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March 29, 2012

Maybe There is Such a Thing as Too Much Information

By Mark Sisson
66 Comments

A couple weeks back, the LA Times published a piece on a geneticist’s experience with “personalized medicine.” Based on careful and constant monitoring of his sequenced DNA and around 40,000 health markers – or “omics” – over 14 months by a team of his colleagues, Stanford geneticist Michael Snyder observed in painstaking detail exactly what his body was doing during periods of sickness and health. If and when a viral infection entered the picture, Snyder and his team could watch how thousands of biomarkers responded. He could track its invasion, his body’s battle against it, and its eventual retreat. Although Snyder had no family history of diabetes, his sequenced DNA revealed he was at risk for it, so he began monitoring his blood sugar. Sure enough, a couple weeks after the viral infection, he noticed that his glucose was abnormally elevated. Analysis of his “omics” profile during the infection showed that auto-antibodies, which are often produced by the body in response to infections, had begun targeting an insulin receptor-binding protein which impaired his ability to clear glucose from the blood. Snyder was eventually diagnosed with the disease (but later fought it off with diet and meds), and though it isn’t spelled out clearly in the article, it sounds like the fallout from the viral infection may have precipitated his development of type 2 diabetes.

It’s a good story, but how applicable are its contents to the average person without an armada of geneticists at his or her disposal? I’m dubious, though I can see the argument for finding out where you stand on certain specific genetic predispositions:

  • Diabetics should probably learn which “Metformin response” genotype they are before filling a prescription for the drug. If they’re non- or low-responders to the drug, it won’t be as effective.
  • Whether or not you have the genes for hereditary hemachromatosis, or excessive iron absorption, can be useful knowledge (especially for men who neither menstruate, pit fight, nor engage in bloodletting). If testing indicates you do have it, you can take simple steps to correct or mitigate the issue, like giving blood and drinking red wine, tea, or coffee with iron-rich meals to lessen iron absorption. But those aren’t bad things to be doing regardless.
  • Those with a “malfunctioning” MTHFR gene may have issues producing folate, a crucial fertility and pregnancy nutrient. Women who have the genetic variant should probably supplement with extra folate before and during pregnancy. But that’s something pregnant women should probably already be doing.

But for the most part, there’s just not a whole lot we can do with this information. I guess it could be cool to use your “omics” to “see” a cold or flu coming before it touches down, but is that even very feasible for the average person? Snyder’s team of chemists were analyzing 40,000 variables every time they took an omics measurement (20 times over the course of 14 months), while the average blood test (which we get maybe once a year) looks at around 20 variables. They hope to narrow it down to a “subset of them that will be truly predictive of future health,” but that’s a long ways off. In the meantime, let’s keep in mind that Snyder’s biggest discovery was that he had type 2 diabetes. The genetic test indicated that the blood sugar was worth keeping an eye on, but the smorgasbord of esoteric biomarkers wasn’t required to tell him that he had elevated blood sugar. It was a simple blood sugar test, a basic $10 pin prick that you can pick up at the drug store, the very same test that millions of diabetics and health-conscious consumers use on a daily basis. The omics report revealed the connection between the viral infection and the diabetes, but the real, actionable data – that he had a problem regulating his blood sugar –  could be attained quite easily.

Research like this is important. It can show us how our genes interact with our environment, and it can identify which biomarkers should be tracked and which should be discarded as irrelevant. It’s also cool that we could conceivably watch our biomarkers in flux as they respond to viral infections, actually see the cytokine storm that responds to the flu, or watch the inflammatory cycle that occurs after a heavy workout and makes training adaptations possible. I won’t argue against that. I am, however, wary of people rushing out to jump on the latest trend in personalized science, spending a lot of money, getting a product (that may not even be legible to a layman), and trying to base important lifestyle decisions on the information therein. Sometimes, simpler is better. Sometimes, easy is more effective. Sometimes, less is much, much more, while more information is constricting, stress-inducing, and paralyzing. Let the research commence, but I’d refrain from acting on it until you (and the folks doing the research) actually suss out all the implications. 

It’s not that I don’t see the merit in this stuff for some people. It’s just that I don’t care. I already have enough to worry about and obsess over. The last thing I need is another set of biomarkers to consider. I’ve been Primal for eleven years now. I’m happy, fit, healthy, with zero complaints. I’m happy and satisfied with my diet. Things are going well. Everything appears to be working, inside and out. I rarely go to the doctor, but when I do go for a checkup, everything checks out. Is there anything I’d drastically change about my lifestyle if presented with a full omics report? Honestly, no.

