Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
12 Oct

How Bad is Rice, Really?

The cereal grain family prides itself on its powerful, expansive arsenal of lectins, phytates, gluten, and other antinutrients. A single seed of its patriarch, wheat, can punch holes in gut linings with ease, and cousin oat has managed to obtain official recognition as being good for the heart even as it doses you with gluten. As healthy whole grains, they hide their armaments in plain sight; they cloak their puny bodies in the very poisons for which they are lauded and applauded. We Primals have got a heated feud going with the family as a whole, but should we paint all its members with the same brush?

Let me draw your attention to rice – diminutive member of the cereal grain family, frequent component of anti-low-carb advocates’ arguments, and the source of much consternation among grain abstainers. Is white rice the proverbial black sheep of the grain family? Does it deserve our full and unwavering opposition? Or, perhaps, can we treat rice like that crazy uncle who drinks a bit too much at family gatherings – occasional visits of short duration are fine and mostly harmless so long as you keep the hard stuff (scotch/soybean oil) locked up?

I’m starting to think it’s not quite so bad as we sometimes portray it. Sure, rice is nutritionally bereft, but it’s not all that offensive when compared to other, more heavily fortified grains.

As a seed, rice does employ a number of anti-consumption deterrents, most of which are located in the hull and bran. Let’s take a look…


Phytate, or phytin in rice, binds to minerals, rendering them largely useless to any animal that consumes it. Well, rats can break through the phytate and get at the minerals fairly well, but they evolved that ability – we did not. Heat does little to phytate, but, since it’s located in the bran, physically removing the bran removes the phytate. That’s why brown rice eaters tend to have poorer mineral balances than white rice eaters.

Trypsin inhibitor

Trypsin is a digestive enzyme produced by mammals to cleave protein peptides in twain and reduce them to their constituent parts – amino acids – for easy absorption. Without trypsin (or with it inhibited), we’d be hard pressed to digest all the protein we eat. Luckily for rice eaters, trypsin inhibitor is located primarily in the outer embryo of the rice seed, with a bit in the bran, and none in the polished, milled seed. Bran-free white rice has no trypsin inhibitor. Steaming rice bran deactivates it, too.


While rice doesn’t have something as pernicious as the gluten lectin agglutinin, it does feature haemagglutinin-lectin, which can bind to specific carbohydrate receptor sites in the intestinal lining and impede nutritional absorption. Again, though, it’s only found in the bran, and standard steam cooking inactivates its toxicity.

The common thread is that white, milled, polished rice is basically pure starch. All the chemical negatives are found in the hull, husk, and bran, and those are easily removed or negated. It is essentially a blank slate, nothing all that bad about it, but nothing all that great, either.

Well, wait: there is the fact that rice contains potential allergens, which cannot be neutralized by processing. Rice allergy isn’t necessarily common, but its incidence rises in countries that eat a lot of rice. Wheat-sensitive individuals and others with food-related autoimmune disorders seem more susceptible to rice allergy, too (big surprise there), and allergic reactions generally manifest as atopic dermatitis, eczema, gastrointestinal distress, or asthma. If you’re sensitive to food in general and grains in particular, rice could pose a problem. And even if it doesn’t cause an immediate reaction, there remains the question of latent, hidden damage. As I’ve mentioned before, gluten is damaging even to supposedly wheat-resilient individuals. Is rice doing similar damage on a lesser scale, even to asymptomatic people? It’s certainly possible.


There are tons of different rice varieties. Check out this exhaustive list of dozens upon dozens for an idea. Now, if this were a post about dozens upon dozens of strains of cattle (note: I’m actually not sure how many different types of cow exist; perhaps this would make a good future post), I would go into each and every variety with exquisite detail. Beef, after all, is a staple food for us. We’d do well to know everything about it. But rice? Rice is not a Primal staple. I’m not very interested in which Cambodian variety contains the most magnesium, or whether Bangladeshi ultra-short grain is superior to Indian red rice. It’s all very interesting, I’m sure, but I don’t want to become a boutique rice guy. I’m just interested in whether or not having some sushi or Vietnamese rice porridge with pig blood and organs now and then will derail efforts – and I think most of you are in the same boat. Here are some of the basic rice varieties you’ll come across.

