Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
16 Feb

The Myriad Benefits of Intermittent Fasting

Calorie restriction is all the rage in anti-aging circles. A few mice and worm studies seem to show that drastic reductions in food intake over a long period of time have the effect of prolonging life – although I’m not sure I’d call it living. For one, these animals are actually restricted. There’s no ad libitum access to food. They’d prefer to eat more, but are prevented from doing so. I guarantee you they’re unhappy and, if they could put (cartoonish high-pitched) voice to physiological state, would say they’re starving.

Anyway, humans have picked up on this calorie restriction stuff. You might have seen one or two CR gurus giving TED talks; the exposed rib cages, gaunt faces, and complete lack of lean muscle mass are dead giveaways. Okay – that’s a bit unfair. CR is a legitimate way to improve many health markers. I’m just not convinced actively restricting your calorie intake through sheer will is the true path to enjoyable longevity. I’d rather be robust, vibrant, and full of zest. I want to eat big strapping meals of steak and veggies smothered in butter without counting calories. On occasion, I like to devour an entire roasted chicken (yeah, yeah, chicken has more omega-6 than most animals, but I’ll live). I want to maintain muscle mass and have enough energy to go on long hikes and have the legs to still leap for high passes (over the young guys) at the end of Ultimate games. And as I appreciate the neuroprotective and autophagy-promoting qualities of calorie restriction, I’d rather not expend the mental energy and fortitude required to maintain such a regimen day-in and day-out. Nor would I willingly subject myself to forced calorie restriction, a la the lab mice. No human-sized rat cages for me, even if they include a salt lick and a running wheel (don’t get any ideas, Blaisdell). Based on the science, I don’t think all that is necessary. I’ll just IF instead.

Fasting is one way to have your cake and eat it too. Beyond the already proven benefits of a Primal Blueprint low-carb lifestyle, fasting once in a while seems to offer many of the same benefits of calorie restriction – you know, stuff like increased longevity, neuroprotection, increased insulin sensitivity, stronger resistance to stress, some cool effects on endogenous hormone production, increased mental clarity, plus more – but without the active, agonizing restriction. You just eat Primally, focusing on meat and vegetables with plenty of animal fat, and skip meals on occasion. A sixteen-hour fast is on the low-but-still-effective end (you could easily maintain a daily sixteen hour IF regimen, giving you an eight hour eating window, a la Leangains), or you could opt for longer, more intermittent fasts – say, a full twenty-four hours once or twice a week. When you’re done with the fast, eat as much as you want (which usually isn’t an issue, once you’re PB-adapted). It essentially turns into “eat when you’re hungry,” because let’s face it: eating the types of foods we evolved eating induces powerful satiety and makes eating the right amount of food a subconscious act. Fasting becomes a whole lot easier (and intuitive) when you’ve got your food quality dialed in. And I’ll come back to that little caveat at the end here.

“Fasting” was the top search term for MDA last week, and I hadn’t done a big post on it in a while, so I thought I’d do a comprehensive rundown of all the benefits (some conclusive, others prospective) you can expect to obtain from IF.


Everyone wants to live longer, but I find longevity pointless if you’re not enjoying yourself. Otherwise, life becomes dreary. Consider the plight of the vampire – he lives a long, lonely life, never really connecting with anyone, never really enjoying all the time he has at his disposal. If the suggested longevity benefits of fasting pan out, I think we can enjoy the vampire’s longevity (and perhaps even some of his incredibly immune and restorative properties) without the downsides. Oh, and we’ll eventually have to die, but we have the option of sunbathing.

The popular c. elegans worm enjoys increased longevity with both twenty-four and forty-eight hour IFs via signaling through a gene that we all have.

One study (full PDF) from the 1940s found that varying amounts of twenty-four hour IFs (every other day, every fourth day, every eighth day, etc) prolonged the lifespan of rats without retarding or stunting the growth (as occurred with calorie restricting them). Female rats responded best to every eight day fasts, while males responded best to every other day fasts.

Reductions in brain insulin signaling have been shown to increase lifespan in animals, either by calorie restricting or actively knocking out brain insulin receptors. Fasting also reduces brain insulin signaling, at least in rats.

Blood Lipids

Going in and pharmaceutically manhandling your cholesterol synthesizing equipment is one thing; eating real food and exercising, resulting in possible alterations to your lipid profile, is another. We don’t set out to force your blood lipids into submission, but lifestyle changes that happen to change them for “the better” are usually a good thing. Fasting brings potent changes to blood lipids in an “organic” way – you’re just letting your machinery do its thing on its own – and this is probably a very good thing.

