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Let me introduce myself. My name is Mark Sisson. I’m 63 years young. I live and work in Malibu, California. In a past life I was a professional marathoner and triathlete. Now my life goal is to help 100 million people get healthy. I started this blog in 2006 to empower people to take full responsibility for their own health and enjoyment of life by investigating, discussing, and critically rethinking everything we’ve assumed to be true about health and wellness...

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July 02, 2009

The Definitive Guide to Low Level Aerobic Activity

By Mark Sisson
204 Comments

Maybe you’ve found yourself feeling self-conscious on evening walks while five people pass you (perhaps twice) in their best running forms. Perhaps you spent the day at the lake canoeing or hiking around the beach and later felt guilty for not having made it to the gym. Or maybe you’re frustrated having to mow or rake over the weekend because it means giving up workout time in exchange. Message for the day: shed the guilt, forget the self-reproach, and enjoy a little affirmation.

We’re talking about a favorite of mine: low level aerobic activity. Sure, it can feel all too relaxed, even indulgent compared to the intense stuff. But don’t be so quick to disparage. Low level aerobic activity, I’m here to tell you, is the crucial base of Primal Blueprint fitness (Rule #3 in my book for those of you who are currently reading it). It’s the base, the foundation, the keystone to the big fitness picture.

After all, it was how our good man Grok and his family spent most of their days. Carrying water from the stream. Collecting fire wood, walking through the forests and meadows to gather greens, berries, and other plants. Working on their shelter. Perhaps migrating to another area because of drought, predators or competing tribes. Butchering, building, washing, cooking, dancing, you name it. Some of it was hard work, but it was mostly just continual – the sheer volume of low level activity that characterized Grok’s existence.

If the human body evolved within these conditions, our lives today often leave us as fish out of water. There’s the joke about old time farmers laughing at people who pay to slog away on a treadmill for hours at the gym. Why would anyone pay to run in place like a hamster when there’s plenty of real, hard, useful labor to be done instead? Of course, not all of us have livelihoods that involve enough physical exertion to constitute adequate exercise, and our modern home lives (with washing machines, electric/gas mowers, etc.) don’t require the same labor as they once did. Unlike Grok, few of us built the homes we live in. Few of us till large tracts of land for planting. We generally don’t spend our days scrubbing, hauling or foraging. But it doesn’t matter, ultimately, what form our low level cardio takes. What matters is what happens on the inside.

Let’s take it apart. Low level aerobic activity involves working at 55 to 75 percent of your maximum heart rate. You often see it referred to as “moderate exercise.” (Recently, researchers attempted to define the term more and came up with 100 steps a minute. Their results offer some kind of guidance, but they’re nonetheless a vast generalization.) Heart rate (and the aerobic activity that determines it) varies considerably based on how in shape you are. Here’s what it looks like translated into practical terms. For fit folks, the low aerobic range usually kicks in on the lower end (55%) with a slow to medium paced but easy hike, a slow bike ride or relaxed cardio workout at the gym. An out of shape person would likely hit that same 55% with a stroll around the block. Now flip to the upper limit (75%) of low level cardio, and a fit person is likely looking at a vigorous hilly hike, a somewhat hilly bike ride, or a medium cardio workout at the gym. An unfit person will achieve that 75% with a medium level hike, a minimally hilly and casual bike ride, or an easy-medium intensity cardio workout on the gym equipment. (As for the endurance athletes out there, 80% of your maximum heart rate generally constitutes the upper limit of the “low level” range.)

As I’ve suggested before, our society has come to worship a chronic cardio model as the beacon of fitness. It follows that low level aerobic activity appears to do nothing but fall short – a weak attempt at the “real” thing. Worse yet, it’s an attitude that makes the fitness quest seem like an all or nothing proposition. No pain, no gain. Total bunkum. Sure, the Primal Blueprint model incorporates low level aerobic activity as part of a larger picture along with strength and “sprint” interval training. The PB fitness model, however, is built upon that low level foundation.

Not only is low level aerobic activity the natural evolutionary expectation of the body, it’s flat out beneficial in its own right. It plays an integral role in maintaining weight and metabolic balance. It also builds your base and makes more strenuous workouts possible by toning all the muscles, joints and connective tissue needed for optimal strength training and high intensity aerobic activity. Low level aerobic exercise engages your energy systems and incrementally improves their functioning and efficiency. And while it does all that, it also physiologically and hormonally counters the effects of stress.

