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  1. #41
    Dulcimina's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by NZ primal Gwamma View Post
    yukka???????????????? How does one eat yukka ???? It grows slowly in my garden, but i have never thought of it as an edible plant ????
    It's yuca with one c. It's the same as cassava, manioc, tapioca,etc.

  2. #42
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    Quote Originally Posted by Paleobird View Post
    getting butter on a spoon.
    I dont have anything to contribute to the argument except that I try to limit the extra fats, for now, and butter was the first & easiest to go. I havent tried to eat just butter, but I can eat just a tator. And who knows, I might like butter on a stick.. or stick of butter But I dont even eat it on my veggies for now.

    And purely economics of it (not saying that is a good way to judge it, but one way) butter cost way more per pound. It might fill you up longer, I dont know but I really think cost wise, I would be better off with a 5-10lb bag of tators than a pound of butter.
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  3. #43
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    I love cold potatoes with vinegar & dill or Greek Yogurt, but just to cover all the bases, will the resistant starch disappear if you let the potato cool down and then reheat?

    Personally, my choice from the list would be lentils.
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  4. #44
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    Quote Originally Posted by gopintos View Post
    I dont have anything to contribute to the argument except that I try to limit the extra fats, for now, and butter was the first & easiest to go. I havent tried to eat just butter, but I can eat just a tator. And who knows, I might like butter on a stick.. or stick of butter But I dont even eat it on my veggies for now.

    And purely economics of it (not saying that is a good way to judge it, but one way) butter cost way more per pound. It might fill you up longer, I dont know but I really think cost wise, I would be better off with a 5-10lb bag of tators than a pound of butter.
    You know how a lot of folks describe themselves and 'meat and potato' kind of people? I think that's not a bad type to be! If you filled your plate with meat and potatoes, with some veggies, fruit, and cheese on the side...that's probably about as healthy a diet as you could want.

    My diabetic Dad is a meat and potatoes kinda guy, unfortunately his side dishes are bread, ice cream, cookies, cheez-wiz, and Coke.

    This whole resistant starch debate is kind of silly, really, eating some potatoes and rice gives you all the resistant starch you may (or may not) need. I'm a firm believer in happy guts=happy body, but apparently not everyone thinks that way.

    I found a article by Mark Sisson, Is Central Heating Related to Obesity? | Mark's Daily Apple where he dogs out an author for saying resistant starch is good for us:

    The thing that jumps out at me is the author’s obsession with “Resistant Starch.” First of all, I’m not sure why it deserves repeated capitalization (maybe it’s some sort of deity?), and second, resistant starch is just another type of prebiotic whose fermentation by microbiota releases beneficial short chain fatty acids. You can get the same kind of reaction by eating other sources of soluble fiber, many of them decidedly low-carb. Think leafy greens, broccoli, berries, apples, jicama, onions, garlic, leeks, Jerusalem artichokes. And yes, if your activity levels and metabolic health permit, Primal starches are good sources of resistant starch and soluble fiber alike, but it’s not the carbs doing it. It’s the “carbs” that you literally cannot digest without your little microscopic friends’ assistance.
    But in this blog he talks of gut flora and the need to produce butyrate, which is done as we know through resistant starches.

    I’ve written about prebiotics and butyric acid, or butyrate, one of the most important SCFAs. When certain types of gut flora consume certain prebiotic fibers (Melissa has a nice table detailing the butyrate production in response to various fibers), they make butyrate, which the colon uses for energy and which seems to inhibit colon tumors from forming (PDF). Additional benefits of butyrate include increased insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function. Without the gut flora necessary to ferment fiber into butyrate, we’d be getting shortchanged (and being unable to break down the things we eat is no fun, either).
    The above quote contained a link to this article: The Human Colon in Evolution: Part 4, The Secrets of Butyrate | Melissa McEwen on food anthropology, economics, and culture which says:

    Interestingly, one of the top producers (of butyrate) is something known as “resistant starch.” Resistant starch represents the growing nuance in understanding of fiber, since it is a starch that acts like a fiber in terms of acting as a bacterial substrate. It first showed up on the scientific radar when scientists found that low rates of colon cancer were not just found in populations with high-fiber diets, but those with high-starch diets (O'Keefe, Kidd, Espitalier-Noel, & Owira, 1999)1. Researchers found that a particular starch resisted digestion and ended up being fermented by colonic flora. They called this resistant starch and it is found mostly in cooked starches, some raw starches like green bananas, and some rough unprocessed grains and seeds. The former is termed type III and is a major part of the diets of many foraging populations who consume pounded and cooked starches like cassava, taro, true yam, and sago palm.
    and
    Another relatively unexplored avenue of research would be whether butyrate in the diet itself has led to decreased reliance on butyrate for colonic fermentation in some cultures that consume large amounts of dietary butyrate. The major source of butyrate in food is from the milk fats of grazing animals. It is most common in the modern diet in butter at 3%. It is possible that pastoral cultures consume substantial amounts of exogenous butyrate. Currently there have been few studies on oral consumption of butyrate in humans. Animal studies have been inconclusive, with some showing positive effects and some showing negative effects, which is complicated by the fact that if ingested orally it is also present in the small intestine, where it may play different roles (Sengupta, Muir, & Gibson, 2006; Wächtershäuser & Stein, 2000). A small study found orally-administered butyrate had a positive effect on symptoms of Crohn’s disease, but the method of administration was through pills rather than food (Di Sabatino et al., 2005).
    So all-in-all, I am going to start including more cold potatoes and rice in my daily eating...not because I am worried about anything, but just because of the evidence piling up that feeding the gut flora resistant starch is probably not harmful and may be infact, helpful. Plus, I loves me some cold tater!