IF is as or more effective than calorie restriction in improving metabolic syndrome markers in overweight women, and it’s a whole lot easier to stick with.

Alternate day fasting improved cardiovascular risk markers, including lowered triglycerides and LDL-C numbers (although it’s unclear whether the improvements were related to the weight loss alone or something unique to fasting).

I discussed this last week, but it can’t hurt to mention that short-term alternate day fasting wrought improvements in LDL particle size and distribution in obese adults.


A dietary regimen is useless without compliance. In fact, that’s what we’ve always said about the low-fat, low-calorie diet advice we’re inundated with: sure, they might work, but they’re impossible for most people to maintain. Eating Primally solves this problem, because it’s simple, easy, delicious, and satiating (you just have to enjoy cooking, or learn to), and IF is another compliance-breeding regimen that blends quite nicely with the PB. A lot of Primal eaters find that fasting just kinda happens without them setting out to do it, so it’s not even a conscious struggle. Check it out:

The obese (read: the ones who need the most help and often have the worst time sticking to a diet) were able to “quickly adapt” to alternate day modified fasting, which meant on fasting days they’d get 26% of their normal caloric intake. They were also able to maintain physical activity despite the fasting.

Heck, intermittent fasting even helped cocaine addicts stick to their treatment and rehab program. Not bad.


The notion of IF reducing cancer incidence and improving survival is compelling, but little evidence in humans exists. Ketogenic diets may also offer exciting potential for cancer patients, and both IF diets and ketogenic diets share something: fat (either dietary or from your own adipose tissue) as primary fuel sources. But, while ketosis isn’t exactly desirable or optimal as a lifelong dietary regimen, IF is sustainable, simple, and can be integrated into your current diet. As of now, most of the evidence for IF’s protective effects against cancer exist in animal trials, mostly using mice. Still, fasting seems to confer so many other benefits that working it into your life for its anti-cancer potential is probably worth it. Some of the evidence:

Calorie restriction is proven to fight cancer cell proliferation in mice, but researchers found that intermittent fasting was just as effective. In fact, here’s a review of most of the animal anti-cancer evidence. It’s quite compelling.

Some researchers are speculating, based on substantial evidence, that fasting before and during cancer treatment should result in reduced morbidity, better tolerance of chemotherapies, and higher cure rates. This is refreshing news. A preliminary study in human cancer patients found that fasting during chemotherapy reduced the negative side effects of the treatment. The authors are quick to point out that the results are in no way a prescription for fasting in chemotherapy patients and that controlled trials are needed to change official recommendations, but that doesn’t mean you – the individual – can’t experiment.

Growth Hormone

Aging humans “normally” experience reductions in growth hormone. While it’s true that unchecked growth hormone can lead to unwanted cell proliferation (like, ya know, cancer), growth hormone therapy can really help stave off the doldrums of old age. Luckily, short-term fasting induces growth hormone secretion in “normal men.” I’m not for mainlining GH or anything, but I’m all for amping up my own production. Furthermore, a recent study found that resistance training actually blunted hunger for an hour. I’ve found this to be the case for me. If the body “needs” food right after a workout, why would hunger be blunted? This is why I tend to hold off on the eating post-workout. Every little bit helps, especially as you age.

Neurological Health

Fasting doesn’t cause your brain tissue to waste away, contrary to what some people will tell you. It’s actually good for brain health. Any dietary restriction tends to increase neuronal plasticity and promote neurogenesis, but it was IF that had the greatest effect (with the fewest downsides). Another study of mice found that meal frequency impacts neuronal health. That is, mice who ate larger meals more infrequently saw greater increases in brain and overall bodily health. Still another study found that IF was beneficial for peripheral nerve function in mice by promoting the maintenance of the neuronal pathways responsible for locomotor performance. It’s almost like this stuff just puts your brain in repair, or maintenance mode.


Fasting turns on autophagy (most studies nowadays treat this as common knowledge), which is the process by which cells recycle waste material, eliminate or downregulate wasteful processes, and repair themselves. Why is autophagy so important? It’s required to maintain muscle mass, and inhibiting it induces atrophy of adult skeletal muscle.  It reduces the negative effects of aging and reduces the incidence and progression of aging-related diseases. In fact, researchers have determined that autophagy is the essential aspect of the anti-aging mechanism of fasting. Without the autophagy that fasting provides, you would get very few of the benefits. Fasting even increases neuronal autophagy, which aids in maintaining mental health and function. Short term fasting, too. No marathon thirty-six hour fast required.