Brown Rice

It’s the “healthier” choice because it still has the bran, with all its nutrients. In a 100g dose, raw brown rice contains:

  • 77 g carb
  • 3.5 g fiber
  • 3 g fat
  • 8 g protein
  • 0.4 mg thiamin (Vitamin B1)
  • 5 mg niacin
  • 1.5 mg iron
  • 143 mg magnesium
  • 223 mg potassium

I mean, even the most ardent zero-carber would have to admit that brown rice sports an impressive nutrient profile (to clarify, that’s 100g raw; 100g cooked is far less impressive). But most of it is bound up with phytic acid and mostly useless to humans. Rats and other rodents produce phytase, which breaks down phytic acid and releases the bound minerals, but until we engineer rat-human hybrids, we’re not enjoying the full potential of brown rice. Another option is to soak and ferment brown rice, as Stephan details here. To me, though, this just sounds like a ton of work, and I worry that the newly unbound minerals will just leech into the soaking/fermenting liquid along with the phytate and the other antinutrients. If you toss the liquid, won’t you be tossing the nutrients, too? Hopefully Stephan can chime in with some clarification.

White Rice

Mostly neutral. A 100g dose (raw) contains:

  • 80 g carb
  • 1 g fiber
  • 0.6 g fat
  • 7 g protein
  • 0.07 mg thiamin
  • 1.6 g niacin
  • 0.8 mg iron
  • 25 mg magnesium

Pretty meager, right? Not many nutrients, pretty high in starchy carbs – eating white rice and nothing but will lead to nutritional deficiencies fast, but not because white rice is leeching nutrients from you. It’s simply a matter of displacement. White rice replaces other, more nutritious foods, and in some cases, it acts as a vehicle for negative foods, like rancid oils and sugar.

Parboiled Rice

Parboiled rice is interesting. Parboiling involves partially boiling the intact rice seed – husk, bran, and all. This, in theory, is supposed to incorporate some of the bran’s nutrients into the interior. The parboiled rice is then dried and milled, producing a white rice with greater nutrient content than regular white rice. How does it pan out? A 100g raw dose contains:

  • 81 g carb
  • 2 g fiber
  • 1 g fat
  • 7.5 g protein
  • 0.224 mg thiamin
  • 5 mg niacin
  • 0.74 mg iron
  • 27 mg magnesium

It kinda works. There’s very little mineral change from white rice (perhaps even a reduction), but some of the vitamins seem to increase by parboiling. Interesting.

Wild Rice

Wild rice is pretty high in nutrient content, but, as with brown rice, the antinutrients are present and the minerals are mostly bound by phytate. In a 100g raw dose of wild rice:

  • 75 g carb
  • 6 g fiber
  • 1 g fat
  • 15 g protein
  • 0.115 mg thiamin
  • 6.7 mg niacin
  • 2 mg iron
  • 177 mg magnesium

If you’re willing and able to figure out a way to soak and ferment wild rice while retaining all nutrients and minerals and discarding the antinutrients, it’s probably not such a bad option for a post-glycolitic workout carb.

The Peril of Categorization

Wheat is not awful because it’s a grain. It’s awful because it contains gluten (among other things). “Grain” is simply a valuable linguistic tool to promote better dietary choice-making. Rice is a grain that happens to be not so awful in certain circumstances – on the occasional dinner plate of a lean, insulin-sensitive individual; after a glycogen-depleting workout; underneath a massive slab of yellowtail prepared specially by a sushi-chef in appreciation of your enthusiasm for his creations. It’s a cheat that almost isn’t, that neither necessitates eventual pangs of guilt nor causes – for most people – pangs of gastric distress.

There is nuance to all things. Though categorization is a valuable, essential data management tool, one that helped propel us to the top of the food chain (grouping bits of data together into categories allows us to handle more mental “stuff” at once), we run the risk of forgetting that these groups are made up of individual, non-homogenous bits. There is danger in missing the trees for the forest. Rice is a grain, yes, but it’s not the same as wheat, barley, oats, or corn. Avoiding grains as a general rule is good for your health, and that goes for rice, but be realistic. A bit of white rice with a restaurant meal is not going to kill you.