The impact is impressive to say the least. Specific studies have found that it reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome, breast cancer, and death from cardiovascular disease. It also appears to reduce the risk of vascular dementia. But the kicker is this. Low level aerobic activity, research suggests, can decrease overall systemic inflammation and the risk for the vast array of degenerative diseases that plague our modern society. Skeletal muscle fibers, researchers have found, act as “an endocrine organ.” Working the muscle fibers, it appears, stimulates the production of Interleukin-6, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which in turn signals and benefits other organs. Don’t you love this? (On the lighter note, low level aerobic activity also decreases the incidence of colds. As we all know in the context of our busy lives, that’s nothing to shake a stick at.)

Want more? Turns out there are mental health benefits as well. Moderate exercise has been shown to improve the mood and well-being of those with chronic depression. But for all of us, low to moderate level aerobic activity can elevate our mood a good two to four hours after exercise. (And that’s just after twenty minutes or so of activity.) We’ve all felt this one, haven’t we? Letting go of the stress on a solitary hike or evening walk with a friend?

But how much do you need per week for real, ongoing health benefits? While there’s no limit to the benefit of low-intensity aerobic exercise, rest assured that you can experience outstanding health gains by engaging in simply a moderate amount of low-intensity aerobic movement. It shakes out likes this. Go for a minimum of two hours of low-intensity aerobic movement per week. Two hours pales in comparison to Grok’s daily grind, but I know few of us have the time to live a full Grok existence. (That’s not really the point anyway.) Ideally, however, we’d put in more than that two hour bare minimum. I’d consider three to five hours a week of low-intensity an optimal range for modern day folks.

What does it boil down to then? Simple activity – whatever floats your boat. Dancing (line, club, ballet, etc.), outdoor hikes, pleasant bike rides, vigorous gardening, brisk walks, a light swim, rollerblading in the park, ice skating, yoga, some doubles badminton or tennis, a game of Ultimate, playing or just mowing the lawn. In short: leading an overall active life by working in low level aerobic exercise into the daily pattern of your life, your relationships and your free time fun. It’s the good life, I’d say.

Now I’ll turn it over to you. Tell me how you make low level aerobic exercise fit into your life and fitness? Have other comments or questions? Shoot me a line, and thanks for reading.

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204 Comments on "The Definitive Guide to Low Level Aerobic Activity"

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Greg at Live Fit
7 years 2 months ago

My Dad (who is in his late 50’s) and I went turkey hunting together this past spring. We walked about 10 miles through brush and fields over the course of a day, much as Grok would have done I suppose. We carried all our gear as well, which amounted to about 50 pounds of “stuff.” I’m here to tell you that I was truly tired at the end of the day.

Don’t let anyone tell you that isn’t a good workout.

Yummy
Yummy
7 years 2 months ago

Great article Mark! I love taking a nice long walk or hike. I like that you highlighted all kinds of activities like dancing.

Jane
Jane
7 years 2 months ago
One of the FIRST things that attracted me to the PB was the encouragement of low level aerobic activity and the explanations as to why “chronic cardio” is unhealthy. I had to adopt this way of exercising when I was 17 after my orthopedic surgeon told me that if I kept running & playing soccer competitively I’d be in a wheel chair within the year because my badly injured knees could not handle the stress. So after several surgeries (with more to come in the furture) to insure I could keep walking, thats what I did… walk. But I felt… Read more »
Whistler
Whistler
7 years 2 months ago

Helped a friend move last weekend; provided some great low level aerobic activity. It’s a low impact combo of dipping, lifting, walking, and stair climbing. And you even get some HIIT when its time to carry the heavy furniture to the UHaul. Of course, the free pizza at the end of the move was no help.

