Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
25 Oct

Managing Your Mitochondria: Nutrients and Supplements

nutrientsIn last week’s mitochondria post, I explained how burning fat for energy was the foundation for keeping your mitochondria plentiful, happy, and robust. If you can’t access fat for energy, your cellular power plants will not work as well as they can or should. Any mitochondrial health regimen must include that as a basic precept. Once you’ve firmly established your fat-burning beasthood, though? You’ve got to man the power plant with a competent workforce. In putting together your workforce, there are plenty of factors to consider, including micronutrient status, supplementation, and exercise, all of which play huge roles in the health of your mitochondria. Rather than hire Homer Simpson, Lenny, and Carl to run the plant, you basically want a bunch of Frank Grimes.

So, without further ado, let’s dig in to the nutrient and supplement side of things.

Magnesium

Ah, magnesium, darling mineral of the Primal world, participant in nearly every physiological function known to man, and now essential cofactor for proper mitochondrial function? Yes, I believe so. Magnesium deficiency led to decreased mitochondria-per-cell count and increased size of individual mitochondrions in liver and kidney cells, which indicates that not only did low magnesium drop the overall number of mitochondria, but also increased the workload of the remaining mitochondria. Eat plenty of leafy greens, the occasional handful of nuts or seeds, and a starchy tuber when it suits you, taking care to supplement with a good magnesium -ate if you need it, and you should be fine on magnesium.

Zinc and Iron

Deficiencies in both zinc and iron can reduce the mitochondria’s ability to synthesize heme, which leads to oxidant leakage (the increased free radicals that I mentioned in last week’s post), “DNA damage, neural decay, and aging.” Luckily, zinc and iron are present in animal products and shellfish, so few Primal eaters run the risk of severe deficiencies. If you need to, supplement, but do so wisely: zinc toxicity alters mitochondrial metabolism and lowers ATP production in liver mitochondria. The liver processes both fats and sugars and healthy liver mitochondria are crucial for that important task.

Manganese

You don’t hear a lot about manganese, but it plays a role in creating a potent mitochondrial antioxidant: manganese superoxide dismutase. Without adequate manganese, you won’t make enough superoxide dismutase, and without enough mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase, you run the risk of developing a neuropathology or suffering an ischemic brain injury (what often happens after stroke). Eat your mussels, raspberries, and dark chocolate.

Carnosine

In rats with a genetic predisposition to developing Alzheimer’s disease, supplementing with carnosine reduced the prevalence of classic AD hallmarks, the first and foremost of which was mitochondrial dysfunction. Carnosine is a potent scavenger of free radicals, and it’s a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. Meat eaters get plenty of carnosine, but supplements exist if you want to go that route.

Carnitine

Carnitine is biosynthesized from methionine and lysine, two amino acids which are highly prevalent in red meat, and your mitochondria like a lot of carnitine because it’s required for shuttling fatty acids into the mitochondria for processing. Yeah, if you want mitochondria to do one of their most basic jobs – break down fatty acids for energy – you better consume ample amounts of meat, or supplement with L-carnitine.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A deficiency caused oxidative damage to liver mitochondria in rats. Folks, in addition to handling fat and sugar metabolism, liver mitochondria also process ammonia, a potentially toxic byproduct of protein metabolism, so you’d better eat your egg yolks and liver and even cod liver oil along with your egg whites and steak and cod filets.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a universal antioxidant, internally produced by most organisms (except for us and a couple others), and it should come as no surprise to learn that it (along with resveratrol and alpha-lipoic acid) reduces excessive reactive oxygen species production by the mitochondria. It does so by increasing manganese superoxide dismutase (remember that?). Just be careful about supplementing during heavy cardio, as vitamin C has been shown to dampen mitochondrial biogenesis by interfering with normal cellular adaptations to endurance exercise. Maybe that was the problem back in my endurance days when I was downing 25,000 milligrams of C a day during training (hey, Linus Pauling said to supplement vitamin C “to bowel tolerance.” How times have changed.) I doubt sticking to natural sources of vitamin C, like fruit, raw meat, or fresh vegetables would have the same negative effect on exercise adaptation.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Our bodies make CoQ10, which is required for the transfer of electrons during mitochondrial oxidative respiration. Mitochondrial oxidative respiration is how we produce ATP for bodily functions and day-to-day life. Without enough of it (maybe we’re taking statins, which block the pathway responsible for synthesizing CoQ10, or we’re not eating enough foods high in CoQ10), our mitochondria’s ability to make ATP suffers, since CoQ10 is the only compound that can do its job. The best dietary sources of CoQ10 include animal hearts (since hearts need a lot of CoQ10 to generate the energy required to function), sardines, and virgin red palm oil. Even so, it’s still tough to get significant CoQ10 from food, which is why I like to supplement it.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)

