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Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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August 13, 2008

How Stress Can Make You Fat

By Worker Bee
46 Comments

Stressed Out!!!O.K., we acknowledge the title is a bit over the top, but didn’t it get your attention? No, stress alone won’t pack on the pounds, but there’s still truth in them thar’ hills. We thought we’d dig up some of the dirt on stress – fat and otherwise.

The fact is we think stress gets short shrift when it comes to the realm of health and wellness. As you know, we spend a lot of time talking about how our eating and exercising impacts our biochemistry. Stress absolutely, positively plays into this same picture. A great diet and diligent exercise routine are never wasted effort, but chronic high stress can put a serious damper on the benefits you should be getting from your healthy endeavors.

Let’s examine stress as saboteur. First off, we all know that a moderate amount of stress is good – natural even. (Grok didn’t live in Pleasantville after all.) In the face of danger, the physiological “fight or flight” stress response was crucial to our favorite caveman’s self-preservation. Ah, the flooding of adrenaline (a.k.a. epinephrine) and norepinephrine, the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, the emergency shut off of the immune system. We notice the sweating, muscle tension and the heightened sense of smell and hearing, the sudden increase in heart rate (getting uncomfortable yet?). All these helped our ur-selves either attack that Sabertooth tiger or run like heck—to get away from the snarling beast. Flip to modern day when the “predator” is more likely a passive-aggressive co-worker, catty neighbor, daily traffic jam, or looming pile of bills in the corner, and suddenly the fight or flight instinct isn’t as relevant or particularly helpful. (But there’s always the “vacation from your problems” ala What About Bob?…)

Stress today is more often a chronic low-grade condition than the powerful punch complete with cathartic end. (Maybe that’s why we love adventure-thriller movies so much?) That low level of stress day after day acts as insidious antagonist, aforementioned saboteur. That adrenal action described earlier? The constant release of cortisol, our star of the hormonal show, eventually causes major functions in the body to shut down or operate at only a subpar level – immune function, digestion, endocrine function, etc. Do you get sick more often when you’re under a lot of stress? We thought so. Wonder why so many people have digestive issues in this country (besides the prevalence of obesity)? Ever heard of adrenal exhaustion? Stress is nearly always a – if not the – major factor. Oh, and the list goes on and on. A chronically high level of cortisol and other stress hormones impacts the brain, compromising memory function (Where are those stupid car keys?!) as well as the balance of dopamine and serotonin instrumental for psychological well-being.

Yeah, yeah, you might say. What about the fat connection? The bottom line is this: research has demonstrated that stress can contribute to the build-up of body fat as a result of stress’s effect on hormonal secretion and its physiological consequences. Let us explain. Cortisol sets off an increased rush of glucose from your tissues (including breaking down muscle tissue to make glucose). Yikes! Remember, the body thinks something major is going down. In response to the rise in glucose comes the rise in insulin. You know the drill. Do this again and again, day after day, and what do you have? Insulin resistance eventually.

Stress and Dessert

In the meantime, the cortisol is signaling the body to store fat. (The body thinks it will need it after all.) Specifically, the body directs fat storage in the abdomen, around the organs, where there are more receptors for cortisol and a greater supply of blood.

A lot of research has been done on this in the last few years highlighting the contribution of stress to abdominal fat in particular.

And don’t think that you’re off the hook if you happen to be thin. A study out of Yale University looked at how thin women developed abdominal fat in connection with stress. Individual response to stress, not just “body shape” plays a significant role. Women in the study who reacted more severely to the study’s assigned stressors had more abdominal fat. The trend encouraged the researchers to suggest that in women’s case “it is possible that stress may influence body shape more than for men.”

So, where are the gentlemen in all this? The Yale researchers believe the same stress “relationships likely apply to men” but that it works within men’s tendency to accumulate fat around the abdomen anyway as opposed to around the hips, as many women do.

Ultimately, excess stress and associated cortisol levels can undo all of us, but we all have plenty of options to control the impact. As the researchers note, “smoking, alcohol and lack of exercise all contribute to greater abdominal fat.” Add to these other lifestyle factors like diet, sleep (duration and quality) as well as stress processing, and you’ve got plenty to work with.

For instance, research published last year in Nature Medicine highlighted the coinciding impact of a “high fat, high sugar” diet (always a bad idea) with stress on the release of a neurotransmitter, neuropeptide Y, which “increases fat cell proliferation and vasularization.” The researchers found “increased secretion of neuropeptide Y” when stress was coupled with the high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. And so we’re back to where we started. Stress, by itself, does not make a person fat. Chronic stress, together with poor diet and lifestyle, will come back to bite you in the butt – or belly, we should say.