Say I went through with it and it told me that a huge cytokine storm swells up inside me every weekday around mid afternoon, indicating a stress response. Would that change anything? No! I know I need to relax more and reduce stress in my life (especially my work life), and “seeing it” would be interesting, but I don’t need a printout to tell me I need to work on it.

Say I learned that I carried the mutated ACTN gene for endurance sports (as opposed to the gene for strength or sprint sports). Would I then drop the heavy lifting, the hiking, the Ultimate frisbee, the beach sprints, and go back to running marathons and completing triathlons? No! I know how my body reacts to that type of training. Hell, there’s a very good chance I do have the mutated gene, given my success with endurance sports, but that didn’t make it healthy or even enjoyable. The genetics of it all are immaterial in a sense.

What are you going to do if it’s bad news? Agonize over it? Stew in a pot of your own helplessness? Stay up late scouring blogs and forums and databases for some way to make sense of the information dump? Or are you going to keep living your life, eating right, moving well and often, enjoying the company of friends and loved ones, savoring a good glass of wine (or whatever poison you fancy), getting up early for a crisp weekend hike, and generally doing the things that have already proven to lead you toward good health? 

Of course, some people love to know as much as possible (even if they don’t really know what the numbers and configurations of letters they get back from the testing company actually mean). Go for it, then. When the science gets stronger and they narrow those 40,000 variables to a couple hundred really relevant ones, I’ll pay attention too. I’m not promising I’ll micromanage my life because of it, but I’ll be listening with interested ears.

Where do you fall on all this, folks? Do you want to know absolutely all the wrinkles of your genome? Do you want a constant, daily play-by-play on the inner workings of your physiology? Or do you think that would be counterproductive to your goals and your desires? Let me know in the comment section!

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66 Comments on "Maybe There is Such a Thing as Too Much Information"

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I.C.
I.C.
4 years 6 months ago

I dig articles like this. Diet and exercise ones are fine and all, but sometimes it’s nice to see more expansive topics like this covered here.

It was a very encouraging read. Thanks for that!

I.C.
I.C.
4 years 6 months ago

Oh, though maybe there’s some sort of irony in the fact that I’m reading it right now while also browsing 2 other forums and YouTube.

Hmm…I might be having info overload right now, which is kind of related to the more specific ‘health info overload.’

Something to think about, I guess.

Abel James
4 years 6 months ago

I love this: “Let the research commence, but I’d refrain from acting on it until you (and the folks doing the research) actually suss out all the implications.” Guinea-pigging is fun, but it shouldn’t be frenetic.

Matthew Caton
4 years 6 months ago
Obviously stressing over details like this is no way to live life. I think it would be more interesting if biomarkers of our age were included. Some markers of aging might be more advanced than others, then we could take steps to reverse or prevent those specific types of aging at the cellular level. Some of us may have more intracellular and also extracellular junk (yes, that is the scientific term) than others. An easy way to reverse this would be to fast. As Mark pointed out the other day, lowering insulin to fasted levels will turn on autophagy, and… Read more »
Chika
Chika
4 years 6 months ago

Nice article Mark! I prefer to just live life without agonizing about any numbers. If one is healthy, feels great, and has no health ailments, then continue doing what you are doing. In this case, worrying about the numbers is just another added stress in life. So forget the numbers, just live (and love) life!

yoolieboolie
yoolieboolie
4 years 6 months ago

agreed!!! if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it, so they say.

Frank
Frank
4 years 6 months ago

Personally, I would not want a day-by-day play of what was going on inside of me. This is somewhat analogous to investors who track day-to-day changes; this causes mass freak-outs. “Long-term investing” is what I would prefer, which is analogous to a unweighed, unmeasured Primal lifestyle.

Nate Church
Nate Church
4 years 6 months ago

I think having all those minute details, “possible” genes or “increased possibility” of a disease would add more stress and ultimately more harm than just as you indicated eating right, being active and making good choices.

