logically) shows that muscles with a higher proportion of type II fibers are impacted by age more than those muscles with a more balanced proportion of type I and type II fibers. While we’re able to rebuild muscle mass as older adults, we may not be able to rebuild it to the same degree as younger adults do. It can also take longer to recover between weight training sessions, which means our goals might take us longer than they would’ve a couple decades earlier. The University of Minnesota’s research, however, suggests that we have the ability to build muscle strengths into our nineties.
The lesson here? Building muscle is absolutely possible, but the best scenario is to both build and maintain muscle mass throughout your life.
Here are a few extra tips for doing just that.
Exercise: Include regular weight training in your fitness routine, and avoid the sabotages of chronic cardio. Check out the Dear Mark post this week for suggestions on a lifting and recovery  routine as well as other activities to round out your work out program.
Nutrition: Grains and sugars not only cause inflammation, which perpetually taxes your organs, they throw off your hormone levels. (You definitely want to keep your endocrine system running in top shape.)
Obviously, protein is key. In our Pondering Protein  post a few weeks ago, we mentioned the University of Texas at Galveston study that found older adults have the same capacity as their younger counterparts for converting protein-rich food into muscle. Earlier research, including a study out of the University of Nottingham, found that older adults had diminished ability to recognize and process amino acids. Their study, however, used protein drinks rather than actual food, which the Galveston study used. The researchers at Nottingham had suggested older adults eat a protein rich snack or meal directly following a weight training session, since they believed the body was better able to process protein post-workout.
We think there’s good advice to be taken from both studies. Older adults should certainly eat a protein-rich diet with natural protein food sources. In addition, it’s not a bad idea to go for that protein-rich snack after your weight workout. While we’re on the subject of protein, omega-3s from fish oil can enhance the conversion process of food protein to muscle protein . Be sure to include a good fish oil supplement  (unabashed self-promotion ) in your diet.
Sleep: A good amount of shut-eye is imperative for the release of HGH (human growth hormone), which aids the development of muscle mass.
Other suggestions: Beyond the suggestions above, avoid toxins/additives/livestock hormones as much as possible. Endocrine disruption can lower testosterone levels and wreak other havoc in the body. Choose organic when you can and take other protective measures when you can’t, such as washing veggies and fruits well and looking for dairy and meats from livestock raised without hormones. Although we appreciate dietary fat around here, we’re not fans of the toxins found in meat  and dairy fat. Of particular concern are dioxins, which can remain in the system for decades. (The kicker: dioxins are even found in organics as a result of acid rain on grass and feed grains.)
In short, those of us in the more “seasoned” crowd have all kinds of opportunity (and few excuses) to not give those youngsters at the gym a run for their money.
POPOEVER  Flickr Photo (CC)
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 Primal Blueprint 101: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/primal-blueprint-101/
 lean muscle mass in aging: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/organ-reserve-muscle-mass-aging/
 regulating the body’s metabolism: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/bu-tm020408.php
 study: http://www.buckinstitute.org/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=424
 study: http://news.research.ohiou.edu/perspectives/archives/0002/profile_muscle.html
 Research: http://www.ptjournal.org/cgi/reprint/74/1/71
 lifting and recovery: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/training-rest-periods/
 Pondering Protein: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/dietary-protein/
 enhance the conversion process of food protein to muscle protein: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070509161106.htm
 fish oil supplement: http://www.marksdailyapple.com http://primalblueprint.com/brands/Vital-Omegas.html
 we’re not fans of the toxins found in meat: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/lean-meat/
 POPOEVER: http://www.flickr.com/photos/popoever/143276721/
 The Secret to Great Abs: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/no-clean-shirts/
 FitSugar: Strength Training Tips for Women: http://fitsugar.com/1036027
 CrossFit NYC: Weight Training Not for the Light of Heart: http://www.crossfitnyc.org/
 Damage Control Master Formula: http://www.masterformula.com/
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