Don’t take this as blanket approval for immediate regular rice consumption, however. It’s not black and white. Rice exists on one end of the “grain suitability” continuum. You know how I’ve discussed the dairy continuum? Raw, grass-fed one on end and low-fat, homogenized, ultra-pasteurized on the other. It’s the same for grains. High-gluten wheat on one (very bad) end and rice on the other (don’t lose sleep if you eat it) end. Do I recommend ditching the entire group altogether, just to make things easy and avoid any possible irritants? Sure, but if grain consumption presents itself, or you literally are hamstrung by finances and simply need some calories, you shouldn’t beat yourself up over it just because you ate some white rice.

Rice can even be a vehicle for the good stuff – for butter, ghee, coconut. It can also be a vehicle for the bad stuff – for vegetable oils, for sugar. In fact, it’s the essential neutrality of rice that makes it what it is. The problem with rice in most people’s diets is twofold: it serves as a vehicle for processed fat and sugar; and overweight, insulin-resistant folks with damaged metabolisms can’t handle the glucose load.

Rice fried in rancid corn oil? Avoid.
Rice fried in homemade ghee? Not so bad, necessarily.
Rice if you’re trying to lose weight? Avoid.
Rice if you’re lean and active? Not so bad, necessarily.

The Asian Paradox

This probably deserves a full post, but I’ll briefly discuss it here. I’m not going to sit here and claim that Asians don’t actually eat rice. They do. And they have for centuries while maintaining pretty good health and staying fairly lean. That’s changing nowadays, though, with the Westernization of their food. They’re eating more sugar and using vegetable oils for cooking, rather than traditional animal fats. These factors are deranging their metabolisms, turning the relatively benign rice starch into an enemy. It just suggests that carbs, in and of themselves, are benign in a metabolic vacuum. If you have everything else going right – insulin sensitivity, regular activity, absence of metabolic deranging foods like fructose, lectins, and excessive linoleic acid – pure starchy carbs aren’t going to be a big problem. But, especially in the States, we live in anything but a nutritional vacuum. We aren’t starting from ground zero. The overweight perimenopausal wife and mother of three working 50 hours a week is not starting from square one. She has an issue with glucose, one that might not be cured in a lifetime. For a person like that, avoidance of rice is recommended and probably necessary.

We have to face facts. Deranged has become normal. Glucose intolerance – or perhaps “mishandling” is better – has become standard. Where rice belongs in your life depends on where you fall on the metabolic derangement continuum.

What are your views on rice? Do you avoid it like the plague? Have a little in certain dishes? Let me know in the comment board on Grok on!

You want comments? We got comments:

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  2. Being an extremist in my younger years and having experimented with just about every diet out there, I have finally heard the wisdom that was trying to get through my thick skull for years – Life is short – The Middle Path works best!

    Bob wrote on April 15th, 2012
  3. My wife is of Asian descent. Rice is a staple in her family and after I married her, rice became a part of our staples as well. In the past few years, I’ve severely cut down on it (she too, but eats far more than I do). I now get Basmati rice, which costs more, but seems to be less starchy and stick than other rice. Then, when we cook it, I add an almost equal measure of quinoa, about .5:1 of sliced almonds (organic, sliced almonds from Costco are inexpensive) and a few spoonfuls of organic milled flax seed. I eat about two cups (cooked, not raw) in a week, primarily with salmon or fish, sometimes with eggs. Other than sweet potatoes, this is about the only starch I get and it feels great after a workout of heavy lifting.

    I’m starting to look at other vegetable options to mix with the rice to cut down on the starch but maintain the volume and the blend of flavors we get from it.

    Cory wrote on May 13th, 2012
  4. Well I was married to an asian, who got me to consume rice on a daily routine.But the way we ate rice was very little rice like six or seven large bites of rice to more veggie lots of veggies and little meat mostly chicken or duck. But even the meat was small serving. Basically the largest serving on the plate was assorted veggies. I was kind of lazy only from normal work was I active. And I had a little bit of a stomach not much. I still eat white rice today about 5 times a week, I love white rice just don’t go crazy keep your portions low and stay with assorted veggies to balance. So enjoy your rice don’t be afraid.

