I'm uncomfortable by the way you've characterized these groups. Binaries are generally false.
You may not have even known you set up the binary - what is the "flip side" of rural = solid parents/good friends/good activities/solid values? Do you really want to make the argument that urban = slacker parents/bad friends/bad or no activities/no values? That seems awfully sheltered!
I do think there are links between liberalism and sciencism (different than science) since liberalism tends to base judgements of truth from what is understood to be confirmable, replicable research. Most practicing scientists hedge their assertions a lot - "this data seems to show a possible correlation between..." and "our findings imply we need to do more about X to understand why this correlation may exist." We do get to confirmation and replication eventually... Unfortunately, media publicizing the findings generally quickly move to "scientists found that X causes Y" and science crusaders perpetuate the misunderstanding. Media happens in both urban and rural places.
I think the links between urban and conventional wisdom are much more tenuous. For example, many of us rural types (I'm a Kansas farmgirl, btw) were raised on 4-H and taught the epitome of CW through those institutions. Rural churches also tend to be pretty conformist. I think rural schools are also likely to emphasize shop/home ec more than urban schools due to demand and state politics/resource allotments. My grandmother and many other rural women of her time went to the local state university in home ec and was taught CW there. For me, CW has been passed down matriarchally. Homeschooling is also often done primarily by the mother.
Since, statistically, rural folk tend to be less educated by less of a variety of people, they may not have developed a critical consciousness about the way they were raised. Urbanites tend to be more individualized. However, I would say rural people also tend to be more libertarian - in the "no one can tell me I'm wrong" sense. The binary conservative/rural liberal/urban breaks down very quickly.