Stress Free Zone

Our suggestions? Choose a lifestyle that supports hormonal balance. Eat a low carb, high anti-oxidant diet, exercise according to the Primal Blueprint model (overtraining actually raises cortisol dramatically), and get plenty of sleep. Take omega-3 supplements to help counteract the inflammation damage related to stress. But as for the stress itself? Find stress relief practices that work for you. Experts particularly recommend spending time in a quiet natural setting. (What better way to unhook from the modern world?) Experiment with meditation options – however simple – whether prayer, guided imagery, or TM. (Check out our past posts on stress and stress relief.) Finally, as a complement to these efforts, consider a cortisol balancing supplement to help you get a leg up.

Thoughts? Anecdotes? Send ‘em our way!

Brittney Bush, thornypup, rick Flickr Photos (CC)

Further Reading:

The Definitive Guide to Stress, Cortisol and the Adrenals: When ‘Fight or Flight’ Meets the Modern World

10 Ways to De-Stress

7 Tips to Beat Stress Right Now

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46 Comments on "How Stress Can Make You Fat"

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Tom Parker
8 years 1 month ago

Interesting stuff. It’s a good thing that in many cases exercise is a good de-stressor.

Nancy S
Nancy S
8 years 1 month ago

Can insulin resistance be reversed? Just curious, my three kids stress me out all the time and I wonder if they are actually damaging my health permanently………….

DR
8 years 1 month ago

Excellent post…nothing to add.

I am new to your blog, and I must say that I am very impressed with the consistent high quality of each post that I have read.

DR

Kaitlin
Kaitlin
8 years 1 month ago

There’s a book, Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers by Sapolsky, all about the way sustained stress and the related hormones damage us in manifold ways. It’s very accessible and quite funny, but also informative and a bit alarming . . . if you’re chronically stressed.

Mike OD - IF Life
8 years 1 month ago
Stress kills….why we need time off to relax…time off from work, tv, the media…just take a walk outside. It’s the chronic ongoing stress that we don’t know about that keeps our cortisol levels rising and insulin resistance building…leading to all sorts of increases in inflammation, blood pressure and heart disease factors. Stress is a mental game…one we can control and win. We don’t need to avoid it (as it can be everywhere) but we just not need to let things effect us in a stressful manner…to detach from them. That and taking Vit C has been found to help control… Read more »
Crystal
Crystal
8 years 1 month ago

This is a special interest of mine. I have to take cortisol everyday because my ACTH does not respond. It’s interesting. I’ve learned what triggers a stress response(emotional, physical, bad food) and I have no choice but to “stress dose”. Cortisol is very calming if you need it.

High cortisol also makes a person fat/run down because it pervents the thyroid hormone T4 to convert to T3(active hormone). Stay happy.

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[…] the problem.  We get low level constant stressors, and it’s absolutely killing us.  Mark’s Daily Apple goes over the kinds of stressors and their effects in detail, but the bottom line is to reduce constant daily stress as much as possible, and save your stress […]

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[…] Read the full article here. […]

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[…] How Stress Can Make You Fat, de Mark Sisson (Daily Apple) […]

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[…] avoiding excess amounts of catabolic (muscle wasting) hormones like cortisol. Cortisol is the major stress hormone, and it exists for a very legitimate reason (dealing with “flight or fight” incidents, […]

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[…] as well as unnecessary fat storage. Mark, from Mark’s Daily Apple, has a great article on how stress can make you fat, that covers the issues and research behind why this is.  Below is the important piece from […]

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[…] me the edge I needed to finally shut my brain down. After I nailed this, I found Mark Sisson of MarksDailyApple.com said it best: Let’s examine stress as saboteur. First off, we all know that a moderate amount of […]

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[…] of cortisol, the stress hormone, which can induce insulin resistance and (especially in the belly) weight gain, but we also know that sleep deprivation has been linked to lowered serum […]

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6 years 1 month ago

[…] Sisson had a great post a while back addressing a similar topic.  He pointed to the same mechanism Sapolsky did in […]

Jeff
5 years 10 months ago

Yeah, positive stress is also called eustress. It’s something that challenges you to grow.

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[…] How stress can make you fat › LikeBe the first to like this post. […]

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[…] For all intents and purposes, this is your life. It may change down the road, but you are a shift worker for now. Accept it. It’s not ideal, but it will be a lot worse if you go about your days (er, nights) lamenting your situation. Even just looking in the mirror every day and verbally reminding yourself that “I am a shift worker and I’m going to get through this” will help. Fighting or avoiding the reality of a situation, instead of accepting and working with it, will only heap more stress and cortisol on your shoulders (and… Read more »
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[…] Sisson: How Stress Can Make You Fat — The Definitive Guide to Stress, Cortisol, and the Adrenals: When ?Fight or Flight? Meets […]

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[…] How Stress Can Make You Fat […]

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[…] the problem.  We get low level constant stressors, and it’s absolutely killing us.  Mark’s Daily Apple goes over the kinds of stressors and their effects in detail, but the bottom line is to reduce constant daily stress as much as possible, and save your stress […]