  5. #45
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    Quote Originally Posted by otzi View Post
    I found a article by Mark Sisson, Is Central Heating Related to Obesity? | Mark's Daily Apple where he dogs out an author for saying resistant starch is good for us:
    The thing that jumps out at me is the author’s obsession with “Resistant Starch.” First of all, I’m not sure why it deserves repeated capitalization (maybe it’s some sort of deity?), and second, resistant starch is just another type of prebiotic whose fermentation by microbiota releases beneficial short chain fatty acids. You can get the same kind of reaction by eating other sources of soluble fiber, many of them decidedly low-carb. Think leafy greens, broccoli, berries, apples, jicama, onions, garlic, leeks, Jerusalem artichokes. And yes, if your activity levels and metabolic health permit, Primal starches are good sources of resistant starch and soluble fiber alike, but it’s not the carbs doing it. It’s the “carbs” that you literally cannot digest without your little microscopic friends’ assistance.


    But in this blog he talks of gut flora and the need to produce butyrate, which is done as we know through resistant starches.
    Butyrate comes from butter. The gut microbes can produce it also based on any type of fiber. RS is not special. If you like cold taters, by all means, enjoy. <shudders>
    Last edited by Paleobird; 12-20-2012 at 01:03 PM.

  6. #46
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    I'm on both sides of the issue. I agree with Otzi AND Mark about the importance of producing butyrate in the gut as being extremely beneficial. It is probably better utilized than the butyrate we might obtain from our diets.

    On the other hand, I do not agree that we necessarily NEED resistant starches to make said butyrate. Here, I agree with Paleobird's contention that butyrate can be produced by our gut flora by any type of fiber such as vegetable fiber, fruit fiber, ect. As she was correct to point out, even Paul Jaminet admitted as much which is why I'm not so sure why he was pushing the "need" to produce butyrate from resistant starch.

    Is there something about butyrate that is produced from resistant starches that is superior as opposed to butyrate produced from other fibers?

  7. #47
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    Thanks for all the research Otzi - as someone who is adding some starches back into my diet, it makes sense to me to make them RS. Since I love potato salad and green bananas that should be pretty easy.

  8. #48
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    Quote Originally Posted by jo View Post
    Thanks for all the research Otzi - as someone who is adding some starches back into my diet, it makes sense to me to make them RS. Since I love potato salad and green bananas that should be pretty easy.
    Same here. I have been reading a lot on RS. The way to maximize it in potatoes and rice is to cook, then cool to refrigerator temperature overnight. Do not reheat, or only heat minimally. Reheating will un-do the retrogradation of the RS and change it back into regular starch, so, if you can manage to eat cold rice and potatoes, that's a great source of RS.

    The fiber from other vegetable matter is called 'insoluable fiber' and also may play a roll in gut health, but not in the same sense as RS. RS is in a class of it's own when discussing colon health and other benefits.

    Here's the coolest thing I came across. If you consume 100g (400kcal) of RS, your gut microbes eat 50g of it in the conversion of RS to butyrate which only leaves 50g (200 calories) for you. In essence, when eating RS, if the label says 400 calories, you only get 200 calories out of it.

  9. #49
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    Resistant Starch - IvanNikolov.com

    Very good write-up of RS

    "...The two main components of starch are amylose and amylopectin. As a general rule starches that contain more amylose (the linear fraction of starch) produce more RS after retrogradation than those with mainly amylopectin content (the crystalline fraction of starch).

    In other words starches rich in amylose are generally more resistant to digestion and also more susceptible to retrogradation.

    Retrogradation occurs when starch is heated in water above its gelatinization temperature and then cooled. When cooked beyond certain temperature starch granules gelatinize (melt) thus becoming more readily digestible.

    However, these starch gels are unstable and upon cooling re-form crystals that are resistant to hydrolysis by amylases (digestive enzymes). Reheating of starch reduces the RS content while continuous cycles of reheating and cooling have shown to increase RS.

    Studies suggest that the energy value of RS is approximately 2 kcal/g (8 kJ/g) as opposed to the energy value for completely digestible starch 4.2 kcal/g (15 kJ/g) (Liversey 1994).

    Physiological effects of RS

    As already mentioned above RS escape digestion in the upper intestinal tract and once in the large intestine they are subject to fermentation by the microflora with end-products SCFA (short chain fatty acids), hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane.

    As being of most importance to the human health we will now focus our attention mainly on SCFA. SCFA are a product of bacterial fermentation. The main components are butyrate, propionate and acetate with the first one being produced in significantly higher levels in comparison with the other two.

    SCFA are the main energy source of the colonocytes (the colon mucosa). They help lower the pH of the intestine, increase colonic blood flow, help reduce the presence of toxic ammonia, and help prevent the development of abnormal colonic cell populations. SCFA are known as a bio-marker for colonic health.

    It’s worth mentioning also that RS serve as a physical protection for the probiotics. These are cultures of live microorganisms, which are shown to regulate the flora in the intestinal tract. Therefore, resistant starch is prebiotic, based on its probiotic protecting and stimulating properties..."

  10. #50
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    Your latest write-up, while interesting, doesn't explain why the butyrate must come from resistant starch when it could come from any source of fiber as has been shown.

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