The fact glucagon is stimulated by stress means it's a stress hormone. As does the fact it's an adaptive hormone.
Originally Posted by Neckhammer
"When conscious, lightly restrained primates were startled by noise, the level of glucagon in the plasma rose rapidly and this rise was followed by an elevation of blood glucose but not of plasma insulin. In anaesthetized animals similar effects were produced by unpleasant stimuli (rectal distension, drilling a burr hole in the skull or the passage of an electric current through the head). These experiments show that glucagon is rapidly released in response to various types of stress."
Energy metabolism in trauma and sepsis: t... [Prog Clin Biol Res. 1983] - PubMed - NCBI
Without insulin action, glucagon causes hyperglycemia. Fatty acid oxidation is by and large inefficient and increasingly activates pathways that cause oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis
“Starving for sugar causes the body to break down proteins to make glucose, weakening the organism’s resistance, providing amino acids for tumor growth, and probably providing ammonia and other things that stimulate growth and interfere with differentiation. The liberated free fatty acids in either sugar deprivation or diabetes (in which cells are starved for glucose) stimulate tumor growth.”
“”Cancer metabolism” or stress metabolism typically involves an excess of the adaptive hormones, resulting from an imbalance of the demands made on the organism and the resources available to the organism. Excessive stimulation depletes glucose and produces lactic acid, and causes cortisol to increase, causing a shift to the consumption of fat and protein rather than glucose. Increased cortisol activates the Randle effect (the inhibition of glucose oxidation by free fatty acids), accelerates the breakdown of protein into amino acids, and activates the enzyme fatty acid synthase, which produces fatty acids from amino acids and pyruvate, to be oxidized in a “futile cycle,” producing heat, and increasing the liberation of ammonia from the amino acids. Ammonia suppresses respiratory, and stimulates glycolytic, activity.”
“In Warburg’s view, cancer has a unique requirement for glucose, because of its “respiratory defect.” The ability of cancer to consume large amounts of glucose means that the body interprets cancer as stress, since the waste of glucose is the key feature of stress. The body’s response to decreasing glucose is to produce larger amounts of adrenal hormones, especially cortisol. Cortisol raises the blood glucose supply by converting tissue proteins into sugar. This hormonal response to the sugar appetite of cancer is the main cause of the wasting syndrome which makes cancer so serious, and which destroys the thymus gland, causing the immune system to lose its guidance. V. S. Shapot’s work, showing the involvement of glucose and cortisol in cancer, provides part of the context for understanding the implications of Warburg’s view of cancer as a “respiratory defect.”"
“Ketones are very protective as a fuel, but the problem is that they are produced as a result of metabolic stress. If the liver is extremely good, it can store enough glycogen for a day, but chronic, frequent, stress usually damages the liver’s ability to store glycogen.”
Time is passing so quickly. Right now, I feel like complaining to Einstein. Whether time is slow or fast depends on perception. Relativity theory is so romantic. And so sad.