Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
12 Oct

How Bad is Rice, Really?

riceThe cereal grain family prides itself on its powerful, expansive arsenal of lectins, phytates, gluten, and other antinutrients. A single seed of its patriarch, wheat, can punch holes in gut linings with ease, and cousin oat has managed to obtain official recognition as being good for the heart even as it doses you with gluten. As healthy whole grains, they hide their armaments in plain sight; they cloak their puny bodies in the very poisons for which they are lauded and applauded. We Primals have got a heated feud going with the family as a whole, but should we paint all its members with the same brush?

Let me draw your attention to rice – diminutive member of the cereal grain family, frequent component of anti-low-carb advocates’ arguments, and the source of much consternation among grain abstainers. Is white rice the proverbial black sheep of the grain family? Does it deserve our full and unwavering opposition? Or, perhaps, can we treat rice like that crazy uncle who drinks a bit too much at family gatherings – occasional visits of short duration are fine and mostly harmless so long as you keep the hard stuff (scotch/soybean oil) locked up?

I’m starting to think it’s not quite so bad as we sometimes portray it. Sure, rice is nutritionally bereft, but it’s not all that offensive when compared to other, more heavily fortified grains.

As a seed, rice does employ a number of anti-consumption deterrents, most of which are located in the hull and bran. Let’s take a look…

Phytate

Phytate, or phytin in rice, binds to minerals, rendering them largely useless to any animal that consumes it. Well, rats can break through the phytate and get at the minerals fairly well, but they evolved that ability – we did not. Heat does little to phytate, but, since it’s located in the bran, physically removing the bran removes the phytate. That’s why brown rice eaters tend to have poorer mineral balances than white rice eaters.

Trypsin inhibitor

Trypsin is a digestive enzyme produced by mammals to cleave protein peptides in twain and reduce them to their constituent parts – amino acids – for easy absorption. Without trypsin (or with it inhibited), we’d be hard pressed to digest all the protein we eat. Luckily for rice eaters, trypsin inhibitor is located primarily in the outer embryo of the rice seed, with a bit in the bran, and none in the polished, milled seed. Bran-free white rice has no trypsin inhibitor. Steaming rice bran deactivates it, too.

Haemagglutinin-lectin

While rice doesn’t have something as pernicious as the gluten lectin agglutinin, it does feature haemagglutinin-lectin, which can bind to specific carbohydrate receptor sites in the intestinal lining and impede nutritional absorption. Again, though, it’s only found in the bran, and standard steam cooking inactivates its toxicity.

The common thread is that white, milled, polished rice is basically pure starch. All the chemical negatives are found in the hull, husk, and bran, and those are easily removed or negated. It is essentially a blank slate, nothing all that bad about it, but nothing all that great, either.

Well, wait: there is the fact that rice contains potential allergens, which cannot be neutralized by processing. Rice allergy isn’t necessarily common, but its incidence rises in countries that eat a lot of rice. Wheat-sensitive individuals and others with food-related autoimmune disorders seem more susceptible to rice allergy, too (big surprise there), and allergic reactions generally manifest as atopic dermatitis, eczema, gastrointestinal distress, or asthma. If you’re sensitive to food in general and grains in particular, rice could pose a problem. And even if it doesn’t cause an immediate reaction, there remains the question of latent, hidden damage. As I’ve mentioned before, gluten is damaging even to supposedly wheat-resilient individuals. Is rice doing similar damage on a lesser scale, even to asymptomatic people? It’s certainly possible.

Varieties

There are tons of different rice varieties. Check out this exhaustive list of dozens upon dozens for an idea. Now, if this were a post about dozens upon dozens of strains of cattle (note: I’m actually not sure how many different types of cow exist; perhaps this would make a good future post), I would go into each and every variety with exquisite detail. Beef, after all, is a staple food for us. We’d do well to know everything about it. But rice? Rice is not a Primal staple. I’m not very interested in which Cambodian variety contains the most magnesium, or whether Bangladeshi ultra-short grain is superior to Indian red rice. It’s all very interesting, I’m sure, but I don’t want to become a boutique rice guy. I’m just interested in whether or not having some sushi or Vietnamese rice porridge with pig blood and organs now and then will derail efforts – and I think most of you are in the same boat. Here are some of the basic rice varieties you’ll come across.

