Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
22 Jan

How to Make Red Wine Vinegar

Tart, sour, acidic, harsh: four words that don’t exactly make our mouth water. Unfortunately, they’re often words that come to mind when tasting moderately-priced red wine vinegar that we’ve bought at the store. Even more disappointing is that immoderately-priced bottles aren’t often much better. This isn’t the case with balsamic vinegar – we’re willing to splurge now and then on a bottle of good balsamic imported from Italy because we know we can’t replicate the smooth, syrupy results at home. But red wine vinegar is a different story. By taking matters into your own hands, you can make red wine vinegar that is often much better than what you can buy. Better yet, the whole process is much easier than you might think.

It does, however, require patience. About two months from start to finish. In fact, we’re currently waiting for a batch to reach maturity and find ourselves eagerly ticking off the days until we can whisk it into vinaigrette. This sort of giddy anticipation is a big part of why we love making our own food at home. If all goes well with the vinegar currently sitting in a crock in our cupboard, we’re expecting the flavor to be a bit fruity and earthy; mellow and not overpowered by sharp acidity.

The flavor of the red wine you use will directly affect the flavor of the vinegar. This doesn’t mean the wine has to be expensive, it just means it has to be wine that tastes good to you. The next step, finding a good mother, can be a little more complicated. Relax – this step doesn’t involve psychoanalyzing your relationship with dear ol’ mom; we’re talking about an entirely different type of mother.

A mother of vinegar is a thin film of slimy, gelatinous bacteria that encourages fermentation. If you’ve bought a bottle of raw apple cider vinegar, you’ve probably seen a leftover mother floating in the bottom of the jar. This bacteria has the more scientific name of mycoderma aceti but calling it a mother is so much more poetic. You can attempt to turn red wine into vinegar by just letting it sit on your counter without a mother, but you’re likely to have tastier results with the help of some starter bacteria. The magical thing about mothers is that during the fermentation process they give “birth” to other mothers that can be used in future batches of vinegar. People who regularly make their own vinegar can use new generations of one mother to make vinegar for decades. Mothers can even be passed on to friends as a floating blob suspended in a little liquid  – usually wine diluted with water. Beer and wine making stores also sell vinegar mothers for around $10. If you can’t find a store in your area, online stores also sell mothers that are specific to making red, white, malt and cider vinegar.

Other than a mixture of wine, water and a mother, the only other supplies you’ll need are a 1-2 gallon vessel to ferment the vinegar and some cheesecloth. A ceramic crock works well because it keeps out damaging light, but a jar wrapped with cloth or paper to keep out the light could work, too. Covering the top of the vessel with cheesecloth keeps insects out, but lets air get in to feed the bacteria. Tucked away in a warm, dark place, the magical transformation into tasty red wine vinegar will begin. Months later, you’ll be rewarded and we think you’ll agree, it’s worth the wait.

There are people who swear that the best vinegar comes from adding exact amounts of wine over a specific period of time and people who swear that measuring is pointless. This second, more adventurous camp simply pours wine into their crock (which has a mother floating inside) whenever they have wine leftover in a bottle. This approach keeps a continuous batch of vinegar brewing, but you have less control over the process.

If you’d like a more methodical approach, the recipe we’ve always followed to make vinegar is based on one from food writer Paula Wolfert.

Ingredients and Supplies:

  • 2 cups red wine to begin, plus 7 1/2 cups more over the next few weeks
  • 1 cup filtered water
  • 8-ounce jar of purchased vinegar mother
  • 1-2 gallon earthenware crock or glass jar (ideally with a spigot)
  • A small square of cheesecloth


Combine 2 cups wine, the water and mother in the crock. Cover the crock with two layers of cheesecloth and secure the cloth with a rubber band around the neck of the crock.

Store the crock in a dark, warm place (ideal temperature for vinegar is between 70-80 degrees). A kitchen cabinet that is not opened frequently should work well.

Let the vinegar sit a week, then over the course of the next week add 2 1/2 cups of wine to the vinegar on three different days (for a total of 7 1/2 more cups of wine). If a thin, web-like veil has formed on top of the liquid, try not to disturb it when you add the wine. This layer is good bacteria forming, a new mother so to speak. Consider using a funnel or turkey baster to add the wine slowly so the bacteria is not disturbed.