Howard
4 years 6 months ago
I am all for getting more information, but yeah, maybe there is such a thing as TMI. Tracking 40k variables is pretty daunting. OTOH, that’s what computers are for (I’m a programmer…). If such a test eventually got cheap enough (and accurate enough, and repeatable enough), there is a possibility that the mainstream medical community might be forced to learn something about nutrition and exercise. And it just might, MIGHT, force them into learning what is wrong with statins and a couple of other toxins they now prescribe for treatment of a fictitious number (which would not be a good… Read more »
Alison Golden - PaleoNonPaleo
4 years 6 months ago

As someone who found out she had both copies of her MTHFR gene ‘malfunctioning,’ only after experiencing problems, I think specific genetic data can be very interesting and, at times, guide decision-making. It does have to be kept within the overall context of our lives, however.

oxide
oxide
4 years 6 months ago

MTHFR gene…

… is most expressed in Samuel L Jackson.

Jeffrey of Troy
4 years 6 months ago

I want these MTHFR genes off this MTHFR.. wait, wut were we talking about?

Chika
Chika
4 years 6 months ago

LMAO

charlie
charlie
4 years 6 months ago

Great post.

You’ve got to differentiate the research (which is what this study was about, eventually) from the practical aspect.

The research is amazing. And maybe we can distill it down to being able to supplement the usual models.

But on a practical basis? Come on. We know what is killing us.

Zorbs the Aussie
Zorbs the Aussie
4 years 6 months ago
“It’s just that I don’t care. I already have enough to worry about and obsess over. The last thing I need is another set of biomarkers to consider.” Lol yep, yep and double yep.. that’s what I was thinking as I read through the article. I’m trying to keep my life as simple as possible and now I just want to eat well, feel fit and healthy and have more fun , cultivate more peace in my life and spread good vibes and this blog around. I just don’t need to know that stuff…. Mark, what you are doing with… Read more »
cTo
4 years 6 months ago

Holy butt-weasel, Batman! I have a very good friend who works in the Snyder lab!!! I hope you don’t mind but I sent this post to her. I’ll be very interested to see what her (and likely her other lab mates’) response to it is 🙂

Daniel Wallen
4 years 6 months ago

I’m with you, Mark. I don’t care. Simple, occasional check-up is good enough for me–I don’t see the point in measuring 40,000 variables. This seems totally insane, to be frank. And people think *I’m* obsessive about my health! Yeesh.

Cathy Johnson
4 years 6 months ago
Yep, I DO think there’s a TMI factor. The health scare du jour, esp. on a certain thin doctor’s blog, is just too depressing. Yes, I like to know some, and I like science, but good GRIEF! “Is this common killer still lurking in your refrigerator? Are you still taking THIS, are you getting enough of THAT, are you doing it wrong, is this common medical advice killing thousands of people a year…” Gah. there’s a line to how much of that I can deal with. So…I don’t! Eat right, exercise, appreciate what I have, try to cut stress…check. I’m… Read more »
Ali
Ali
4 years 6 months ago

I think it’s pretty neat. The fact that we saw in real time his type two evolve from a flare up of immunity is great. I wouldnt run off to spend a ton of money to do it myself, which I think is your point. Nonetheless, my answer to your question of TMI is unequivocally no. This is how science moves forwards, I suppose.

Missaralee
4 years 6 months ago

All of the biochemical information that is available today is really incredible, the next big leap will be translating it into useful advice. How amazing would it be if they were able to condense the analysis into a little companion robot that interpreted the 40,000 markers after every test and gave you advice like: “you should relax for one extra hour today” or “you should eat some grassfed beef liver today.” If the robot then proceeded to cook said liver, we would know we had arrived at a Utopian society.

Tim
Tim
4 years 6 months ago

The rather low correlation between current biomarkers and diseases runs up against the law of small numbers, since you are an experiment of one.

For instance, knowing that you have a gene that give you a 20% elevated risk of colon cancer might be useful, but you are still much more likely to die of something else. These subtle effects are only significant if you look at them with large numbers of people.

Rubikzube
4 years 6 months ago

I think that for myself, it comes down to how much time, effort, money I want to put into worrying my healthiness. And the answer is, not much.

Kurt Russell once said that a man shouldn’t spend to much time on his hair. The same is probably true of worrying about health.