Brown Rice

It’s the “healthier” choice because it still has the bran, with all its nutrients. In a 100g dose, raw brown rice contains:

  • 77 g carb
  • 3.5 g fiber
  • 3 g fat
  • 8 g protein
  • 0.4 mg thiamin (Vitamin B1)
  • 5 mg niacin
  • 1.5 mg iron
  • 143 mg magnesium
  • 223 mg potassium

I mean, even the most ardent zero-carber would have to admit that brown rice sports an impressive nutrient profile (to clarify, that’s 100g raw; 100g cooked is far less impressive). But most of it is bound up with phytic acid and mostly useless to humans. Rats and other rodents produce phytase, which breaks down phytic acid and releases the bound minerals, but until we engineer rat-human hybrids, we’re not enjoying the full potential of brown rice. Another option is to soak and ferment brown rice, as Stephan details here. To me, though, this just sounds like a ton of work, and I worry that the newly unbound minerals will just leech into the soaking/fermenting liquid along with the phytate and the other antinutrients. If you toss the liquid, won’t you be tossing the nutrients, too? Hopefully Stephan can chime in with some clarification.

White Rice

Mostly neutral. A 100g dose (raw) contains:

  • 80 g carb
  • 1 g fiber
  • 0.6 g fat
  • 7 g protein
  • 0.07 mg thiamin
  • 1.6 g niacin
  • 0.8 mg iron
  • 25 mg magnesium

Pretty meager, right? Not many nutrients, pretty high in starchy carbs – eating white rice and nothing but will lead to nutritional deficiencies fast, but not because white rice is leeching nutrients from you. It’s simply a matter of displacement. White rice replaces other, more nutritious foods, and in some cases, it acts as a vehicle for negative foods, like rancid oils and sugar.

Parboiled Rice

Parboiled rice is interesting. Parboiling involves partially boiling the intact rice seed – husk, bran, and all. This, in theory, is supposed to incorporate some of the bran’s nutrients into the interior. The parboiled rice is then dried and milled, producing a white rice with greater nutrient content than regular white rice. How does it pan out? A 100g raw dose contains:

  • 81 g carb
  • 2 g fiber
  • 1 g fat
  • 7.5 g protein
  • 0.224 mg thiamin
  • 5 mg niacin
  • 0.74 mg iron
  • 27 mg magnesium

It kinda works. There’s very little mineral change from white rice (perhaps even a reduction), but some of the vitamins seem to increase by parboiling. Interesting.

Wild Rice

Wild rice is pretty high in nutrient content, but, as with brown rice, the antinutrients are present and the minerals are mostly bound by phytate. In a 100g raw dose of wild rice:

  • 75 g carb
  • 6 g fiber
  • 1 g fat
  • 15 g protein
  • 0.115 mg thiamin
  • 6.7 mg niacin
  • 2 mg iron
  • 177 mg magnesium

If you’re willing and able to figure out a way to soak and ferment wild rice while retaining all nutrients and minerals and discarding the antinutrients, it’s probably not such a bad option for a post-glycolitic workout carb.

The Peril of Categorization

Wheat is not awful because it’s a grain. It’s awful because it contains gluten (among other things). “Grain” is simply a valuable linguistic tool to promote better dietary choice-making. Rice is a grain that happens to be not so awful in certain circumstances – on the occasional dinner plate of a lean, insulin-sensitive individual; after a glycogen-depleting workout; underneath a massive slab of yellowtail prepared specially by a sushi-chef in appreciation of your enthusiasm for his creations. It’s a cheat that almost isn’t, that neither necessitates eventual pangs of guilt nor causes – for most people – pangs of gastric distress.

There is nuance to all things. Though categorization is a valuable, essential data management tool, one that helped propel us to the top of the food chain (grouping bits of data together into categories allows us to handle more mental “stuff” at once), we run the risk of forgetting that these groups are made up of individual, non-homogenous bits. There is danger in missing the trees for the forest. Rice is a grain, yes, but it’s not the same as wheat, barley, oats, or corn. Avoiding grains as a general rule is good for your health, and that goes for rice, but be realistic. A bit of white rice with a restaurant meal is not going to kill you.