You’ll hear that you should never exercise on an empty stomach. You’ll hear that fasted training will burn your  muscles and cause you to waste away. You’ll hear that performance will surely suffer. None of these things are necessarily true – and they are even less so if you are well-adapted adapted to a low-carb eating strategy. Fasted training can actually result in better metabolic adaptations (which mean better performance down the line), improved muscle protein synthesis, and a higher anabolic response to post-workout feeding (you’ll earn your meal and make more muscle out of it if you train on an empty stomach). Studies on Muslim athletes during Ramadan show no effect on performance while fasting, as well as better lipids in those who exercise and fast rather than just fast. When you train in a fasted state, glycogen breakdown is blunted and more fat is burnt, leaving you more glycolytic energy in the tank for when you really need it and less body fat. Those are just a sampling of the benefits to fasted training; there are dozens more. Check out Martin at LeanGains (linked above) for more information on fasted training. It’s his specialty.

Mental Well-being and Clarity

You’ve heard this “advice” before, probably from an expert dietitian in some copy-and-paste article on healthy living on Yahoo! Health. It’s the mantra of the high carb crowd: failure to eat something every few hours will cause mental fog and sluggishness, so keep a banana or a granola bar on your person at all times. Of course, this is all based on an assumption that we need to supply exogenous carbs on a regular basis to properly fuel the brain. This notion that fasting is only the province of anorexics or “those crazy caveman dieters” has kept many people from experiencing the myriad benefits.

I maintain that one’s comfort in handling IF effortlessly does increase dramatically when you’ve reprogrammed those cells (and genes) to predispose your body to derive most of your day-to-day energy from fat, as opposed to constantly dipping into glycogen stores (as happens when we rely so much on refeeding carbs every few hours). It’s also why I recommend that you eat according to the PB for at least three weeks before you really start incorporating IF on a regular basis. I’ll be discussing this detail more in upcoming posts on IF and what I am calling “the Metabolic Paradigm Shift”.

Overall, fasting just seems right. It’s like a reset button for your entire body, presumably across a large spectrum of maladies and dysfunctions. It puts your body into repair mode – at the cellular level – and it can restore normal hormonal function in the obese or overweight. Now, you don’t have to fast, but it’s definitely something to consider. As I said, I don’t plan my IFs – I let them happen. I prefer to fast when it’s forced upon me, like when I’m traveling or under a deadline. Once you’re acclimated to the Primal Blueprint diet, give it a shot and report back. Obviously, you won’t know if you’re fighting budding cancer cells or turning on autophagy in your brain, but if you can tolerate fasting and even derive some subjective benefits, those potential long-term benefits make it a worthwhile addition.

Have you tried IFing yet? Did you have a great, transcendent, middling, or perhaps even awful experience? Let me know how intermittent fasting has worked – or hasn’t – with your lifestyle in the comment section!

UPDATE: See this post on Women and Intermittent Fasting.

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. My question is, if you’re looking to build a little lean muscle, can you do it with IF? Or is muscle maintenance the most you can expect?

    McLean wrote on February 17th, 2011
    • Yes, you can build muscle mass while fasting. I eat a somewhat modified version of the primal diet and I also fast on about two days out of every week. I’ve managed to maintain and improve my gym performance while doing this.

      Gal @ 60 in 3 wrote on February 17th, 2011
    • Check out leangains. Putting on muscle isn’t a problem while using an IF program.

      Rob L wrote on February 17th, 2011
  2. Hi,
    I love the idea of IF and low carb but I have a question. I take maca root in the mornings because it is suppose to be a natural hormone regulator and it gives me a natural energy which I need since I work late. Does this affect the fasting period. I hope not.

    tracey wrote on February 17th, 2011
  3. Leangains is amazing. The amount of fat loss I’ve experienced paired with the amount of muscle built is beyond words. I’m lighter than I’ve ever been, lifting heavier than I ever have, all while feeling absolutely unstoppable. Thanks Martin Berkhan! And thank you Mark for this post, great stuff!

    Rob L wrote on February 17th, 2011
  4. As a relative newbie to primal eating I’ve noticed a huge change in my hunger levels. I was diagnosed in high school as hypoglycemic and throughout my early adult years I couldn’t go more than 3 hours without eating and DEFINITELY never skip breakfast or I would get shaky. When I discovered this site and started eating low carb I realized that I just wasn’t hungry in the mornings and will often delay eating until 10:00 or later. Not sure if that is considered IF (I typically eat dinner at 7:30 PM).