PQQ is a bacterial biofactor present in soil, on plants, and in animals. It stimulates plant and bacterial growth, and when animals eat the plants (or soil) that contains the bacteria, they also get the PQQ. Biofactors extremely similar to PQQ have even been detected in interstellar dust, suggesting that it has been an important component of the global ecosystem for billions of years. As is the wont of other bioactive compounds with similarly expansive legacies and ubiquitousness (sunlight/vitamin D comes to mind, as do essential minerals), PQQ appears to interact with a number of physiological processes, including both mitochondrial function and biogenesis. It improves mitochondrial respiratory control and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. One could probably write an entire article on this stuff’s interactions with the mitochondria, and I won’t, but I will direct interested parties to a comprehensive paper on the subject (PDF). Most folks focus on supplementing with PQQ, which can be a bit expensive, but another option is to eat natto (fermented soybeans, a legume, but a highly nutritious form that contains vitamin K2 in addition to PQQ) and drink green tea, both of which are high in PQQ.

Resveratrol

Resveratrol is the darling of the life extension set, and while I think some of its effects might be overstated, it does appear to improve mitochondrial function (in mice) and induce mitochondrial biogenesis (in rodent epithelial cells, the cells that comprise the lining of blood vessels). Furry little humans mice are not, but it’s interesting nonetheless.

Alpha-lipoic acid

Naturally occurring most richly in heart, liver, kidney, spinach, and broccoli, lipoic acid supplements have been shown to reduce mitochondrial decay in humans. Another study, albeit in rats, found that alpha-lipoic acid, along with a few other “mitochondria supportive” supplements, improved rats’ athletic performance and recovery. In both cases, it stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis.

I’m sure there are more nutrients, minerals, vitamins and supplements that affect mitochondrial function, but this is a decent list to consider when trying to man your cellular power plant workforce. And I bet if you take care of the bulk of these, either by eating good food or supplementing, you can keep a couple Homer Simpsons around for comic relief without too many problems.

For the next installment (sometime next week) in Managing Mitochondria, I’ll be covering exercise. Til then, take care and Grok on!

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. Very timely, I’ve just been researching Magnesium and have just started supplementing. Interested to see what changes, if any, I notice. Having tracked my micronutrients over the last few weeks, I don’t think I regularly get enough, so supplementing with a high quality supplement seems like a good idea.

    Suz @ Paleo Network wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Magnesium lotion is also a good option. It by-passes the GI tract and is absorbed directly through your skin.

      Kishore wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • Yes, I’ve used magnesium oil topically It’s a great muscle relaxant, and as you said, it bypasses the GI tract, so it’s the best way to correct a magnesium deficiency. The deficiency is also corrected alot faster when applied topically then it is when taken orally.

        Eirik wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • Wow! Interesting! Will have to check out the lotion/oil.

        sara wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Magnesium is the most commonly deficient, I’ve been supplementing since the beginning of the year. It is particularly useful in mood disorder and sleep, in fact larger doses can be sedative if taken near bedtime. It can also disrupt digestion though!

      From my research earlier in the year I found it was involved in at least 300 biochemical actions within the body – Emily does a good blog about it at evolutionarypschiatry.blogspot … com she’s a big fan from a brain health point of view.