Pastor Dave
4 years 6 months ago
Wow– pretty extensive stuff. Last year I had some bloodwork done at our company as a volunteer. Of 3 thousand workers they had a hard tiem finding 20 volunteers..but heck I thought it was a great idea. Anyway– everything- from the prostate markers to cholesterol numbers and tons of other blood specific markers were all perfect (for a guy who is 60! But I had been eating mostly primal for the last few years and didn’t have health insurance for a few of those eyars and hadn’t been for a checkup for over 15 years. So I attribute those solid… Read more »
Primal Texas
4 years 6 months ago

Time spent worrying about minutiae is time that could be spent doing something to better yourself. Worrying has probably never improved anybody’s life.

Senneth
Senneth
4 years 6 months ago

I had the 23andme genetic test recently, but don’t see results for the MTHFR gene and am very curious. Is it listed as something else -like a disease or condition? Do I have to do something else with my genetic information to find that out?

knifegill
knifegill
4 years 6 months ago

I would want to know about the genes that lead to iron accumulation, but that’s also a cheap lab test. Actually, I’m already doing the most I can to activate by best epigenetics anyway, so even if I knew I had a gene for a certain disease, I’m probably already doing most of what I’d need to to avoid suffering.

Joanna
4 years 6 months ago

Yes, there is such a thing as too much information. After all life is for living, not worrying about all this stuff. Remember what that great philosopher of our generation John Lennon said : “Life is what happens while you’re busy planning.” Applicable to researching as well.

Griffin
Griffin
4 years 6 months ago

Personally, I find it too tedious to follow my macros on Fitday, I eat as well as I can (maybe with a bit too much dark chocolate) and let the numbers calculate themselves.

I try to trust in the process.

Franklin Chen
4 years 6 months ago

I’m not a Luddite. But I loved the movie “Gattaca”.

I like knowing more about things. I like knowing more about myself. I like finding out that lactose intolerance was the cause of a lot of my problems. I like finding out about various allergies a couple of years ago. But at some point at the micro-level, it becomes harder (except for very rare anomalies) to connect with the macro-level of how life actually goes. So for now, at least, I’m pretty uninterested in my DNA.

Boom
Boom
4 years 6 months ago

I think it’s fascinating — and potentially very helpful for many — that we see Diabetes being triggered by an infection, rather than by diet or some other factor.

Kim
Kim
4 years 6 months ago
I don’t care either. Science, although I love it, has too many pitfalls. Years ago, I told med professionals I couldn’t eat gluten or my son (who I was nursing and very gluten intolerant) would become ill. I came home and searched everywhere I could on Pubmed. Everything said it wasn’t possible. But I knew it was happening so I ignored them all and stayed pristinely gf. I also told them my mouth ulcers were caused by gluten. Again, the status quo said this was not possible. Guess what happened years later. Yup, they said “Oops, turns out it does… Read more »
Chance Bunger
Chance Bunger
4 years 6 months ago

No question that sometimes the best advice is: “don’t worry, be happy!”

Larry
Larry
4 years 6 months ago

You speak of Metformin….
If anyones interested, the February 2012 edition of Life Extension magazine has an article on Metformin..
They present evidence on Metformin’s ability to prevent/slash Cancer risk.
They even go so far as to reccommend the possibilty of non-Diabetics using it.
With some contraindications of course.

http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2012/feb2012_Can-Diabetes-Drug-Prevent-Cancer-Death_01.htm?source=search&key=metformin

Nionvox
4 years 6 months ago

My family definitely gains muscle tone faster than normal. I did pretty well in marathon running, but i did better in sprint running and any sport that required short energy bursts.
I never thought about having a genetic predisposition to it though.
I’m the only healthy person in my family, and have been even before I started primal. I wonder why that is? Granted, I did walk everywhere, and ate much less than them, but i was by no means a healthy eater.

momburger
momburger
4 years 6 months ago
My husband and I both have 23andMe accounts. We got them more for fun(science nerds) than anything else. It’s pretty cool to see and I haven’t changed anything as a result of any of the findings. My husband, on the other hand, has been struggling with some health issues and noticed that he had a genetic marker that correlated with low testosterone. He started looking down that avenue and sure enough that is one of his issues. So, I do think these tests can have a valuable place in health and medicine and will eventually become affordable and common place… Read more »
rarebird
rarebird
4 years 6 months ago

+1

Patrick
Patrick
4 years 6 months ago

Am i the only one who read “MTHFR gene” as “MotherrF****r gene”? Sigh…I really have been corrupted by the internet. MDA subliminally reminding me to go outside and get some fresh air and sun and stop spending so much time online. Duly noted.