Don’t take this as blanket approval for immediate regular rice consumption, however. It’s not black and white. Rice exists on one end of the “grain suitability” continuum. You know how I’ve discussed the dairy continuum? Raw, grass-fed one on end and low-fat, homogenized, ultra-pasteurized on the other. It’s the same for grains. High-gluten wheat on one (very bad) end and rice on the other (don’t lose sleep if you eat it) end. Do I recommend ditching the entire group altogether, just to make things easy and avoid any possible irritants? Sure, but if grain consumption presents itself, or you literally are hamstrung by finances and simply need some calories, you shouldn’t beat yourself up over it just because you ate some white rice.

Rice can even be a vehicle for the good stuff – for butter, ghee, coconut. It can also be a vehicle for the bad stuff – for vegetable oils, for sugar. In fact, it’s the essential neutrality of rice that makes it what it is. The problem with rice in most people’s diets is twofold: it serves as a vehicle for processed fat and sugar; and overweight, insulin-resistant folks with damaged metabolisms can’t handle the glucose load.

Rice fried in rancid corn oil? Avoid.
Rice fried in homemade ghee? Not so bad, necessarily.
Rice if you’re trying to lose weight? Avoid.
Rice if you’re lean and active? Not so bad, necessarily.

The Asian Paradox

This probably deserves a full post, but I’ll briefly discuss it here. I’m not going to sit here and claim that Asians don’t actually eat rice. They do. And they have for centuries while maintaining pretty good health and staying fairly lean. That’s changing nowadays, though, with the Westernization of their food. They’re eating more sugar and using vegetable oils for cooking, rather than traditional animal fats. These factors are deranging their metabolisms, turning the relatively benign rice starch into an enemy. It just suggests that carbs, in and of themselves, are benign in a metabolic vacuum. If you have everything else going right – insulin sensitivity, regular activity, absence of metabolic deranging foods like fructose, lectins, and excessive linoleic acid – pure starchy carbs aren’t going to be a big problem. But, especially in the States, we live in anything but a nutritional vacuum. We aren’t starting from ground zero. The overweight perimenopausal wife and mother of three working 50 hours a week is not starting from square one. She has an issue with glucose, one that might not be cured in a lifetime. For a person like that, avoidance of rice is recommended and probably necessary.

We have to face facts. Deranged has become normal. Glucose intolerance – or perhaps “mishandling” is better – has become standard. Where rice belongs in your life depends on where you fall on the metabolic derangement continuum.

What are your views on rice? Do you avoid it like the plague? Have a little in certain dishes? Let me know in the comment board on Grok on!

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. As for rice-heavy Asian diet …

    I used to live in South Korea until I was 11 years of age. (I moved to the US afterwards, in 1983.) Back then, our typical meal consisted of:

    A bowl of rice
    Kimchi,
    Veggie side dish — seasonal, ranging from spinach to fern shoots,
    Soup — usually Dwaenjangguk (fermented bean paste soup with dried anchovy as the basis of the soup stock) or Miyeokguk (sea vegetable soup with beef, chicken, or seafood as the basis of the soup stock),
    Fish or egg

    Compared to the life after moving to the US, the portions in Korea were smaller and the meal menu was less varied. Perhaps the most outstanding difference is the availability of snacks and other stuffs. It is not that kids and their parents were health-conscious; unless your family were pretty well-off, snacks and dining out were expensive. Another significant difference is the sheer amount of walking one had to do just to get from one place to another. I had to walk almost an hour just to go to school. Even to catch a bus, I had to walk at least 20 minutes to the nearest bus stop. Shopping? Not only we had to walk, ride bus, then more walking, but we could not shop more goods than whatever that we could physically carry.

    But since then, I think there are less difference between the US and Korea insofar as food is concerned, although serving portions are still smaller in Korea. But unlike in the past, fast food and snacks have become ubiquitous. As a parallel, there has been rise in the commercialization of food (it is now common to just buy Kimchi instead of making it yourself).