    My body is starting to drop weight (yeah!) and I can go for hours between meals and often eat only twice a day. I’m not ready to do a full 24 hour fast yet (years of experiencing negative hypoglycemic reactions have me a bit scared) but I suspect that eventually as my body heals I’ll be able to do it naturally.

    Lisa wrote on February 17th, 2011
  5. I accidentally did IF when I was 16, I was working long shifts and only ate one meal a day. At the time I also decided to become a vegetarian. I lost 20kg in 5-8 weeks. I thought the weight loss was from the vego diet and all the walking so I stuck with the diet and slowly over 3 years gained back the weight once I started eating 3 meals a day again. I found it hard to keep the weight off when I was only eating plants and carbs. And found the more meals I ate the hungrier I got..

    This year I’m back on the IF eating plan and eating Primal I’m finding im more sated and I love only eating once or twice a day as I tend to get tired after eating and cant concentrate as well! no more afternoon crashes for me. :)

    I also found that if I don’t IF my weight loss stalls- no matter how many calories I eat, but as soon as I delay one or two meals a day I loose an average of 2kg a week… I have no idea why! But maybe I just wasn’t meant to eat a load of small meals throughout the day!

    Amelia wrote on February 17th, 2011
  6. I can honestly say that IF has allowed me to have much better control of the food I consume. I am no longer a slave to food….

    Raul T wrote on February 17th, 2011
  7. I like Mark’s approach of not planning for IF, but just letting it happen when need be.. which is the same as what Robb Wolf does..

    I was just listening to one of Robb’s older podcasts (I’m assuming he hasn’t changed his stance on this?), and he was saying that it’d be way more beneficial for people to get their diet and sleep dialed in first.. that people are too keen to try IF as some sort of shortcut to better results, when they’re not yet fully implementing the most important stuff..

    he also said when your body’s stressed (whose isn’t?), IF may not be beneficial.. and that if you do partake, it’s better to keep IF to a max of 18 hours (to not start digging into protein stores)..

    seemed like pretty sound advice…

    The Primalist wrote on February 17th, 2011
  8. Only found this site last week and think it’s great. Just wanted to chip in my thoughts on fasting. I come from a background in Russian Martial Arts (Systema) which is not only a self defence system, but also a health system, so practitioners use techniques such as controlled deep breathing, dousing outside with freezing cold water all year around and fasting. The fasts are actually more extreme than here, often for up to 60 hours without food and water. I’ve done a couple of 60 hour fasts but personally I only exclude water for the first 24. I definitely felt clearer in the head and more relaxed. The idea with these longer fasts is to give the digestive system a rest and let the body use that energy to heal itself (the digestive process uses a lot of energy). During the longer fast the idea is that the body will break down the stuff it doesn’t need first for energy, such as damaged tissue, and therefore can help in clearing disease. I’m not totally convinced about this part, that the body can selectively choose between healthy and damaged tissue, but I remain open to the idea and have definitely felt the benefits myself. In systema the total dry fast(i.e no water) is also stressed to be very important, the idea being that the body begins to make it’s own water out of stored fats.

    Rob wrote on February 18th, 2011
  9. One noticeable side effect for me (just started IF a couple weeks ago): I started waking up early (5:00 or 5:30 AM) without an alarm, just awake. I am already an AM person, but its like ZING, totally awake before the sun comes up….

    Catt wrote on February 18th, 2011
  10. I like the mental clarity that comes with a 16 hour IF, and I like the feeling that I don’t have to eat in the morning unless I want to. Obviously, if you can be as strong as Martin Berkhan is using IF, it’s not the kiss of death for performance training. I like how you pack these posts so densely with info Mark, thanks.

    Paul wrote on February 18th, 2011
  11. I follow IF leangains style and my post workout meal contains about 250 grams of carbohydrates. I eat kiddie cereal, low fat ice cream, pretzels, etc.

    My primary goal for the other 90% of my eating is that I consume lots of fruits and veggies.

    My philosophy of food is not so much “don’t eat this or that” but rather “make sure you eat this and that”.

    This and that being dark skinned fruits and dark green veggies.