      Kelda wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Has any one ever heard about the statement by DR. Peat on regards to the consumption of egetables, nuts and grains? ‎’Unsaturated fats damage the mitochondria, partly by suppressing the respiratory enzyme, and partly by causing generalized oxidative damage. The more unsaturated the oils are, the more specifically they suppress tissue response to thyroid hormone, and transport of the hormone on the thyroid transport protein.” -Ray Peat, PhD

      ruben wrote on October 25th, 2011
  2. Alpha-lipoic acid is certainly a supplement worth considering. I have seen good evidence of its efficacy in lowering blood sugar.

    But I prefer to get my resveratrol from red wine… :)

    Abel James wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Raises a glass to that.

      Harry Mossman wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • 1+

        lunasma wrote on October 25th, 2011
  3. Nice list Mark. May I add a few things:

    1. The ideal way to supplement with magnesium would be to include different chelated forms (e.g. citrate, orotate, glycinate etc.), since each form has affinity for different tissues.

    2. Acetyl-L-carnitine is a better form than pure L-carnitine.

    3. R form of Alpha Lipoic Acid is the best. Look for Na-R-ALA.

    Kishore wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • true for all three. thanks for posting.

      katie wrote on September 1st, 2014
  4. This is awesome, but my first question is, what is the difference in value of getting these from foods and taking supplements for ALL of them?

    I of course would rather get the ones from food that I can and only supplement the difficult ones (I already take a CoQ10), but I know that so many people are conditioned to looking for the quick fix. If they read this, the takeaway they might have is to get all of these in one uber Mitochondria Health Pill rather than adjusting their diet.

    cTo wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • …unless one has nutrient absorption issues. a lot of people do.

      tess wrote on October 26th, 2011
  5. So many of these nutrients are found in MEAT… so ridiculous that conventional wisdom is always telling us to eat less of it.

    Becca wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Not ridiculous from a marketing perspective. “Eat less meat, more veggies, and take this, and this, and this supplement, that we happen to sell!”

      Aaron Blaisdell wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • good point aaron… marketing is such a deceptive little devil!

        Becca wrote on October 25th, 2011
  6. CW is so ridiculous now that we “know better”…alas, so many years wasted not eating MEAT!
    as an aside, just to show even kids know more than we credit them:
    my 10 year old and I were playing with paper dolls, and she looked at one and said “this girl needs a couple burgers!”
    LOL!

    Hopeless Dreamer wrote on October 25th, 2011
  7. PEMMICAN PROPERLY PREPARED AT LOW TEMPS PROVIDES EVERY NUTRIENT YOU NEED TO SURVIVE. AND OF COURSE JUST EATING A VARIETY OF EVERYTHING HELPS TOO..SO EAT A VARIETY OF EVERYTHING…FRESH OR HOME MADE IS THE BEST MOST CONTROLLED WAY TO GO.
    AND TRY TO STAY AWAY FROM PREFABRICATED STUFF…EAT REAL FOOD…PLAN THE TIME TO EAT REAL FOOD…FOOD IS YOUR LIFE AND YOUR MEDICINE..ORRRRRRR- EAT WHAT YOU WANT..EVERYONE GETS TO MAKE THAT CHOICE.I MAINTAIN IT ALL ON FOOD ONLY NO PILLS, POTIONS, FORMULAS, ADDITIVES, OR OTHER “STUFF”. NATURAL GOOD FOOD GROKS!!!..Please pass the steak and bacon wrapped in a Romain leaf…

    Dave PAPA GROK Parsons wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Lead the way Cave Dave.

      dasbutch wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • So do you make your own Pemmican? Do you have a recipe you prefer?

      diablo135 wrote on November 7th, 2011
      • Never mind, turns out there is a recipe on this site. Would like to see lots more fiber in it tho.

        diablo135 wrote on November 7th, 2011
  8. Good old Frank Grimes. Too bad he went crazy and offed himself by accident. Hopefully our mitochondria don’t do the same. Great food info, as always. Thanks for the post Mark.

    Wes wrote on October 25th, 2011
  9. what is a good brand of CoQ10 to take? And how many milligrams do you take a day?

    andrea wrote on October 25th, 2011
  10. Andrea, Jarrow Formulas makes a good CoQ10. I’m not sure how much you personally need so I won’t comment.