Leave the vinegar alone for around two months, although the real test of when vinegar is done is when it tastes good to you. You can steal little tastes while it ferments (which is why a spigot on your crock is ideal) to see how the vinegar is doing. If the vinegar takes on an aroma like nail polish, unfortunately this means it has gone bad and the only thing to do is start over.

When you declare the vinegar done, strain it through a coffee filter to remove any sediment and store it a sterilized glass bottle. You can also keep the vinegar in its crock and simply take straight from the crock as needed and continue to add wine (about a cup or so a week) to keep the vinegar continuously going.

Bacteria in the crock will multiply over time, creating new mothers that will be floating around. “Older” mothers that sink to the bottom and take up room in the crock can be fished out carefully with bare, clean hands.

You want comments? We got comments:

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  1. I purchased a red wine mother culture and started my wine about 3 weeks ago following your recipe/instructions. The first 2 weeks I checked on it every day and I it actually smelled like vinegar. Last night (It is in it’s 3rd week) I went to check on it and it no longer smells like vinegar. Is this normal or did something go wrong? Thanks

    Kathy wrote on August 15th, 2012
    • I’m guessing it is in a stage right now – not near done/ready. Try waiting another week or so – it can take a couple of months. If you get mold, it is lost and needs to be tossed…can you sneak a taste and see where it is in fermentation? I’m curious, too!!!

      Wanda wrote on August 17th, 2012
  2. if anyone can help where I’m confused is if you add more wine to vinegar to keep it going can you take vinegar out at anytime or that new wine that was added has to ferment ?

    peter wrote on December 1st, 2012
  3. I have the same question as Peter, the guy before me asked. I am starting my vinegar in a large Mason jar with wine, water and mother. I will wait for some good vinegar to be made and then want to put it in this nifty oak barrel I bought online for further aging. However I want to be able to take from it from time to time and then replenish with wine. SO…..again the question, if I am replenishing with wine, must I wait before taking from the barrel again?

    Glad I found this site!

    Dolores wrote on December 29th, 2012
  4. I have had RWV for about 20 – 25 years…..given to me by a friend with the mother… a 5 gallon jug…….I keep adding red wine as needed and I have great RWV……I never touch the mother or anything else……..just add wine when I get low…..sometimes I will add a quart or more and sometimes a lesser qty……….I hope I never lose it…….has anyone had theirs for a long time and what has your experience been………..thanks

    domenico basile wrote on March 2nd, 2013
  5. Is it halal ??

    Imran wrote on March 16th, 2013
  6. So I don’t get Vidad comments about most vinegars being dead when some have used Braggs with success.Braggs is what I am using this time and I have a significant mother (have had this cider vinegar for about 3 years with a large “booger”) I don’t drink wine all that much but I have a ton of merlot,so I am trying it out.
    The directions say to add more wine in the first week I made a mistake and thought you added more after 2 1/2 weeks,anyone think this will matter??

    Samara wrote on April 22nd, 2013
  7. Hi…I know this article’s a bit old, but hopefully someone’s still monitoring comments…if anyone can turn me on to a source for nice clay/ceramic/stoneware crocks, I’d appreciate. Thought I’d be able for find one locally (and I may still do be able to), but my initial searches have not been productive. Thanks!! And thanks for the great how-to article!

    Russell wrote on May 6th, 2013
    • I use juice dispensers.

      Glass or plastic, they both work.

      New wine is added at the top.

      Aged vinegar is harvested from the spigot at the bottom.

      jon wrote on August 8th, 2013
    • I purchased a ceramic crock at a local thrift shop for $10. I have also used clear glass gallon jars and wrapped a dish towel around them to keep out the light. Either or would work. Want to have a lot of air space in there and I cover with a white cloth napkin, fastened with a rubber band. I tried the cheese cloth and found the fruit flies get through the cheese cloth. Hope that helps.

      Lisa wrote on August 22nd, 2013
  8. Ok, I think I have my answer……I started with just red wine without a mother and I have a cheese cloth over it and in a dark place…after two months it look like mold on top…..could it be? Do I need to start over?

    Linda wrote on May 11th, 2013
    • Great explanation on making vinegar, and glad to see there are some current comments! I have been attempting to make vinegar for about 4 months from mother someone gave me, basically following the recipe outlined here. I have not gotten a a new mother to grow on top (is that supposed to happen??). But lots of sludge in the bottom. And now pink mold has started growing on top.

      Is the mother I received bad or can I reuse it?
      Do I need to start over??