    Debit wrote on August 10th, 2012
  2. Did God really mean to subject us to all of this just to eat?

    mike wrote on August 22nd, 2012
  3. No mention of arsenic content though? Would like to hear your thoughts on this?
    http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505269_162-
    57515656/reported-arsenic-levels-in-rice-prompt-concern/

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/19/us-usa-rice-arsenic-idUSBRE88I0RR20120919

    Portraiter wrote on October 10th, 2012
  4. I think embryo rice can get more healthily. not bad

    Erice wrote on November 5th, 2012
  5. Black rice, is it bad for people’s health too? I can’t find an article about it.

    Joey wrote on November 26th, 2012
  6. This was seeming a good article till I read “they evolved that ability”. sigh

    Temi wrote on January 5th, 2013
  7. This eased my worries. I eat a variety of vegetables and fruits according to mineral balance, often time from smoothies. Along with soups with they’d more veggies, I have good dose of meat (lots of fish). I also do strength training 4x a week. I’m 5’9″, 140 lbs, about 15% body fat. I want to Gain muacle. Would there it be a major health no no to eat rice or buckwheat noodles with 2 or 3 of my meals? I usuall have about 4-5. I’m not expecting you to answer this but it’s something i have been wondering as I just feel like I am missing something without it.

    Grant wrote on January 22nd, 2013
  8. Hi Mark,

    I didnt think rice had gluten?

    I have an aunt who has celiac and eats rice crackers, rice flour, etc.

    What am I missing here?

    – Dani (Dani<3Meat)

    Dani wrote on February 4th, 2013
  9. I started eating rice again, I feel fine. Asians and other cultures have been eating it for centuries. As long as you are eating whole foods you’ll be fine for the most part. Just don’t eat bread and other processed foods etc.

    Chris wrote on April 4th, 2013
  10. I eat white rice everyday, can be up to 130g dry weight. I struggle to gain weight and I lift weights regularly and am always trying to build more muscle. So I’m in the opposite situation as most people who go primal. I do it for health, not weight loss. And white rice is a good tool because I use it properly (simply for calories) in my situation. It’s nice to have at least a few carb sources for people like me (white rice and potato flesh) even if it’s not strictly paleo or primal. It’s so much easier to eat 3000+ calories a day when you can use a few hundred grams of safe carbs to do it.

    Carl HmS wrote on April 16th, 2013
  11. According to Harvard’s site list of 100+ common eaten foods in America , white rice has THE HIGHEST glycemic load of all foods including betty crocker vanilla cake, french bread, apple juice and even fruit roll ups which have a GI of 99. It looks like rice may be the exception to the high glycemic load foods are bad theory. Can anyone point me to some clarification?

    Dan wrote on June 28th, 2013
  12. Mark,
    What about black rice? What do you know about it and is it really a “superfood”? It says it’s full of antioxidants and is anti-inflammatory.

    Carol Burns wrote on July 2nd, 2013
  13. I’m getting tired of trying to compile all the bits an pieces of info about phytates, lectins, glycemic index, of grains and cereals.

    Is there a single reference somewhere that has a table showing all these foods and how they stack up, fermented, not fermented…. If I had that reference, I could make my own decisions about which carbs to eat and when, particularly to keep up my energy levels for strenuous exercise.

    By the way, I’ve noticed an anti-exercise bias in some of the Paleo community which I think indicates a lot of sedentary, overweight people with existing metabolic disorders. What’s good for them, might not be good for an active person of normal weight without a bunch of anti-immune issues.

    Finally what’s with the butter, dairy thing. OK in Primal, not OK in Paleo? And isn’t lacto-bacilli (yoghurt) supposed to be goodness?

    Dave wrote on August 22nd, 2013
  14. Hey Mark, what’s your thought on mixing white rice and animal protein (starch + animal protein)? It’s considered an improper food combo in some schools…

    Sanaz Ebriani wrote on August 22nd, 2013
  15. I know this isn’t the most paleo opinion ever, but I am totally ok with white rice. Here in my house, we are two young, healthy, relatively active, and broke adults. Cheap white rice makes room in my budget for enough grassfed ground beef and and good oils and fruits and veggies and other healthy stuff. I do like to use it to pack some nutrition in us. For example, I’ll make homemade yellow rice out of homemade chicken stock and a bunch of tumerick, and those two things we could use more of in our diet! Or even coconut rice: rice cooked in canned coconut milk with a handful of shredded coconut tossed in. Now do we eat it every day? No.