Samnang
4 years 3 months ago

I checked out the Strength and Power Travel Circuit; most of those ecirecxses are impossible for someone with knee problems. I can’t do squats and lunges; I can however, do a wall squat with my exercise ball between my back and the wall. My knees creeked something awful when I first started, but now make less noise (and hurt less) when I do my 2 sets of 12 reps.Can you provide other Strength and Power Travel Circuit exercises that don’t involve stress on the knees as much, please?

hannahc
hannahc
7 years 2 months ago
I’m still working on accepting that walking is a “good enough” exercise 🙂 And that a 15 minute workout of tabata sprints and body weight exercises is plenty for the intense days (even though my legs/abs/back/chest definitely feel the burn the next day!). The chronic cardio mindset is definitely brain-washing. I actually really enjoy taking a 45 minute walk/hike through the park with my dogs and friends though, so much more than running alone for any amount of time. And all day hikes are my most sincere idea of vacation! This recommendation of “make your easy exercise days longer and… Read more »
Anthony
7 years 2 months ago

Mark, I highly recommend reading a recently released book titled “Body by Science”, particularly the section on romanticizing our ancestors and the errors/consequences that can be made in attempts to mimic their exercise habits.

Nostril Damus
Nostril Damus
7 years 2 months ago

Hi Anthony

Perhaps you can give us a one liner about these revelations ?

I find it hard to imagine a valid argument against doing what we have been selected (through evolution) to do.

Mark Sisson
7 years 2 months ago

I’ll check it out, Anthony.

Susanne
Susanne
7 years 2 months ago

I got my low-level exercise today by spending 1.5 hours hunting for placemarkers on a salt marsh, then taking elevation measurements. It’s harder than it sounds, as the ground is not always stable and there are lots of holes and soft spots to step into.

shel
shel
7 years 2 months ago

may i suggest a top tier primal exercise? backpacking.

also, for added benefit: backpacking.

…and don’t forget the more soul soothing activities like backpacking.

i kinda like backpacking

Kimberly
Kimberly
7 years 2 months ago

I enjoy jogging for low-level cardio. I’ll do 4-5 miles at about a 10-minute-mile pace, a couple of times a week. It’s a lot more fun than walking and no more strenuous than a vigorous hike. It’s also a good pace for my three-legged dog, who’s more comfortable at a slow lope than a walk.

bob
bob
7 years 2 months ago

i have reduced the jogging intensity to 60% to 65% of max hr….crazy thing is my running pace has improved at these intensities to what pace used to be to 75% to 80% of max…and i feel much better doing it…effortless

Abdul
Abdul
5 years 4 months ago

I weigh 82 kg and was going to start primal from tomorrow. Do you think I can continue to jog at say 5-5.5 mph for 45 minutes as my low level activity or am I better walking for 45 min? I am 31 and am trying to get to 70-75 kg.

Wyatt
Wyatt
7 years 2 months ago

I am a music student ASU who plays drum set. this is not my only low level cardio, but definitely my favorite. for the past week, rocking out to jackson’s Thriller has been my favorite thing to do.

also, treading water can be very fun if you time yourself. after 5 -10 of treading without rest, my heart rate seams to be near 75 percent.

leslie
leslie
6 years 8 months ago

i went to ASU 🙂

Milad
Milad
7 years 2 months ago

Mark;
Can you elaborate further on the amount of actual fat burning that is undertaken when, say, one goes for a brisk walk for 3/4 of an hour? How long of that is the uptake of glycogen, if any?
Is it most effective to undertake the low level activity before, or after a session of heavy weights, to maximize fat burn?

Thank you.

Anand Srivastava
Anand Srivastava
7 years 2 months ago

I think you are missing the point of low level cardio. Its not for burning fat. It is for getting your body to move and relax at the same time.

For burning fat, you should teach your body to burn fat, by keeping your insulin levels very low. This is done best by either fasting or going low carb.

Exercising for reducing fat is a waste of time.

carroll
carroll
6 years 1 month ago

Dr Phil Maffetone, a sports doctor, would disagree – It’s not just diet. Low intensity aerobics also trains your body to burn fat rather than sugar (repeated intense workouts, or anaerobic exercise trains the body to burn sugar).

Eric
Eric
3 years 7 months ago

Here: http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/cardiolayman.pdf

This article will answer your questions nicely. 🙂

thania1
thania1
7 years 2 months ago

Thanks Mark. I love to read your blog. You give such a detailed explanation , with further links for more information, great.

Yes I also read this week somewhere that it reduces overall systemic inflamarion too. I must say I enjoy walking a lot , it gives me lots of serenity and harmony. I usually walk 1hr min/day is for pleasure.

Russell
Russell
7 years 2 months ago

Dogs!

