EFAD typically occurs when less than 1-2% of total calories are provided from EFAs. In the general population, EFAD is extremely rare.lol!!! so essentialBecause LA is abundant in the human diet, the amount of AA available almost always exceeds the level needed to maintain a triene-tetraene ratio below 0.2. It was only upon the introduction of parenteral nutrition (PN) that EFAD became more common. It was first reported in patients who received PN without dietary fat supplementation
there is no adequate control group, typically one group are given fish oil whilst the other are likely eating a diet high in omega 6 PUFA, so yes the fish oil can produce some anti-inflammatory effects, but to really get an idea of what’s going on you’d need an additional group eating an essential fatty acid deficient diet (no omega 3 or 6), such studies are lacking although there are some indications that “essential” fatty acid deficiency produces less inflammation than fish oil supplementation as shown in this study in rats (Ling et al. 2012).To date, there have not been any dose response studies in animals or humans investigating the ability of ALA, EPA, or DHA to reverse omega-3 FA deficiency. Perhaps this is because symptoms of omega-3 FA deficiency are difficult to diagnose and monitor.
now debunk these:
PUFA (omega 3 and 6) inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme that links glycolysis into the Kreb’s (TCA) cycle (Da Silva et al. 1993). Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase is known to contribute to the Warburg effect, the aerobic glycolysis characteristic of cancer (McFate et al. 2008).
PUFA breakdown products (acrolein, malondialdehyde, hydroxynonenal, crotonaldehyde) inhibit mitochondrial respiration (Humphries et al. 1998, Picklo and Montine 2001).
PUFA (including fish oil) promote cancer (Griffini et al. 1998), high DHA is associated with prostate cancer (Brasky et al. 2011).
Linoleic acid (omega 6) is required for carcinogenesis in some animal models (Ip et al. 1985).
PUFA suppress metabolism, this can be seen most obviously in the elevated metabolisms of lab animals fed an “essential” fatty acid deficient diet, (Burr and Beber 1934), “essential” fatty acid deficiency is associated with increased activity of cytochrome oxidase a fundamental mitochondrial respiratory enzyme (Kunkel and Williams 1951).
Animals fed “essential” fatty acid sufficient diets gain more weight than deficient animals (Rafael et al. 1988).
PUFA inhibit thyroid hormone activity (Clarke and Hembree 1990).
PUFA, LA(omega 6), ALA (omega 3), AA (6), DHA(3) all cause brain swelling, oleic acid (MUFA) and palmitic acid (SFA) do not (Chan and Fishman, 1980).
PUFA cause nervous system damage and impair learning, (Harman et al. 1976).
Neuroprostanes breakdown products of DHA are implicared in Alzheimer’s, they are found in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer’s patients at higher levels than age-matched controls (Roberts et al. 1998).
PUFA, both omega 3 and 6 are involved in atherosclerosis, a study examining fatty acid composition of aortic plaques found a positive association between omega 3 and 6 fatty acids of plaques with adipose tissue content, no association was found for saturated fatty acids (Felton et al. 1994).
PUFA, both omega 3 and 6 impair lung function (Wolfe et al. 2002).
PUFA interfere with insulin sensitivity and increase diabetes risk, a study looking at safflower and fish oil found that both increased fasting blood glucose, the fish oil group had higher blood glucose (Borkman et al. 1989).
PUFA promote liver cirrhosis, saturated fats and cholesterol are protective against liver cirrhosis (Nanji and French 1986). In another study fish oil promoted cirrhosis and saturated fat was found to reverse cirrhosis, whilst ethanol administration was ongoing!! So if you’re going out drinking make sure to eat lots of butter and coconut oil (Nanji et al. 2001).
Omega 3 fats lower endurance in rats (Ayre and Hulbert 1997).
Fish oil lowered mitochondrial activity and increased oxidative stress in… Atlantic Salmon, wow fish oil sucks even for fish (Kjaer et al. 2008).
Omega 3 and 6, especially 3 impair wound healing (Cardosso et al. 2004).
I noted a study above suggesting that essential fatty acid deficiency produces less inflammation than omega 3 supplementation, part of this effect occurs through inducing the synthesis of mead acid an omega 9 family PUFA (unsaturated in 3 places), the presence of mead acid is typically considered to be a marker of “essential” fatty acid deficiency, even when no pathology is present, its synthesis is inhibited by omega 3 and 6 PUFA, there are some animal studies showing anti-inflammatory effects from mead acid supplementation, mead acid because it is only unsaturated in 3 places is more stable than EPA or DHA (Yoshida et al. 2003).
There’s good evidence that PUFA especially the longer chain highly unsaturated AA and DHA accumulate with aging (Tamburini et al. 2004, Nourooz-Zadeh and Pereira 1999).
PUFA shorten lifespan, a number of animal studies show that the degree of unsaturation of tissue fatty acids corresponds inversely with maximum lifespan, i.e. eating lots of “essential” fatty acids will shorten your life (Bajra 2004). Naked mole-rats display unusual longevity for a rodent of their size they live around 28 years similarly sized mice live only 3-4 years. Mole-rats have low DHA (2-6%) in comparison to mice (27-57%), this low DHA means they are less susceptible to peroxidative damage (Mitchell et al. 2007).
In a study in Italy a high PUFA to saturated fat ratio was found to increase all-cause mortality (Solfrizzi et al. 2005).
So in summary PUFA inhibit metabolism, promote cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, contribute to alcoholic liver disease, make you stupid, and generally kill you slowly, you might be thinking that’s not so bad, but wait it gets worse…. Much worse….
A recent study suggests that PUFA contribute to… male pattern baldness, yes prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is found in higher levels in bald men, its derived from Arachidonic acid (Garza et al. 2012).
pls go shill, you can't avoid unsaturated fats, the harm is when they're consumed in excess of ~5% daily calories depending on your ratio of saturated fats.