    Em wrote on August 24th, 2013
  16. Rice when you’re rich? check out other options.
    Rice when you’re poor? Not so bad, really.
    I only eat rice when I run out of money. Pink rice with boiled egg and garden weeds. Also with some cod liver oil, sunflower oil or ghee. And maybe a piece of cheap cheese.
    eh, works for me.

    Lisa Being wrote on August 25th, 2013
  17. I eat rice my whole life. Recently, my friend and I had a bet. She insisted rice makes you fat and I told her no, its the overall refined diet that makes you fat. So she went on to skip rice but retain her lifestyle of eating meat,pizza, vege, desserts etc. On the other hand, I SKIPPED ALL BREAD, pasteries and sugar water. I never liked potato nor pumpkin so those are out too. However, I increase my steamed white rice from once a day to 3 times a day, accompanied by stirfry greens and chicken soup.. Guess what. After 3 months, I lost 3 kg while she only fluctuate between loss of 1kg+ but it keep bouncing back while mine stayed consistent at my optimal weight of 50.0kg for my height. SO PLEASE STOP smearing the good name of PLAIN white rice. Rice alone dont make you fat. It’s the rest of the food that goes along with it that made u fat.

    Holly wrote on August 25th, 2013
  18. Good write up! I have always viewed rice as a filler. I understand that it is a staple in some parts of the world, I also know that a diet of white rice only has been proven as a recipie for Beriberi due to the lack of B1 (thiamin). i wasn’t aware of the Phytic acid problem.

    Brian wrote on September 23rd, 2013
  19. I think for some a little rice can be a life saver. Hardly anyone is allergic to it, it is safe for people w/ Celiac’s disease and gluten sensitivity or intolerance, because it does not contain gliadin, the troubling gluten. And the type of gluten rice does contain, is less than 5% of the total of the protein content of (rice).

    I’m female, 44 years old, no kids, ectomorph, 5 ft 7 and about 105, and 13% fat. I don’t have hardly any body fat to burn through. I sometimes need those extra carbs, for energy. However, I think I am in the minority for most people, and in the extreme minority, for most women. But, rice, has saved me from feelings of lethargy and fatigue, many times. I mean, there is only so many carbs (energy), you can get from fruits and vegetables. And no, fat is not a good source of energy, as I’ve heard others say. It takes long to digest, and leads to sleepiness in many lean individuals, such as myself.

    So yes, white rice, is fine for the exception, but probably not the rule. Oh, and the arsenic, arsenic is found in most foods (organic in form), and for the (inorganic) found in rice, boil in a large quantity of water, then strain the rice through a strainer. The arsenic will be discarded with the cooking water. DO NOT BOIL/STEAM.

    LS wrote on October 31st, 2013
  20. I eat rice all day everyday to soak up my beer in my belly.

    Joel wrote on December 12th, 2013
  21. Oh, thank goodness! I can forego all pasta and grains with ease, but not white rice… Beef and broccoli, or Halibut just wouldn’t be the same without white rice (in moderation, of course!)

    Neon wrote on December 30th, 2013
  22. I’m late to this discussion by a few years, but when I started primal I cut carbs down to under 35g a day. Carb slashing works wonderfully for losing weight and I never even really felt bad doing it.

    Fast forward a year: I’m 40lbs. lighter and way, way more active (workout 6 days a week for 20 – 40 minutes switching between bodyweight and sprints) and haven’t been sick in over a year. I feel great.

    About 3 months ago I hit a weight plateau and at that point started adding more carbs again along with sprints. It’s a great combo and, quite frankly, I love white rice. I eat it a few times a week along with a steady diet of sweet potatoes when I finish a workout. That broke the plateau.

    Mind you, I think it had WAY less to do with carb changes and more to do with sprinting, but my point is that even when upping the carb consumption to 100 – 200g per day, coupled with working out I still feel wonderful and am still improving physically.