I walk mine every day for at least an hour most days, and significantly longer if time permits. I have no backyard/garden so if Fido has to “go,” then I have to walk.

We also spend a lot of time playing frisbee, and she’ll even run sprints with me (and occasionally lets me win).

LizMac
LizMac
7 years 2 months ago

I commute to and from work every weekday on my bike – rain or shine. It reduces my carbon footprint and I don’t have the stress of sitting in traffic going into/coming out of town. I get my daily dose of Vitamin D. I also look forward to it – it wakes me up in the morning and is a great release after a long workday! I couldn’t imagine life without my commute – it’s the best part of my day! How many Americans can say that…

Troy
Troy
7 years 2 months ago

My friend Tsuyoshi and I walked from the top of North county san diego, to Torrey pines state park beach, about 18 milks of beach, Then inland 15 miles through a canyon to his house…. barefooted for the beach part… then in vibrams for the rest…. what a freakin workout… and tons of fun, went to places i have never been, beachs i always wanted to run around on, and cleared my mind.

troy

LG
LG
7 years 2 months ago

I used to be self conscious about walking. It certainly wasn’t the “manly” thing to do. Couldn’t look “weak” walking through the neighborhood! What a fool. I love walking with my wife or alone for at least 30 minutes an evening. Thanks Mark!

Catalina
Catalina
7 years 2 months ago

How about good old-fashioned housecleaning? You know. . .scrubbing floors on your hands and knees, washing windows, sweeping with a (gasp!) broom? I’ll bet our great-grandmas stayed in pretty good shape. Now we have Roombas and Scoobas so we can spend more time in front of the TV. (I can’t help but think of those “humans” in Wall-E who looked like beached whales and all but lost their ability to walk…

Brenda
Brenda
7 years 2 months ago
About a year ago I started a new job as a baker. My days involve 7 hours on my feet, brisk walking almost constantly, heavy lifting in spurts and lots of bending and squatting. At first I was too exhausted to work out at night and felt guilty about it! Over the course of the year however I’ve noticed a general toning of my muscles and repositioning of body composition. Since switching from a vegetarian diet a few months ago, I’ve noticed an increase in muscle mass and energy. Now I can finally sit at night an relax and not… Read more »
Miriam
Miriam
7 years 2 months ago

I park on the other side of the city when I get to work and have a good 15 minute walk including up and down many sets of stairs (instead of taking the escalators) that is 30 minutes already without even trying!

Also another way is a weekend of spring cleaning the house, nothing like scrubbing the floors on my hands and knees with a brush singing songs from Annie, lol and I don’t feel guilty for not going to the gym as this is probably a better workout.

Vin - NaturalBias
7 years 2 months ago
I’ve read research stating that interval training improves aerobic capacity and I’ve also read that cardio encourages the conversion of transitional muscle fibers from fast twitch to slow twitch which is bad for athletes who aren’t involved in endurance sports. As such, I’ve sworn off all cardio. Since reading the fitness chapters of Primal Blueprint, my perspective of low intensity cardio is changing. I’m excited because I miss riding my road bike! In regard to muscle fibers transitioning, I’m thinking that the effect can’t be too significant, otherwise it would have impaired the ability of prehistoric humans to hunt and… Read more »
Jonas Cronfeld
7 years 2 months ago

I try to walk for an hour “uphill” on the threadmil each day, some days followed by some interval rowing or sprinting. The threadmil is not the most inspiring thing to do, but I listen to audiobooks while I do it, and I find it hard to keep it as steady if I walk in nature.

Dream
7 years 2 months ago
@ Nostril Damus I understand the logic behind aligning our lifestyle with that of our ancestors- and I believe in the case of nutrition it is dead on- but in the field of exercise I believe there are benefits of modern technology to be had. To sort of step on my own toes, I believe anaerobic metabolism is far more ancient (primal) than aerobic metabolism. While I don’t see any negatives in low, LOW levels of aerobic activity (as Mark suggests that our ancestors performed such as walking and performing random like foraging or carrying water) there are negatives to… Read more »
Dream
7 years 2 months ago

*performing random tasks

Chris - ZTF
7 years 2 months ago

Luckily my job involves spending upwards of 8 hours on my feet each day so I definitely get my lifestyle activity in!

Last weekend in the heat I did some moving and building of furniture, boy what a workout….Now time for me to hit the weights…..