    Erik wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • thanks Eric!

      andrea wrote on October 25th, 2011
  11. What a fantastic article on the role of meat in “meating” our nutritional needs. You can bet I will be sharing this with my meat-phobic clients. Just getting them to eat grass-fed meat on a regular basis would be great, but I’m also working on leading the brave towards beef heart and liver on a weekly basis.

    Debra @ Blue Raven Wellness wrote on October 25th, 2011
  12. Some of the best writing I’ve seen has been on this site. This post is no exception.

    Here is a great video mentioned by Angelo Coppola at the great Blog & Podcast “Latest in Paleo.”

    Ben Goldacre: Battling Bad Science
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4MhbkWJzKk

    Check-out Angelo at http://www.LatestInPaleo.com. Next week, I believe Mark Sisson will be the guest.

    Dr. Strangelove wrote on October 25th, 2011
  13. Grains are a great source for manganese. *ducks*

    Mitch wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • Why eat grain when u get it from:http://www.lindt.com/int/swf/eng/products/excellence/excellence-90/

      My favorite!

      Bernardo wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • G’day Bu Ang,Thanks for the question.I would see your dooctr.The sensation of heartburn is caused by exposure of the lower esophagus to the acidic contents of the stomach. Normally, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) separating the stomach from the esophagus is supposed to contract to prevent this situation. If the sphincter relaxes for any reason (as normally occurs during swallowing), stomach contents, mixed with gastric acid, can return into the esophagus. This return is also known as reflux, and may progress to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) if it occurs frequently. Peristalsis, the rhythmic wave of muscular contraction in the esophagus, normally moves food down and past the LES and is responsible for ultimately clearing refluxed stomach contents. In addition, gastric acid can be neutralized by buffers present in saliva.Foods that may cause problems with heartburn include: * Alcohol * Coffee, tea, cola, and other caffeinated and carbonated beverages * Chocolate * Citrus fruits and juices * Tomatoes and tomato sauces (such as pizza and pasta sauce) * Spicy foods and fatty foods (including full-fat dairy products) * Peppermint and spearmint * Dry foods such as peanuts * Fatty foods such as ice creamStress can also be a factor.Physicians typically diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on symptoms alone. When the clinical presentation is unclear, other tests can be performed to confirm the diagnosis or exclude other disorders.If heartburn occurs when lying down, raising the head with pillows or sitting up frequently provides relief – although care must be taken to avoid placing continuous strain on the neck. Avoidance of certain foods shortly before bedtime is frequently advised to avoid future attacks.Antacids, H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are used in that order to treat heartburn.I would speak to your dooctr and he can make further inquiries.I have enclosed some references for your benefit.Regards

        Sales wrote on December 20th, 2012
    • Just like every single other plant

      Steven wrote on October 25th, 2011
  14. Whew! The body is sure complicated!

    Sharon wrote on October 25th, 2011
  15. This article came at a gret time for me. I bought beef liver at WF last night… going to make it for the first time tonight. Maybe it’ll taste better knowing about all of the important nutrients it provides? I can hope, right?

    sara wrote on October 25th, 2011
    • It seems like no matter how I prepare it, it always tastes like liver. Which is too bad, because it’s so affordable and good for you.

      SuperMike wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • try sauteing onions and grinding the liver with hard-boiled eggs, the onions, and salt+ pepper. good old fashioned chopped liver, tasty and not too “liver-ish”.

        Hopeless Dreamer wrote on October 25th, 2011
      • One word: Braunschweiger!

        Bacon Strips (Speck, Pork Side), Braunschweiger fried (or just gently warmed up) in bacon grease and a couple eggs for breakfast!!!

        THE absolute best old fashioned breakfast you can ever have.

        Arty wrote on October 25th, 2011
        • ::Drool:: I LOVE Braunschweiger! In bacon grease? MDA is like some kinda heaven…

          Deannacat wrote on October 26th, 2011
  16. I’m printing this one out, it’s a keeper! I had a personal trainer who told me the reason why I wasn’t gaining endurance was because I had mitochondrial insufficiency (sounds scary, doesn’t it?), because I didn’t exercise much as a fat, book-wormy type of child, and so never built up enough of them! So along with the exercising, I’ll add some supplements! :)

    Connie wrote on October 25th, 2011
  17. My favorite way to supplement magnesium — a nice bath with bath salts — half epsom salts and half sea salt, plus a few drops a whatever essential oil sounds good at the moment. MMMMM. Heaven.

