It changed even genes and metabolism, fat conjures up not just padding on the hips. Researchers have observed now in detail, how a high-fat diet affects the body. Therefore, increases the energy source not only blood pressure and hunger, but screwed to the rhythm of day and night.
Crisp chips: much fat can lower cholesterol ansteigenZur enlarge
Crisp chips: high in fat can increase cholesterol levels
The one keep poison the other carbohydrates, however, the fat. In particular saturated fatty acids are considered clear risk factor for vascular disease. For several years, however, American nutrition researcher at the harmful effects of fat doubt first and foremost. A study of the German Institute for nutritional research (DIfE) in Potsdam could soon change that.
For the just in the end nougat study (analysis of Nutrigenomics in twins), the researchers compared how the bodies of 46 pairs of twins responds to a different high-fat diets. To the 92 slim had to feed, initially for six weeks rich carbohydrate and low fat healthy study participants (only 30 percent of ingested calories were from FAT). Then, they were converted for six weeks on a diet of the calorific value to 45 percent came from fat.
The scientists rigorously that the daily absorbed calories remained absolutely the same, looked the whole time to not distort the results. In addition, they observed in detail how turned around the metabolism with a high-fat diet and the fat affected the activity of the genes - Epigenetics. The result was clear: "we were themselves surprised how quickly and how strongly affects the nutritional change", says Andreas Pfeiffer, endocrinologist at the DIfE and at the Charité. "Although the subjects not increased as expected. But within a tight week epigenetics significantly turned around."
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According to the data, just large amounts of saturated fatty acids lead to a significant increase in cholesterol levels, which plays an essential role in the development of cardio vascular disease. While the twins responded with a nearly identical change of "good" HDL cholesterol, which is supposed to protect the wires. However, the "bad" LDL, leading to vascular changes, increased even in monozygotic twins very differently.
"Much more dangerous than the elevated cholesterol levels but is: the fat starts to ignite", study leader warns Pfeiffer. So, the researchers could observe that the inflammatory cytokines - specific proteins, which play an important role in the immune system - increased strongly. "This may cause of the metabolic syndrome to heart attack and stroke", says Pfeiffer.
In addition, the nougat study showed a link between nutrition and the sleep rhythm, which depends not only of the sleep hormone melatonin. "We see that eight key 'Clockgene' control about 10 percent of the human genome," Pfeiffer explains. "And therefore they regulate the biorhythms."
Individual nutrition advice are the target
These results confirm for the first time evidence of Joseph t. bass, which had investigated the effect of a very high-fat diet on the internal clock of mice. The Chicago endocrinologist 2007 showed that the animals a high-fat diet had hunger constantly - even in times in which the mice usually eat nothing. Because in addition to a number of genetic changes in the fat prevents the body in the synthesis of important saturation hormone leptin.
According to the nougat study, particularly four genes that regulate fat metabolism and inflammatory reactions vary by high-fat diet. In addition, that the liver fat even among slender young people increases, which can eventually lead to diabetes and liver cancer. As also the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), even the blood pressure - a highly explosive mixture increases.
Overall, the researchers at the twins monitored 22,000 genes, for two years, they are busy with the evaluation. To cope with the massive amounts of data, Pfeiffer has hired a bio-computer scientist. "It completely new statistical methods had to be developed, which will lead to a number of different publications", says the Potsdamer. "The goal is to give people reliable individual nutrition advice."
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