Dream
7 years 2 months ago

To further clarify my point, I’m not suggesting we become completely sedentary. Staying active, getting outside, horsing around and so on is key, on a physical and psychological level for healthy living.

However moderate aerobic activity as a means to exercise just doesn’t hold up IMO. Walking, cool. Jogging, not so much.

There is a fine line between exercise and recreation. Both serve an individual purpose and should not be confused for one another.

Plato
Plato
7 years 2 months ago

Does this disagree with the Primal Blueprint? Light, playful activity intermingled with brief, intense workouts, often with heavy weights… I was under the impression that was exactly what the Primal Blueprint recommended. I also thought long bouts of jogging were discouraged. Maybe the justification is different, but other than that, it doesn’t sound different to me. But maybe I’m missing something…

Hello Kitty
Hello Kitty
7 years 2 months ago
Timely post!!! Today was a running day, but I had to go on a shopping trip. I don’t like it when that happens, because around here, a shopping day is very taxing (hence I am no shape to run afterwards). Walking to the train, up stairs, down stairs, walking all over town, lugging bags on the shoulders, more stairs… Thanks for helping me accept that I didn’t really skip out on exercise. Today though, non-primal Mr. Hello Kitty enjoyed a generous level of activity: he climbed Mt. Fuji! First time for him, second for my son, and I’ve already climbed… Read more »
thehova
thehova
7 years 2 months ago

Golf seems to fit into Mark’s concept nicely.

It’s 4+ hours of walking, lifting (your clubs) and focusing on shots.

Gina from Diet Renegade
7 years 2 months ago

Thanks Mark for another great article!

I absolutely love hiking. There is something so refreshing about just walking through nature. It clears my head and gets me to really appreciate the present moment.

~ Gina

pjnoir
pjnoir
7 years 2 months ago

75% of your HR is hardly LOW. AN unfit person, especial if overweight can easily reach 75% Target HR whereas a slimer fit person with need to push it to reach 75%- walking more inclines, carry more weight- ideally above the chest and shoulders as the arms push the heart even more than the legs.

Randy
Randy
7 years 2 months ago
Mark, You mentioned lawn mowing which I find to be a cool low intensity workout. I didn’t always feel that way but one day when I had to miss a training session to cut the grass I started looking at what it provides in the primal realm, at least for my lawn: 1 hour of walking, on some uneven terrain, and pushing something thata gets heavier as it goes along! The only times I stop are to empty the catcher about 5 times which requires bending, pulling, lifting and shaking as I dump it over the fence onto my canal… Read more »
trackback
7 years 2 months ago

[…] hours at the gym running your heart out for health. Not true. Forget no pain no gain. Incorporating low-levels of aerobic activity (walking, dancing, gardening) provides immense health […]

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[…] Fitness Article Links Low Level Aerobic Activity How To Add 110+ lbs To Your Lifts Getting CrossFit, Day 19: Nasty […]

Ms Cal
Ms Cal
7 years 2 months ago
I live in London, where keeping a car is more trouble than it’s worth. I get around using a mix of walking and public transport. I found the train journey to work too crowded and stressful (I’d always arrive feeling like I needed to punch someone) so now my journey involved a 10 minute tube journey followed by a half hour walk. I also make sure I get out and walk in the park at lunchtime. I’m not sure it makes up for all the hours I spend hunched over a computer, but it certainly can’t hurt. Likewise, I walk… Read more »
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[…] The Definitive Guide to Low Level Aerobic Activity […]

pjnoir
pjnoir
7 years 2 months ago

I don’t know a CITY in America that is unworkable. Cities by nature are design to walk or use a bike and not an automobile. Suburbs are different, but with smaller shopping centers coming back in style- many have become “walkable.” Although walking would be a good start in curing many health issues, it is not a panacea to replace a better diet. I’m very glad to live in America and share the road to work, either in my car or on foot.

Robb Wolf
7 years 2 months ago

Mark-
Great post. I logged my best elite level performance when I had a solid low-leve base. I was playing a Brazilian martial art, Capoeira for upwards of 2hrs/day. On top of this I was able to train CrossFit and my overall strength, stamina, work capacity and health were better than ever before or since,

However one can do it, build that big base of fun lower level activity, then make brief forays into the hard stuff. Great recipe!