Joy Beer
Joy Beer
4 years 6 months ago

NO, you are not the only one. I thought the same thing and am glad to join you in admitting to it.

Sharon
Sharon
4 years 6 months ago
On the other hand, something to consider, all of you who feel healthy and happy. I too had no health complaints but a routine blood test turned up a high blood platelet count. Fortunately not in a danger zone. Turns out it was caused by a mutated gene and so far is not curable nor is it known why the gene mutates. As we watched my platelet count every 4 months, it steadily climbed into a potential danger zone for a thrombotic event. It is being presently controlled by a drug and all indications are that I will probably die… Read more »
Joy Beer
Joy Beer
4 years 6 months ago
A high a1c in January, and high triglycerides were very good for me to know. I had no idea that my blood sugars would be high after 1.5 months of avoiding sugar, carbs… but I’d had an illness from November through December that required 18 days of antibiotics, including cipro, so knowing that illness can drive up blood sugars made an impression. Now that I’ve read about the Snyder cause for Type II diabetes, I’m really nervous! I wonder if I’d not gotten the test, whether 5 more months of paleo/primal would have solved this, and I wouldn’t instead be… Read more »
rarebird
rarebird
4 years 6 months ago

Exactly!

spincycle
spincycle
4 years 6 months ago

I was amazed to read that fallout from a viral infection may have precipitated Snyder’s diabetes. I had no clue that a viral infection might trigger diabetes. I think studies like these are good to gain information like that, but I would not sign myself up for it. I plan on eating, moving and sleeping well, and enjoying life while I have it.

Joy Beer
Joy Beer
4 years 6 months ago

It amazed me, and bummed me out, big time. Wondering if my longish illness this past fall did me in.

SophieE
SophieE
4 years 6 months ago
I would loovvee to have my physiology constantly monitored!! Seriously, I have no concept of TMI. And I reckon it would be good feedback that could change how I live: what if there was a cytokines storm when I ate nightshades? That would change my behavior. Id be interested to see which genes turn on n off when I am on/off the pill- maybe it’d explain why my skin gets so bad when im off (like now) and maybe it could help me mimic the on state through careful lifestyle adjustments. This testing would be seriously masturbatory for me and… Read more »
Camille
Camille
4 years 6 months ago

I am so totally intrigued with how our bodies work that I would LOVE to have this kind of detailed information! I wouldn’t find it stressful, just fascinating. Maybe I should have been a Biologist!

Kurt
4 years 6 months ago
Hello Mark, I work for a company who sells sequencers that make personal medicine cheaper and thus more accessible for each one of us. As such I have an interest in research like this. I’m glad you wrote this article to put things in perspective and I agree with you on applying this research to anyone’s daily life. But! And the but is a sort of request from me to you. I would like to ask you to stay close to this sort of research so you can keep guiding us on the process and the applicability of this research… Read more »
Paula Burrus Hinton
Paula Burrus Hinton
4 years 6 months ago

The best part of my day is checking-in with Mark and all the primal family. Mark, please keep writing, and family, please keep commenting. You guys inspire me!

Ryan Lazarus
4 years 6 months ago
Good article and generally applicable to the majority of MDA readers who value their health and have made it a priority. I also agree that having knowledge of one’s personal SNP’s may be problematic and create more anxiety than productive insight. Snyder’s findings and this type of research is valuable for the population of people who aren’t well or struggle with idiopathic symptoms, conditions and diseases. This research is vital to the movement known as Functional Medicine which is the approach to finding and treating the key underlying dysfunctions in the body. We use the study of epigenetics (how our… Read more »
rarebird
rarebird
4 years 6 months ago

Agree.

rarebird
rarebird
4 years 6 months ago

I think its important for people to realize that viruses can have these kinds of effects.

deb b
deb b
4 years 6 months ago

Cant wait until this type of info is “routinely” available!
BTW – you can listen to M. Snyder deliver a fantastic genetics lecture via Stanford Mini MEd school (also on you tube). He is quite brilliant. The Stanford lectures are really great. A wonderful resource they make available to the world.

A
A
4 years 6 months ago

People on SAD often feel fine and wouldn’t change anything if they found out they had an increased chance of diabetes through their diet.

Knoweledge is power, I would want to know this kind of information, and how and if I chose to act on it.

