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  1. #1
    Betorq's Avatar
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    Who Is Eating Chocolate Every Day? Part 1

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    This article caught my attention. I was telling a friend back home in Cali that one ought not eat too much Chocolate, particularly roasted chocolate like most chocolate bars & pretty much all ground powdered chocolate is. He wanted science on my reasoning, as he has a degree from UCLA in Fruit Science. He's also about 6'5'' & weighs about 300 lbs. Let's just say it, he eats a LOT of whatever he likes, whether it's primal foods or chocolate. He mostly eats primal, about 90%, but he does like his sprouted toasted kamut bread schmeared with hemp & pumpkin butter with his eggy, coconutty breakfast.

    Here's what I sent him:The Curious (Toxic) Chemistry of Chocolate | Speakeasy Science
    The Curious (Toxic) Chemistry of Chocolate

    By Deborah Blum
    Posted: February 14, 2012
    The Latin name for the cacao tree – the tropical plant source of all things chocolate – consists of two words packed with candy-loving scientific exuberance. Theobroma cacao. It derives from the Greek words for god (theo) and food (brosi), roughly translating to “food of the gods”.
    Well, sure you say. Obviously. This is chocolate, after all. Almost goes without saying. Which is why I won’t. Actually, I’m mostly trying to explain why the most potent chemical compound in chocolate – a plant alkaloid, slightly bitter in taste, surprisingly poisonous in some species – is called theobromine.

    And while chocolate, as a whole, has a wonderfully seductive chemistry, this poison-obsessed blog will remain, well, obsessed. Today’s obsession is inspired by the fact that every Valentine’s season, in addition to stories about love and lace, newspapers run cautionary candy tales. In the last few days alone, there have been headlines ranging from Chocolate Poisoning and More to Pets and the Peril of Chocolate.

    And that’s entirely due to, yes, theobromine.

    So theobromine is an alkaloid, meaning it’s part of the everyday chemistry of the plant world. Plant alkaloids are nitrogen-based, typically with with flourishes of carbon, hydrogen and occasionally other atoms such as oxygen. The recipe (or as chemists like to say, formula) for theobromine is seven carbon atoms, eight of hydrogen, four of nitrogen and two of oxygen.

    And while this may sound like a recipe for the routine, alkaloids are anything but. The first plant alkaloid isolated (in 1804) was morphine from the flowering poppy. Other notable examples include cocaine (1860), nicotine (1828), caffeine (1820), strychnine (1818) and a host of pharmaceuticals including the anticancer drug Vincristine; the blood pressure medication, reserpine; and the antimalarial compound, quinine.
    By this standard, theobromine discovered in cacao beans in 1841, might sound to you
    Theobromine, 3-D model



    like a basic wuss of the alkaloid family. It’s mostly known as a mild stimulant in humans; it contributes (along with caffeine and a few other compounds) to that famed lift that people get from eating chocolate.
    There is some evidence that if people get carried away with chocolate consumption, of course, theobromine will make them a little twitchy. According to the National Hazardous Substances Database: “It has been stated that “in large doses” theobromine may cause nausea and anorexia and that daily intake of 50-100 g cocoa (0.8-1.5 g theobromine) by humans has been associated with sweating, trembling and severe headache.” Occasionally, people (mostly the elderly) have needed hospital treatment for a theobromine reaction.


    But if one looks at LD50 values, it’s obvious that the alkaloid is far more threatening to other species. LD50 is an oral toxicity measurement; it refers to the dose that will kill 50 percent of a given population and is usually calculated in milligrams of poison per kilograms of body weight. The theobromine LD50 is about 1000 mg/kg in humans. But for cats it’s 200 mg/kg and for dogs it’s 300 mg/kg – in other words, dangerous at a far lower dose.

    Credit: todayifoundout.com

    This varies, of course, by animal size and shape and breed. A few years ago, in fact, National Geographic published a fascinating interactive chart so that pet owners could search out the individual risk. The chart focuses on dogs because they are more likely than cats to eat something sweet. And it notes that theobromine is more concentrated in dark chocolates making them more dangerous than milk or “white” chocolate. The dark chocolate effects are so acute for canines, that the alkaloid has been tested with some success as a means of controlling coyote populations. (Interestingly, rats and mice are much less affected; their theobromine LD50 is much more like that found in humans.)
    The different toxicities have to do with the way different species metabolize the alkaloid; humans process it much more efficiently than canines. And in small amounts, theobromine’s effects can make it medically useful. But even here, it shows complexity. It increases heart rate and at the same time it dilates blood vessels, acting to bring down blood pressure. It can also open up airways and is under study as a cough medication. It stimulates urine production and is considered a diuretic. It interacts with the central nervous system, although not as effectively as caffeine.