    Diane wrote on October 25th, 2011
  18. I eat a diet rich in mitochondria. so my mitochondria are mitocannibals.

    alex wrote on October 25th, 2011
  19. I wonder if tempeh would have a similar amount of PQQ as natto. I’ve been eating quite a bit of tempeh lately.

    Morgan wrote on October 25th, 2011
  20. i wonder if PQQ is present in other fermented foods? fermented(moldy?) soybeans dont sound appealing. I DO like green tea – yay!

    Hopeless Dreamer wrote on October 25th, 2011
  21. Some great new info here for me and a few timely reminders also. Thanks for sharing. Mark, is there any chance you can get one of those facebook ‘like’ or ‘share’ icons at the bottom of your articles? I know it’d make it easier for people to share your articles on their relevant social networking page and spread the word. Thanks again mate :)

    Steve wrote on October 25th, 2011
  22. Here is a fun one that few seem to be discussing: http://www.fasebj.org/content/22/3/703.full.pdf
    Methylene blue delays cellular senescence and enhances
    key mitochondrial biochemical pathways — Yes, this is the same cheap Methylene blue that is used to detect and stain starches in high school science labs. It improves mitochondrial function by enhancing oxygen transport, and might be a good defense against Alzheimer’s caused by mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Adam Crafter wrote on October 25th, 2011
  23. Aren’t coffee and chocolate rich in magnesium? Can’t imagine not getting enough!

    deb b wrote on October 25th, 2011
  24. I live in Epsom, England and live a few yards away from the very first Well where they discovered Epsom Salts! How bizarre I should read about taking a bath with them to get my Magnesium supp, lol! No wonder they were marketed with such “healing properties” – I’d always known of this but before taking a proper interest in my health, it hadn’t really sunk in!

    Just wondering if it would b possible to grind down some liver and mix in with minced beef to make burgers? Do u think you’d still taste the liver – although my dislike of liver has always been more to do with the texture….or maybe a homemade pate recipe?

    H x

    HelenC UK wrote on October 26th, 2011
    • I regularly add a bit or liver to burgers or meatloaf. Basically it goes in to any ground beef dish, and no, you don’t taste it. I put about 1/4 to 1/2 a cup in to each 1 pound of ground beef. My boyfriend hates liver, and never even knows he is eating it.

      Brittany wrote on October 26th, 2011
    • Helen, if you mix ground liver with beef at no more than 1:3 you should be fine. Just remember that it’s wetter then mince, so adjust your recipes accordingly. Check Cheeseslave for good offal recipes, or the oldest cookbooks you can find (a free Kindle edition of Classic Cook Books by James Wadsworth (“12 books on cooking before 1800″) is a likely candidate).

      Lauren wrote on October 26th, 2011
  25. Or Grimey… as he liked to be called.

    Shane wrote on October 26th, 2011
  26. Perfect timing on this one, Mark! I just posted in the forums yesterday on what supplements I do/don’t need, and what are the best sources of them. Good thing I’ve heard so much about magnesium; I’ve been having trouble sleeping lately, and it’s probably because of a magnesium deficiency! I now have plans to pick up some Natural Calm after work today, and maybe some Epsom salts over the weekend so I can get my bath on =)

    Siren wrote on October 26th, 2011
    • Oh, just for clarification: my forum post from yesterday was asking for suggestions as to which supplements I do/ don’t need and which ones my fellow Grokkers suggest most… sorry for any confusion =P

      Siren wrote on October 26th, 2011
  27. What about Epsom salt baths? I read that you can make your own ultra-cheap magnesium lotion by adding Epsom salt to a neutral lotion or carrier, and that simply soaking in an Epsom salt bath 2-3x per week corrects blood levels of magnesium. Is there a reason to buy the uber-expensive health-food-store spray version over the pennies per pound grocery store version?

    mixie wrote on October 26th, 2011
    • I love taking epsom salt baths but didn’t realize I was getting this much of a benefit from them. I thought I was just so smart for saving money over the fancy scented “bath salts” available. I’ve never heard of the lotion before, and I suppose if I didn’t have a bathtub that might be a good option. I wonder if we would have to dilute the salts in some warm water before mixing with oil or lotion? I’ve tried taking magnesium aspartate, tri-salts and buffered vitamin C and almost always get diarrhea from it so a method that bypasses the GI tract is pretty appealing.