    JJ wrote on June 2nd, 2012
  5. Nah, animal fats and animal oils are very harmful. If you are rice intolerant, I would avoid it, but wild rice and brown rice are good as well as almost all vegetables and fruits. MEAT – POULTRY – FISH – and anything that used to walk swim hop crawl or slither are bad bad bad. Become a vegan and your fat and medical problems are gone. Stop giving rice and other good grains a bad rap because the FDA has you convinced. If you are following the food pyramid, shame on you. STOP DRINKING MILK IT’S FOR CALVES! Just eat every abundant growing food in moderation. Remember, too much of one thing is just TOO MUCH period!

    MeanGene wrote on June 3rd, 2012
    • Um, MeanGene, you might be in the wrong place…

      fritzy wrote on June 3rd, 2012
  6. I eat it POST workout… it is the only NON-Paleo food I consume. It helps with spiking insulin post workout to build muscle and cut fat. I’m a believer in RICE!

    Thanks for this post! You are awesome!

    Vanessa Gale wrote on June 5th, 2012
  7. How about embryo rice?

    Do you have any figure abt enmbryo rice ?

    Embryo Rice wrote on June 19th, 2012
  8. Thanks Mark! this post cleared up a lot of my confusion on rice. As an Asian, I grew up eating rice and love it. As I decided to go on this paleo diet, it was hard at first but it isnt so bad. And seeing how others have it one in awhile makes its seem okay to have rice, just not everyday. and with portion control. =)

    Eunice wrote on June 25th, 2012
  9. I eat white rice nearly every day. Being Vietnamese, it’s a staple. However, I also don’t eat meat except for fish, and I completely avoid gluten, dairy, sugar, and unfermented soy. I feel great with my current eating choices.

    Michelle wrote on July 7th, 2012
  10. I occasionally will have a 1/4 cup or so of white rice. Then again, I am the rebel- I will also -just occasionally- have the same amount of quinoa or amaranth. That’s where it stops.

    Nancy wrote on July 7th, 2012
  11. I wonder if possible that genetic and lifestyle habits affect the way a human body absorbs and digests rice? I’m of Korean descent. Rice consumption (at a large scale) has never been an issue for me, parents, siblings, cousins, aunts nor uncles. Seriously. There’s no fat people in our family (and there never will be!!!!!).

    Whereas my roommate, who is Irish descent, has a tough time eating half the rice I eat. He’s in great shape and eats moderately – and it’s like his body doesn’t want more than a small handful of cooked white rice at a time, while I eat double/triple his portions, and I’m still active and not obese… not in the best shape I’ve ever been in as I work out a bit less with my business and all, but still, I’m no fatty either.

    Jeff Kee wrote on July 17th, 2012
  12. As for rice-heavy Asian diet …

    I used to live in South Korea until I was 11 years of age. (I moved to the US afterwards, in 1983.) Back then, our typical meal consisted of:

    A bowl of rice
    Veggie side dish — seasonal, ranging from spinach to fern shoots,
    Soup — usually Dwaenjangguk (fermented bean paste soup with dried anchovy as the basis of the soup stock) or Miyeokguk (sea vegetable soup with beef, chicken, or seafood as the basis of the soup stock),
    Fish or egg

    Compared to the life after moving to the US, the portions in Korea were smaller and the meal menu was less varied. Perhaps the most outstanding difference is the availability of snacks and other stuffs. It is not that kids and their parents were health-conscious; unless your family were pretty well-off, snacks and dining out were expensive. Another significant difference is the sheer amount of walking one had to do just to get from one place to another. I had to walk almost an hour just to go to school. Even to catch a bus, I had to walk at least 20 minutes to the nearest bus stop. Shopping? Not only we had to walk, ride bus, then more walking, but we could not shop more goods than whatever that we could physically carry.

    But since then, I think there are less difference between the US and Korea insofar as food is concerned, although serving portions are still smaller in Korea. But unlike in the past, fast food and snacks have become ubiquitous. As a parallel, there has been rise in the commercialization of food (it is now common to just buy Kimchi instead of making it yourself).

    Debit wrote on August 10th, 2012
  13. Did God really mean to subject us to all of this just to eat?

    mike wrote on August 22nd, 2012
  14. No mention of arsenic content though? Would like to hear your thoughts on this?

    Portraiter wrote on October 10th, 2012
  15. I think embryo rice can get more healthily. not bad

    Erice wrote on November 5th, 2012

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