    Barry wrote on February 18th, 2011
  12. am new to this, still in the process of reading the book and am wondering if diet coke is permitted on the pb way of living. i know it is not good for me, but am trying to adjust everything else and not ready to give it up. does it impact the fat loss?

    susan wrote on February 19th, 2011
    • I’m sorry you’re having this struggle. I am one of the fortunate ones who did not grow up on soft drinks so never had to cut them out; my Mom even made no sugar ice cream for us. I only know that artificial sweeteners are completely and totally bad for you, and you say you know this. Some people even say artifical sweeteners act like appetite stimulators; in that regard it probably DOES impact fat loss. Splenda was never thoroughly tested so I’m thinking it’s a no as well. Besides, splenda is slightly higher, that’s right higher, on the glycemic index than sugar so is a non-starter for getting insulin responses normal. I think that’s why they advertise the no-calorie aspect rather than the good for diabetes idea.

      All this to say, while I don’t have personal experience in letting go of soft drinks, I empathize as I also grew up on homemade bread. Wow, is it hard to smell baking bread and not WANT some.

      Keep working on it. Best wishes

      Mary Anne wrote on February 19th, 2011

    DAVE PARSONS wrote on February 19th, 2011
  14. I’m here to say that IF regardless of diet will shrink your stomach and change your psychology. When I lost my initial 60 pounds I was eating once a day and probably just 1200 or so calories. It wasn’t on purpose, I just had an overnight job and things worked out that way. I felt great…invincible even.

    Once I resumed a normal schedule and wanted to eat 3 times a day again, I found I had ZERO desire to eat if I wasn’t truly hungry, I had no cravings, and I absolutely couldn’t eat more than two handfuls of food without feeling very “stuffed”.

    My diet was usually a late night double cheeseburger, burrito, or some sort of deli sandwich. :p

    I’ve kept the weight off (2 years) and I’m eating much better now (paleo)….

    Monte wrote on February 19th, 2011
  15. Dave (and Mark…see all his info on Grok’s life), you are absolutely RIGHT ON!!!! Intermittent Fasting is just a fancy-pants way to say GROK-ON! My husband still gets nervous when I’m not hungry and simply don’t eat. I think mainly because it is a huge change from before primal. I was constantly nibbling, grazing, complaining about being hungry. With primal, …well you know the rest.

    Mary Anne wrote on February 19th, 2011
  16. Thanks so much for this. My husband and I read this last night and I decided on the spot that my 9:00 p.m. dinner would be my last meal for 16 hours. Since adapting a Paleo diet 2 months ago, I’ve found that I’ve been doing a lot of emotional eating … eating when I think I’m supposed to, not necessarily hungry. I think this is going to be a great reset for me .. a way to get in tune with my body and natural hunger cues. 20 minutes to go and I feel great (but I’m definitely looking forward to my beef stew and veggies). Thanks!

    Charmaine wrote on February 19th, 2011
  17. I’ve done fasting Leangains style for about 3 months and it’s awesome! Paired it with the MaxFit olympic lifting program as I felt beat down when trying to metcon consistently. Still eat Paleo but with a lot more starch, mainly post workout. I’d been Paleo/CrossFit for about 3 years and had plateud, feeling beat down and slow. This kick started everything he talked about in the article. I’d been having really bad cortisol response to exercise, but I sleep a lot better now and can handle volume again. IF definitely helps clean you out, sharpen you up, and strip off stubborn body fat. My girlfriend is trying a similar set up and loves it to. I can’t say enough about IF.

    JJ wrote on February 19th, 2011
  18. Enjoy If too as many have stated.
    I am noticing a pattern, for myself. When I IF, eat a meal, and follow with lifting heavy a few hours later, I am not as strong.

    David wrote on February 19th, 2011
  19. If it works …do it. your life…ALIVE! Heres a dose of DAVEMAN strength and determination to ALL who wish to be ALIVE!
    GROK ON>>>

    DAVE PARSONS wrote on February 20th, 2011
  20. I’ve never been a “breakfast person”, and have regularly “forgotten” to eat for whole days at a time – Just. Not. Hungry. Nice to hear, for a change, that there’s not something fundamentally wrong with me and that I haven’t been setting my body up for early, dismal decay! LOVE you blog, Mark, and all of the amazing info supplied by your listeners via their comments. Thank You all for being regular voices in my life.

    Liberty wrote on February 20th, 2011
    • Just wanted to say, I did the fast 5 program for awhile, had some success, then found it was just too dismal. I am not a monk.It required you to eat during one 5 hour window every day. But it didn’t have any recommendations as to what you should eat. So it wasn’t intermittent and it wasn’t primal. It was more Zen.I have always found it easier to not eat at all than to count calories or weigh food so fasting appeals to me. I am just starting the program. It sounds like a good fit.