Anita Gandolfo
Anita Gandolfo
4 years 6 months ago
I agree that there’s often TMI, especially with our 24-hour news cycle that insists on reporting all sorts of ill-conceived ‘studies.’ But I also think we can learn a lot from our family history and be pro-active in our health care. For example, I have two siblings who died in early adulthood of blood clots, so the remaining siblings were all tested to see if we had a genetic disorder. None of us did, but my own tests showed a ‘slight’ tendency in the opposite direction. Although it’s not serious, my clotting is slower than normal, and I’ve been advised… Read more »
Dave PAPA GROK Parsons
Dave PAPA GROK Parsons
4 years 6 months ago

TMI
Instincts get buried by it..people assume it..others use it as weapons…some good and some bad is always floating around.

….yet for many folks out there….”if it works”..is all they need to know>>>

Paul
Paul
4 years 6 months ago

Mark, you are the voice of sanity in a mostly insane world.

Jeff
4 years 6 months ago
The basic issue is one of scale. We’re trying to determine “health” and “fitness” and “what prevents diabetes or cancer” or whatever. These are all MACRO scale issue. The extraordinary level of detail at the MICRO level (DNA markers, working of individual cells, etc) may or may not have a direct impact on the macro scale. This is the reason we have so many conflicting “studies” in the world of science, and why things like the China Study can be interpreted in different ways. If you focus on the micro details and extrapolate based on your preconceived ideas, you can… Read more »
Lindsey
4 years 6 months ago
For most people, there’s no need to know. My mother had early-onset breast cancer and I’ve never felt the need to know if I carry the BRCA gene. It’s like waiting for a shoe to drop — FOR ME. But others may feel differently and that’s okay. I have 3 kids and have also had 3 miscarriages. After our second child was born with a rare genetic disorder we decided to pursue some testing. I’m glad we did. We learned this specific genetic disease was a 50/50 chance for any baby we conceived, and 70% of the time it was… Read more »
Kelekona
Kelekona
4 years 6 months ago
It’s something interesting to keep an eye on, but not worth worrying about yet. What might be really interesting is if this research could be bent to the psychology field. These days, the procedure for putting a patient on drugs is to try one after another until you find one that works. What if they could do a test to rule out a couple of duds, or determine if it’s a simple red dye allergy? I also hear that Gluten-free and Paleo diets can cure behavioral problems. (Gotta find enough people that already don’t eat Twinkies to do a proper… Read more »
Mrfuzzybear
4 years 6 months ago
I think the more information the better. But I think most people want simple effective actionable information. All of this talk about biomarkers and insulin receptor binding proteins quite honestly make my head spin. And I actually have a decent interest in health related information. So I say, when trying to determine the best thing that we should do for our health we always want to have the most accurate information available. The more information we have the better. But we need someone knowledgeable to break it down for us. But no the average person doesn’t want to obsess over… Read more »
David
David
4 years 6 months ago
My partner and I both have 23andme accounts. Knowing our genomics has helped improve our health. We are both c677T (one variant of the MTHFR gene) and our ability to metabolise folate from the diet is only about 8% of normal. These genes are present in approximately 10% of the population, and the treatment is relatively straight forward (and FDA reviewed) – take the active form of folate (methylfolate) as a supplement. Methylfolate is not found in food. Having c677T is associated with a wide range of problems, not just pregnancy. Some of the conditions include early heart disease, forms… Read more »
SuzU
SuzU
1 year 9 months ago
David, I realize this is an old post, but it always helps with thinking things through to answer them. I’ve been wondering for a year or so if I should do a 23andMe, and your post has decided to do it for the very reasons you have outlined. This might be the missing piece for me. My family is highly prone to migraine, depressive and other mental health disorders, stroke, chronic fatigue, and other conditions that suggest we may have an MTHFR mutation. We don’t get diabetes (only one case in the last three generations) or much heart disease (two… Read more »
Masdevallia
Masdevallia
4 years 6 months ago
I have to say, I think that whole thing is really smurfing awesome. I love studies that help show the whole big picture volley of a response your body makes as it changes and reacts. Its a living dynamic system, and you actually get to see it act and be alive and respond. I’m only 35, but I remember when I was in college and was studying genetics and we were still working on sequencing the human genome. It was a vast undertaking, requiring thousands of labs of researchers all over the world, working on different parts of it. Researchers… Read more »
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