      Jenny wrote on October 26th, 2011
      • I don’t know, but I’m going to try it today–I’ll let you know how it works out ;0).
        I loooooooooove a nice bath, especially during the winter, but when it’s hot outside I might not soak in the tub for a few months. If the lotion/spray solution works that’ll be a nice way to keep mg levels up during the summer months, or when traveling or whatever.

        I guess my only real question is whether there’s any nutriative difference between epsom salt magnesium and dietary magnesium.

        mixie wrote on October 27th, 2011
      • Well, I dumped a couple tablespoons into a bottle of all-natural lotion last night and gave it a good shake. It seems to have dissolved in just fine–at least I can’t feel any crystals–and I’m not feeling any weird “stinging” or anything that some folks complained about with the sprays.
        Of course, I have no idea whatsoever if this is working to get it into my bloodstream, but it seems to have mixed into the lotion okay!

        mixie wrote on October 28th, 2011
  28. LOL! That’s sound like a great excuse to use on my husband next time I raid his candy drawer: “But honey, I just HAD to eat your last dark chocolate because my mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase stores were low. You wouldn’t want your wife to suffer a ischemic brain injury, would you???”
    I’m sure that will work every time.:)

    Ashley North wrote on October 26th, 2011
  29. Careful with ALA! If you’re mercury toxic, and a whole lot of people are, it will mobilize that and other heavy metals across the blood-brain barrier. If you do it right you can use ALA to chelate mercury (most people should start with DMSA to clear mercury outside of the brain first) but if you do it wrong you can really hurt yourself. Look up Andrew Cutler’s work on the subject. There’s a lot of bad info out there but Cutler is one of the good guys. If you have or have ever had dental amalgams (50% mercury by weight, which the ADA swears is perfectly safe) you should assume that you’re mercury toxic until proven otherwise but that’s not the only way to get poisoned.

    Brian wrote on October 26th, 2011
  30. Thanks for the advice, I shall get some liver to grind down into burgers and the like :)

    Now I just need to work out how to get off the metal grill that now covers over the Well up the road from me, which was where first Epsom Salts were found – free supply maybe ;)

    Am kinda new to all this but am so enjoying the “learning about me” aspect of this journey!

    H x

    HelenC UK wrote on October 27th, 2011
  31. I was eating macadamia nuts while reading this. The jar says a one ounce serving has 60% daily value of manganese. Best nuts around!

    Patrck wrote on October 27th, 2011
  32. Most CoQ10 supplements are ubiquinone. Look for the ubiquinol form which is up to 8x more potent. Puritan’s Pride has one. And dump the statins, they’re very harmful & have no benefits.

    Leila wrote on October 29th, 2011
  33. Hi,

    My husband wants take pre workout supplements. We eat primal; however he argues that he is getting older and needs energy to workout & lift.
    He has tried everything from Jack3D, Craze, GNC supplements. He has had side effects, like upset stomach, jitter (extreme caffeine content)..severe headaches..My conclusion is that non of these supplements work..
    Mark, could you recommend something he can take prior to his workouts?

    Christine wrote on June 16th, 2012
  34. Thank you Mark for your INFO. It’s been very helpful!

    Ana Vargas wrote on February 10th, 2013
  35. I want to thank you all for your comments and shares. I have been battling a rare type of cancer for about 5 years and I have just learned about mitochondria from doing research online. You would think that a dr. would explain or tell you about it especially since tumors are a big part of cellular deterioration or the lack of.
    so I am taking it in my own hands to work on a diet that will help me heal faster and my body work better.

    berry wrote on June 17th, 2013

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