    Is rice great? Nah. It’s a filler food, but it’s a filler food that I’ve found I actually like a lot more now than I did before. Since getting to be thinner and healthier, I’ve relaxed how I eat and it doesn’t seem to have a negative impact. When I started I obsessed over things like rice’s anti-nutrients but a year later I’ve found the combination of good eating, sleeping, stress reduction and regular exercise make some rice every few meals a non-factor. Plus there’s the pleasure derived from eating good old Pad Thai, which I love.

    Joshua wrote on December 31st, 2013
  23. Hmmm…I think “white rice is pretty neutral” isn’t entirely true.

    1. All rice, including organic, is contaminated with arsenic. It used to be in something they sprayed on rice fields, and once in the soil, it lasts for decades (organic certification only goes back a few years).

    2. Just like we can’t say all grains (or all rice varieties) are the same, we can’t say all white rice is the same (or “pretty neutral”), because how it’s handled matters: turning it into puffed cereal or rice cakes seems to make it extremely toxic. In “Beating the Food Giants”, the rats fed the cereal box lived longer than the rats fed the puffed rice cereal…

    3. Whether good for us or not as food, grains are still hell on the environmental sustainability, political-economics, and corporate ownership scales. Almost all grains are grown in nature-killing monocultures, and are owned and controlled by BigFood (just as evil as Big Money, Big Pharma, BigChem, Big Oil).

    Erica wrote on January 1st, 2014
  24. As an Filipino(Asian), I can never get away from rice. Almost all social events has an eating session and rice is always served.

    I accept the fact that I could never get away from it since having a no-rice diet would be very expensive in our country.

    My compromise is that I try to eat rice as little as possible(around 4 tablespoons max).

    arvinsim wrote on February 21st, 2014
  25. So…. is white rice better than brown rice then? I’m confused.

    Amy wrote on March 5th, 2014
  26. White rice isn’t a staple for me because I can eat more nutritious foods instead. But I don’t feel guilty about having it once a month or so, factoring it into my carb intake for the day. Tonight, I baked a free-range chicken and roasted a bunch of veggies in the drippings, to which I added a few tablespoons of coconut cream for richness (and some red wine, yum). My salad dressing had olive oil. A half cup of rice soaked up these nice fats and rounded out my meal. I remained under 100 carb grams for the day.

    Dad is lean and can use the calories/carbs. Mom needs to lose weight but only eats a few bites with her meal. As for me, at 5’7 and now a very fit 122 pounds (down from 141) I’m giving myself permission to loosen up a bit now and then. Rice is a neutral food for me.

    Regina wrote on April 8th, 2014
    • *fit and active

      Regina wrote on April 8th, 2014
  27. For all my grains and beans I am experimenting with a practice I read about on the Weston A Price website. That is to soak in water up to around 60 degrees for a number of hours (I use keep warm function on a slow cooker). This temperature is optimal for activating the endogenous enzymes to break down anti-nutrients without killing them. After a while there are light bubbles and scum suggesting some kind of chemical reaction/release is taking place. I definitely think it has helped my bean preparation and now am experimenting with brown rice and raw oat groats.

    Jonathan wrote on April 14th, 2014
  28. Thank you, this was helpful.

    Aaron wrote on April 14th, 2014
  29. I have crohns disease and I can’t digest leafy greens or cruciferous vegetables, I’ve eliminated lactose from my diet as well as grains. So I’m left with asparagus and green beans for veggies as well as both white and sweet potatoes (I have a batch of chips on the dehydrator right now actually). So for lack of a better calorie source I had to start eating white rice almost every day with my organic grass-fed meats, but I add a bit of ghee and quite often feta cheese. I feel much better than I did while trying to stick to my limited veggie pool and no weight gain either (I am fairly active tho). Does my way of eating work for other people? Doubtful, but it works for me and I feel pretty good

    Nick wrote on July 6th, 2014
  30. I really enjoyed this article. My husband is Filipino and I am (mostly) of German descent so we have different food backgrounds and I am always curious about rice and if we all “digest” it the same. I was intrigued by this link you put in your article
    “manifest as atopic dermatitis, eczema, gastrointestinal distress, or asthma.”
    Read more: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/is-rice-unhealthy/#ixzz38IjOLinn
    but the link could not be found. Do you have a way of finding that article or a similar one for me to read?

    Shauna wrote on July 23rd, 2014

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