      Anne Lawrence wrote on February 25th, 2011
  21. I am a 36 y/o MALE that was diagnosed with Breast Cancer on 11/17/10. I am starting chemo this Friday 2/25/11. I have considered fasting leading up to my treatment day. My only problem is that I have to steroid pills the day before, day of and day after my treatment. I have been told these are pretty hard on the stomach. I am just considering just doing some fasts and then eating very low carb when I have to take the pills. Anyone have any ideas? Thoughts?

    Jacob wrote on February 21st, 2011
    • I am so sorry you are faced with this, maybe these references will help –

      I have the full text of this article that I can email you: dbfact at comcast dot net.

      Here is link to slide from TED presentation: foods that prevent angiogenesis: (great lecture to listen to)

      Also, focus on eating cruciferous vegetables, esp. watercress.

      If you were having surgery, the “peak” of the cancer cells that may get disrupted and “stick” to the blood vessel walls and get hold/start growing is up to day 3, so I would fast post-surgery – but yours is a little different with just the chemo. I think you are on the right track to look to optimize nutrition and restrict eating.

      deb b wrote on February 21st, 2011
    • My cautious impulse would be to refer you to your own doctor for advice on this, but your presence here might mean that you are inclined to reject conventional wisdom. I can’t give you advice on this, other than to wish you the best. I’d say listen to others who’ve gone through similar experiences and listen to your doctor — in the end such a personal decision is in your own hands, though.

      Mitchell Powell wrote on February 21st, 2011
    • Chemo will take it out of you..
      I have had a few run ins with this in my family…luckily not me.
      I would eat first…after chemo…no one wants to eat much.

      DAVE PARSONS wrote on February 22nd, 2011
    • My meat supplier (he now does grass-fed beef) had stage 3 prostate cancer and healed it with a strict primal diet.

      He used to be one of the government farmers, that grow corn and other plants with chemicals year after year.
      Not only is his cancer completely gone, he is now one of the biggest grass-farmers (beef, chicken and pork) here in southern Idaho. Of course, he is doing all this on new, untouched land.

      Suvetar wrote on April 12th, 2011
  22. And don’t forget the posts on light, sleep, and jet lag—(back ????). I frequently travel AU to Ohio- a 12 hour time shift- and I think fasting really does help re-set my internal clock.

    K wrote on February 26th, 2011
  23. Clearly you haven’t read Twilight…Bella and Edward have LOTS to do with the rest of eternity.

    Course, they also subsist on deer blood.

    anamaria wrote on March 10th, 2011
  24. Be wary of IF. You do NOT get the benefits of calorie restriction with it. See:,200834,200838#msg-200838 for references.

    For that matter, recent research warns that IF may damage the heart. See:,204377,204431

    >So far, these studies seem to show that EOD is of no special benefit in the long term — but have not implied any deleterious effect, either. Surprisingly, Mattson’s most recent study ((3) — published, appropriately, in the Journal of Cardiac Failure) finds that EOD in rats actually /damages/ the heart:

    >”Four-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were started on ADF or continued on ad libitum diets and followed for 6 months … [A]t the end of the study, and hearts were harvested for histological assessment. The 6-month-long ADF diet resulted in a 9% reduction (P < .01) of cardiomyocyte diameter and 3-fold increase in interstitial myocardial fibrosis. Left ventricular chamber size was not affected by ADF and ejection fraction was not reduced, but left atrial diameter was increased 16%, and the ratio of early (E) and late atrial (A) waves, in Doppler-measured mitral flow was reduced (P “CONCLUSION: Chronic ADF in rats results in development of diastolic dysfunction with diminished cardiac reserve. ADF is a novel and unique experimental model of diet-induced diastolic dysfunction. [!] The deleterious effect of ADF in rats suggests that additional studies of ADF effects on cardiovascular functions in humans are warranted.”

    StephenH wrote on April 1st, 2011
  25. When my forced IF happened I felt like I was on a super high.
    Outragious mental clarity, focused and energetic.
    I think it was a 19 hour fast.
    Now I wish I could do it again but unless forced upon me I can’t say no to that frozen half cow in my freezer, boiled egg or big salad.

    There are definitely many benefits to IF.

    Suvetar wrote on April 12th, 2011

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