Mark Sisson
7 years 2 months ago
Robb, after ten years of intensive training and competing in marathons and triathlons, my own epiphany came when I had “retired” and was training regular, mostly unfit clients every day. I’d work out with them doing 12-minute miles or easy easy bike rides. Maybe 3 or 4 hours of very slow work each day(I’d say painfully slow, but it wasn’t painful at all). Then once or twice a week at most, I’d get to the track and hammer some 400s or I’d do hill repeats on my bike. 30 minutes of HIT. That was it. Low and behold I raced… Read more »
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[…] More reading about why playing is important. […]

Trinkwasser
Trinkwasser
7 years 2 months ago
Yes, yes and again yes! I always had problems with reactive hypos, and sometimes reactive hypers (liver dumping excess glucose) from cardio level activities which didn’t (usually) occur with constant low level stuff like walking, gardening, housework etc. Now my BG problems are mostly under control I still tend to do the same kind of stuff, walking downtown for the shopping, hiking out in the country with my photographic gear (which weighs a few kilos) and taking full advantage of my ADD. You know how annoying it is when you go upstairs for something, can’t remember what it was and… Read more »
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[…] Go ahead and walk it out […]

Fixed Gear
7 years 2 months ago

I body-surfed for 30 minutes today.

Chronic Cardio is also THE factor preventing naturally skinny men like myself from building any real muscle. Once I stopped punishing myself with cardio (in a failed attempt to lose fat) I was finally able to see real results in the gym. Lose fat with primal eating. Gain muscle by avoiding excess cardio. Really!

Zach
7 years 2 months ago

Mark,
If I miss a workout but go for a walk I try to not guilt set in, because it’s so unnecessary. This is a great post to further give understanding that a good walk is a good thing.
Best Regards,
Zach

VeggieGirl
7 years 2 months ago

AMEN and thank you for this article!!

I do yoga every morning and night; go for long walks; dance to my favorite music 🙂

Dylan
Dylan
7 years 2 months ago

I really enjoy a game of disc golf.
Walk a few miles on uneven terrain
Throw a disc a far as I can.
Play,exersize,and relax and in one.

ebrunner
ebrunner
7 years 2 months ago
Mark, when I go to the gym, I see very few people performing the true steady-state sufferfests that you warn us against. Most “cardio-freaks” are doing low-level aerobic training, maybe on machines, but low-level nonetheless. How many times do you see someone really grinding it out on a cardio machine? Most are soft-pedaling, walking, chatting, etc. Their biggest problem isn’t lack of low-level work, but rather that they never do anything more intense. I think it’s important to emphasize the importance of the intense weight/sprint workouts within the PB context. And when it comes to the low-level, aerobic stuff, I… Read more »
Mark Sisson
7 years 2 months ago

ebrunner, at the elite level it would appear that there is a new awareness of the dangers of Chronic Cardio…but a ton of people are still hammering away far too much. Agreed that intensity is going to make the difference. But it’s still tough summoning intensity a day after a five hour ride or 90 minute run even if you were at “low levels”

Sally
Sally
4 years 3 months ago
I see it. My girlfriends are chronic cardio-ers. One even goes twice a day, on a machine for an hour at a time. It’s the end of the world if they miss a session. And then they gripe about how sore and miserable they are. Best part is they pay a trainer to put them through all this! And dine on pasta and low-fat dairy, so they haven’t lost much weight. It’s frustrating to listen to. I’ve tried to set them on the primal path a few times but gave up because they don’t listen, so now I just lead… Read more »
memory foam
7 years 2 months ago

Moderate exercise, such as light hiking, has always seemed to benefit me quite a lot. I’ve found that it helps in weight loss, as it lets me work off some calories on those days when I can’t easily arrange for a strenuous workout. Also I find that if I do the strenuous stuff too frequently there’s the risk of joint or muscle pain. Many people end up in this boat due to not balancing intense exercise with low level exercise.

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[…] The Health Benefits of Moderate Exercise | Mark’s Daily Apple […]

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[…] we’ve discussed how Chronic Cardio increases systemic inflammation, and the importance of low level aerobic exercise (walking), play, quality sleep and regular exposure to sunlight for mental health. This is what […]

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[…] play, or move slowly. I’m usually ready for a break from pushing, so these are more often than not pure rest […]

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