    At toxic levels – in a characteristic dog death, for instance – all of this adds up acute nausea, convulsions, internal bleeding and often lethal over-stimulation of the heart. “See a vet immediately” is the message of one cautionary post, titled Toxic Chocolate. Another column, written by a vet, suggests rather hopefully that an evening walk is far more romantic and less likely to feature pet vomit (which she describes in revoltingly foamy detail).


    We had that same foamy experience in our household in December, actually, when our dog discovered our son’s holiday stash. We all survived but the humans in the house are a lot more careful about where they leave their chocolate. And this Valentine’s Day, we’re sticking to champagne. Sure, ethanol is also a poison in its own right. But that’s a different story.
    Last edited by Betorq; 09-24-2012 at 07:48 PM.
    "Science is not belief but the will to find out." ~ Anonymous
    "Culture of the mind must be subservient to the heart." ~ Gandhi
    "The flogging will continue until morale improves." ~ Unknown


  2. #2
    Dr. Bork Bork's Avatar
    Dr. Bork Bork is offline Senior Member
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    I try to stick to good chocolate. Righteously Raw is awesome, and I really like Amano as well... and don't forget Crio Bru which is straight up cacao nibs brewed like coffee
    --Trish (Bork)
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    magicmerl's Avatar
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    (raises hand)

    All this talk of theobromine reminds me of the company.
    Last edited by magicmerl; 09-24-2012 at 07:54 PM.
    Disclaimer: I eat 'meat and vegetables' ala Primal, although I don't agree with the carb curve. I like Perfect Health Diet and WAPF Lactofermentation a lot.

    Griff's cholesterol primer
    5,000 Cal Fat <> 5,000 Cal Carbs
    Winterbike: What I eat every day is what other people eat to treat themselves.
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    Owly's Avatar
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    Yes, about 10g per day of very good dark chocolate, 85% or higher.
    “If I didn't define myself for myself, I would be crunched into other people's fantasies for me and eaten alive.” --Audre Lorde

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    cori93437's Avatar
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    Define too much...

    Kidding. I currently eat no chocolate.
    And although I do miss it some... the longings are not as bad as I had feared.
    “You have your way. I have my way. As for the right way, the correct way, and the only way, it does not exist.”
    ~Friedrich Nietzsche
    And that's why I'm here eating HFLC Primal/Paleo.


  6. #6
    Betorq's Avatar
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    Who Is Eating Chocolate Every Day? Part 2

    And then I sent him this, which matches what I've been saying since my own personal exploration of excessive raw cacao, sticking with the raw cacao is the SAFEST & smartest way to consume chocolate, ESPECIALLY if one is consuming it daily. I've eaten it daily before, when I was buying the whole fresh beans for really cheap. In Panama they were dirt cheap & available in the pods @ the open air markets. I was kinda addicted to them, for a few weeks, til I realized I was really out of balance with them. Plus I was uber-wired on all the theobromine, hehe... Raw or roasted, too much chocolate every day, is well, just too much!

    Raw cacao benefits human longevity without any negative side effects!

    Did you know that raw cacao benefits human longevity and health without negative side effects?


    Unlike processed dark chocolate, antioxidants are preserved in raw cacao. Benefits from keeping organic chocolate unheated include; much higher levels of the famous chocolate antioxidants (oligomeric procynanidins, resveratrol and the polyphenols: catechin and epicatechin) as well as the preservation of vitamin C, phenethylamine (PEA, the feel good neurotransmitter responsible for the feeling of love!), Omega 6 fatty acids (which when heated become rancid and cause inflammation), tryptophan (a commonly deficient amino acid in those who consume a diet of mostly cooked food) and serotonin. The cool facts about chocolate in this article reveal how this fun and amazing superfood is actually healthy for you!
    It turns out that all the bad things commonly attributed to non-raw chocolate bars, such as cavities, weight gain and diabetes, are actually caused by the dairy, sugar and others fillers added to the dark chocolate. Health benefits of chocolate when it is in the form of raw cacao beans, butter, nibs and/or the powder include; weight loss (because of its high chromium and coumarin content), prevention of cavities (theobromine actually kills streptococci mutans one of the strains of bacteria that cause tooth decay) and regulation of blood sugar which is beneficial for diabetes (chromium can naturally regulate blood sugar). Also raw cacao benefits the heart and the entire cardiovascular system as a whole.
    Cacao is the highest whole food source of magnesium, which also happens to be the most deficient mineral in the diet of modern cultures. Magnesium relaxes muscles, improves peristalsis in the bowels and relaxes the heart and cardiovascular system. The dark chocolate antioxidants have been clinically proven to literally dissolve plaque built up in the arteries which helps in reversing heart disease and causes naturally lower blood pressure. Also, various other vitamins and minerals in raw cacao benefits the cardiovascular system. You can find organic cacao butter, cacao powder, cacao nibs, cacao beans and cacao paste at a great price, by clicking this link.
    Traditional and scientific properties:


    ~Yang Jing, Qi, Shen, Blood
    ~Cooling, in excess heating
    ~Sweet, Astringent, Bitter
    ~Heart, Kidneys, Spleen
    The antioxidant content of raw cacao benefits the cardiovascular and general whole body health. In processed dark chocolate, antioxidants such as epichatehins, chatechins, resveratrol and procyanidins can be present, but are in much lower levels than in unheated raw chocolate nibs as an example. Out of all the whole foods that contain antioxidants, raw chocolate is the highest in the world. It dwarfs the popular foods and beverages commonly touted as being antioxidant rich foods such as red wine, green tea and blueberries by a factor of 10x or more! There are certain herbs and spices, such as the chaga mushroom and cinnamon, which have higher levels of antioxidants in them but generally you won't be consuming enough volume of them to get as much antioxidant value from them as you would from a normal dose of raw cacao. Benefits from consuming antioxidants come when a range of different types of foods high in them are in your diet, since different coloured foods have different antioxidant compounds which target different parts of the body. The phytochemical analysis of cacao beans reveal that raw chocolate is perhaps the most chemically complex food on Earth. There are compounds yet to be discovered in this most amazing of live superfoods. Phytochemicals usually degrade in the cooking process, so the raw forms of them should be abundant in every diet for longevity.
    ~Anandamide (the only food that contains this neurotransmitter responsible for the feeling of "bliss")
    ~ N-linoleoylethanolamine (prevents the re-uptake of anandamide)
    ~Phenethylamine (PEA, a neurotransmitter known as the "love molecule")
    ~Seratonin (a neurotransmitter that acts as a "stress defense shield" by making you feel good)
    ~Dopamine (a neurotransmitter that boosts motivation and pleasure)
    ~MAO Inhibitors (prevents the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine)
    ~Coumarin (has appetite suppressant, blood thinner and anti-tumor properties)
    ~Theobromine (controversial but actually quite beneficial for humans, see last section)
    ~Asparaginase (an enzyme that has anti-leukemia properties)
    ~Ergosterol (a precursor to vitamin D)
    ~Sitosterol (decreases LDL cholesterol)
    The nutrient density of raw cacao benefits every function of the body. One of the many cool facts about chocolate is that it is the highest source of magnesium and chromium of any food! Magnesium is the most deficient mineral in the average human. All of the compounds found in raw cacao benefits longevity in humans.
    ~Vitamin A
    ~Vitamin B (1, 2, 3, 5 and 6)
    ~Vitamin C
    ~Vitamin E
    ~Magnesium
    ~Copper
    ~Calcium
    ~Manganese
    ~Zinc
    ~Sulphur
    ~Iron
    ~Chromium
    ~Phosphorus
    ~Omega 6 Fatty Acids
    ~Saturated Fats
    ~Amino Acids
    ~Carbohydrates
    ~Soluble Fiber (which is the type people need more of)
    ~Enzymes (including catalase, lipase and amylase)
    ~Other Beneficial Phytonutrients (such as the antioxidants already mentioned in this article)
    There are a plethora of scientific studies on the health benefits of chocolate and none that have been able to prove any negative health effects associated with it (unless the chocolate has additives like dairy or sugar).

    Dr. Gabriel Cousens conducted a study on the health benefits of chocolate in February of 2008. What he discovered was that raw cacao benefits diabetics as a safe food since it raises blood sugar less than almost any other food, despite it's theobromine content! It even raises insulin sensitivity! One of the other cool facts about chocolate that he discovered was that it's not toxic to the liver (many people are falsely claiming the contrary), except when combined in large amounts with sweeteners high in fructose such as agave. This is basically the only well known clinical study done specifically on how raw cacao benefits human health.



    It has been shown that raw cacao benefits a wide range of cardiovascular issues. The dark chocolate antioxidants and abundant amounts of magnesium and other phytochemicals can balance blood pressure, lower high cholesterol, scrub away arterial plaque and promote general health by reversing heart disease. (Raw) chocolate bars are known as a great remedy for many menstruation issues women can get. It is also confirmed as an aphrodisiac for both genders. What more do you want from one of the worlds top live superfoods? For more information about this amazing superfood, check out the book "Naked Chocolate" by David Wolfe and Shazzie which is packed full of information and amazing recipes!
    The famous "Dutch study", which was done on regular processed chocolate, followed over 200 Dutch men over the course of twenty years and found that those who ate the most milk and dark chocolate had lower rates of all major diseases compared to those who ate little to no chocolate. The health benefits of chocolate were really emphasized in this study by the fact that there was no upper limit to how much chocolate could be consumed by these men. What they literally discovered was that the more chocolate you eat, the more your potential for human longevity increases! The chocolate being eaten in this study was processed milk chocolate mostly, so just imagine the difference that would come from eating raw cacao beans, nibs or other raw cacao products instead!
    "Science is not belief but the will to find out." ~ Anonymous
    "Culture of the mind must be subservient to the heart." ~ Gandhi
    "The flogging will continue until morale improves." ~ Unknown