      WineGirl wrote on July 23rd, 2013
  9. vinegar is real acidic, what can i do??

    fred pfeifer wrote on November 17th, 2013
  10. I live in tropical north Queensland. I make a 20L drum of mango vinegar every mango season, [Dec/Jan ie now] I collect fully ripe wind fall mangoes, slash them open, cover with water, boil for an hour until all flesh is coming off the pips and skins, strain through colander [coarse] then finer strainer. Next day check specific gravity, needs to be at beer level 1030 to 1040 which it always is, if mangoes were fully ripe. Then add wine yeast and an air lock. Leave for 3 weeks until alcoholic fermentation is complete. Siphon mango ‘beer’ from top, leaving 5L of sludge behind, and add to second 20L drum containing 5L of last seasons vinegar. Cover open top with cloth and tie. Temps must be above 19C and one month later it’s vinegar. I use it for making chutneys, relishes, sweet chill sauce, mustard pickles, worster sauce. I age some with wine makers oak chips for another year or two, that’s best for plain vinegar. I love the softness and balance.
    I found my mother is best with alcohol level between 5% and 6%. Over 7% it wouldn’t work, and under 4% is not acid enough to be food safe. I have a PDF of how I do it, if anyone is interested. I won a bronze medal at Royal Sydney Fine Foods Show some years ago.

    John Walker wrote on January 19th, 2014
    • i am just trying to learn how to make vinegar i could use your PDF so any info would help

      jon miller wrote on May 12th, 2014
  11. What can I do with excess red wine vinegar mother when no one wants it? Just throw it away? Freeze it?

    Jolee Chartrand wrote on March 22nd, 2014
  12. thanks for the red wine vinegar instructions….

    PH wrote on September 27th, 2014
  13. I have had vinegar with mother working foe about 2 months, but now it smells “musty”. What did I do wrong?

    Pat wrote on December 28th, 2014
  14. I have tried twice to make red wine vinegar, both times a failure, I think. I used the purchased mother, followed the directions exactly. Let it sit on the counter in a crock with cheesecloth and the crock lid on. I don’t get anything that looks like the mothers I have seen in pictures. All I have is a film on top and what looks like sediment. My current batch has been sitting here for 6 months or more. It doesn’t smell like nail polish but doesn’t taste like vinegar. At least not what I am used to. Is it possible that it is not getting enough air (the crock lid does not seal it just sits there)? Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated!

    Doxie lover wrote on February 17th, 2015
    • I just bottled my first batch of red wine vinegar after 7 weeks of fermenting. A local fermenting friend passed on a chunk of malt vinegar mother and i plopped it into my container of wine and water (I used this recipe), and added another bottle the 2nd week. 2 weeks after that, I had a thick gelatinous mother on top! within the next few weeks, I would get wafts of vinegar coming from my cupboard. Today I bottled and its fantastic! I used a couple bottles of home brewed, homegrow concord grape wine from last Summer, and put it in a 3L glass container with a coffee filter covering the top, held on with Elastic band.
      Did your wine have sulfites? I hear that kills the mother? or perhaps the lid on your crock is not allowing enough oxygen in?

      Diane wrote on March 10th, 2015
  15. I’m wondering if I could use this recipe to make port vinegar? Or would i need to dilute to equal parts beacause of the high alcohol level?

    Diane wrote on March 10th, 2015
  16. Hi,

    Tried a batch of wine vinegar using a big chunk of kombucha mother (of which I have way too many!) and I didn’t know you needed to dilute it or keep feeding it. I fermented until a new 1/8″ mother formed on top; a month or so, I think. The end product tastes very similar to the original wine, just a little more tart and slightly effervescent- I am surprised as I would have thought a long fermentation like that would have changed the character more.

    So is it possible that it might not be safe? Also, does anyone know if the end product has the same alcohol content as the original?

    Anne wrote on May 30th, 2015
  17. I have been told to make a mother using about 2 slices of ciabatta-like bread, placed in a glass jar and add a bottle of red wine. Leave in a kitchen cupboard with the lid slightly ajar for 4 weeks, when the mother should have formed. Then add a bottle of red wine and leave till it is vinegar. Can anybody help with this ? Thanks for any help. Molly.

    Molly wrote on October 17th, 2015
    • I would like to know about making a mother also. I live in Russia and don’t know how to get hold of raw acv or a mother.

      Pamela wrote on December 3rd, 2015

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