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[…] politics these days, the lack of sleep really does have negative impacts. Less sleep means more cortisol is coursing through your system, and it seems that high stress/cortisol levels are linked to weight […]

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[…] (he is not fooling me. I know he is not looking for healthy foods) And then he comes home “all grumpy and with an attitude”  (And Yes, the gluten in the chips don’t help him either) “I was super […]

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[…] and if it’s a stressful event just to eat, that stress will inevitably become chronic. Chronic stress is the enemy of fat loss. Relax. Sit back. Pull up a chair. Enjoy your food. Enjoy your company. Have a glass of wine. As […]

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[…] Learn more at MarksDailyApple.com […]

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[…] til at stige og så længe du har et højt insulinniveau, brænder du i hvert fald ikke fedt. Så stress feder. Der findes masser af gode tips til at minimere stress som fx lange gåture i naturen, meditation. […]

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[…] Since I didn’t secretly record Meg’s explanation of cortisol, I’ve found one for you. This is an excerpt from an article by Mark Sisson: […]

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[…] mentioned in the last para including the time spent in the gym, builds cortisol. Which in turn makes us fat.  That’s the very very short […]

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[…] mentioned in the last para including the time spent in the gym, builds cortisol. Which in turn makes us fat.  That’s the very very short story.Evolution takes 100’s and 1000’s of years. Our bodies […]

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[…] body deflects them and turns it into fat. Another thing that contributes to fat not melting away is Cortisol. Stress kicks up your cortisol levels as well as not sleeping […]

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[…] Below is a distillation of some of the life lessons that we’ve learned in the kitchen.  Not only do we get to spend time together, it is making the choice to better our health and wellness, and hopefully reduce stress.  Our diet and fitness can only do so much if we’re stressed out of our minds. […]

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[…] avoiding excess amounts of catabolic (muscle wasting) hormones like cortisol. Cortisol is the major stress hormone, and it exists for a very legitimate reason (dealing with “flight or fight” incidents, […]

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[…] training, you could become insulin resistant, and you  may have trouble clearing (the elevated) cortisol from your blood. But, hey: your blood  pressure readings will likely improve by a few points! Or, […]

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[…] know what murders the perfect body, job, and relationship in their tracks? Stress. You know where the most inordinate amount of stress come from? People who are poorly suited for […]

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[…] the stress response – inhibits weight loss, catabolizes muscle, worsens insulin resistance,  and promotes the storage of fat. Although back then I was  referring to the obvious sources of stress in our lives, like bills, […]

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[…] Read more about cortisol here: 1, 2, 3. […]

ANon
2 years 6 months ago
I like what you are saying here, although I am not convinced cortisol levels are elevated much in psychologically stressful situations. If you are in a fight or flight situation, your “adrenaline” goes up which is likely to cause your body to produce more cortisol to bring up your blood sugar level. But work or personal life stress will not affect adrenaline and your body is not likely to produce more cortisol for this anyways. Besides, all these topics about psychological stress are moot points. What matters here is physiological stress of the body due to low blood glucose levels.… Read more »
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[…] and if it’s a stressful event just to eat, that stress will inevitably become chronic. Chronic stress is the enemy of fat loss. Relax. Sit back. Pull up a chair. Enjoy your food. Enjoy your company. Have a glass of wine. As […]

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[…] Can Stress Make You Fat? […]

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[…] answer a lot of the time is stress. When you are under stress, your body produces more cortisol and more cortisol means more fat stores. But we don’t just mean emotional stress, physical stress is a significant and often overlooked […]

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[…] as it acts as a natural caffeine, waking you up and preparing you for the day. But because cortisol increases fat storage, it’s best to make your breakfast low in carbs, instead having a healthy mix of protein, […]

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[…] Mark Sisson, originator of the The Primal Blueprint, offers the definitive guide to stress, cortisol and the adrenals and covers how stress can make you fat. […]

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[…] of us this is the last thing most of us want to do, especially if our goal is to get lean because cortisol is signaling the body to store fat. “Specifically, the body directs fat storage in the abdomen, around the organs, where there are […]

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[…] lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Chronically elevated cortisol levels are strongly linked to belly fat, and people under a lot of stress are prone to choose fattening junk food over healthier […]

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[…] increased in my body made it super counterproductive to me getting over my food hangover. In fact, cortisol needs to be in control in order to achieve fat loss. So take a chill pill and proceed to step […]

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[…] the fight-or-flight hormone that catabolizes muscle, worsens insulin resistance, and promotes the storage of fat. For 200,000 years, stress meant a life or death situation. It was intense and infrequent, and the […]

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[…] Sisson states that ; “Lack of sleep increases cortisol production, an excess of which increases body fat and eats lean mass.”….”these symptoms are all interconnected and essentially inseparable […]

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