  7. #7
    Betorq's Avatar
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    Who Is Eating Chocolate Every Day? Part 3

    In a Harvard study on the Kuna indian tribe off the coast of Panama, there was a unique chance to examine the health benefits of dark chocolate in a controlled way. Close to the region where the Kuna tribe lived there were other tribes of identical genetic heritage, very similar diet and identical lifestyle habits. The only difference was that the Kuna tribe lived in an area where cacao trees grew abundantly. They would consume up to 5 cups of a bitter dark chocolate drink on a daily basis (although they weren't aware of how raw cacao benefits your health even more than the cooked version). This resulted in them having lower rates of all major diseases as well as a longer average life expectancy. This study lead by Dr. Hollenberg spurred more research on the health benefits of chocolate, as well as the unique dark chocolate antioxidants that were abundant in these cacao drinks the Kuna tribe enjoyed so much.

    [Note from Betorq: I got to hang out for an afternoon with some Kuna Indians in Panama in the winter of 2005: they are super cool, so calm but they are serious bad asses & super strong! Would not want to piss off the Kuna & be alone with them in a jungle or some far off village.]

    The world's oldest human being to have ever lived (that was officially documented) was Jeanne Louise Calment of France. She lived to be 122 and many say that one of her secrets to longevity was her consumption of 2.5 pounds of bitter dark chocolate a week. The third "official" oldest person ever to have lived was Sarah Knauss, who also regularly enjoyed the health benefits of chocolate, although not in as large quantities as Jeanne! On top of that, Chanel, perhaps the world's oldest dog to have ever lived (she lived to be 21, 147 in dog years), ate chocolate on a regular basis. She even once devoured an entire bag of Reese's Peanut Butter Cups! This is very odd since chocolate is commonly touted as being toxic to dogs, even in small quantities... Imagine how long these people and animals could have lived if they had been aware of how raw cacao benefits your health more than the processed version.



    Despite the overwhelming evidence for the health benefits of chocolate, their are still many grumpy and prudish people out there "cocoa-bashing".


    These people never have any evidence to support their opinions. This is simply because there are no scientific studies that show any detriments to consuming chocolate! Raw cacao benefits all people who consume it unless their constitution is imbalanced. There is anecdotal cases of people having bad reactions to it. This is what these anti-chocolate campaigners go on and on about, yet little do they know that people can have bad reactions to any food depending on their own unique constitution. The amount that they take and/or whether the raw chocolate (or cooked chocolate) product is contaminated in some way will affect different people in different ways. Much in the same way people can have negative reactions to the Chinese herbs ginseng or astragalus if they are imbalanced, a strong Jing foundation must be developed first to support the very Shen building qualities of raw cacao beans and other raw chocolate products. The theobromine content of raw chocolate nibs and all other chocolate products is the chemical commonly vilified as being toxic. However no death or liver injury from theobromine poisoning in healthy humans has ever occurred! Over 20 pounds of pure raw chocolate would need to be consumed all at once to reach toxic levels of this phytochemical. The alkaloid theobromine is a cardiovascular stimulant that has little to no affect on the nervous system. It dilates blood vessels which naturally lowers blood pressure (taking strain off the heart) and increases nutrient uptake during digestion (when combined with adaptogenic herbs and other live superfoods, raw cacao benefits and potentiates these other phytochemicals).


    Theobromine also kills streptococci mutans, one of the main types of bacteria responsible for tooth decay and improves asthmatic type conditions by opening up the lungs. Of course anyone with liver damage should avoid chocolate products because of their high copper content and not so much because of their theobromine content. Stimulants in an of themselves are not a problem, as all foods contain various depressing or stimulating factors within them. Caffeine which is actually more harmful than theobromine is either very low or absent in chocolate (depending on the variety of cacao beans used to make the product). Virtually all plant foods contain different alkaloids which are toxic when isolated from the plant and taken in large doses. This does not mean that the plants that contain them need to be blamed in any way. When a persons body begins accumulating too much of a certain alkaloid, a natural aversion to that food begins to develop until the metabolism of the body has removed that compound.


    The many raw cacao benefits are also called into question when people learn about its oxalic acid content. Oxalic acids can accumulate in the body blocking calcium absorption, causing kidney stones and other forms of calcification. It should be noted that many other common foods can contain up to 10x the amount of oxalic acid as chocolate. When you compare how much chocolate people eat at once (a few grams at most) to the amount of spinach (which is high in oxalates) that can be eaten, it becomes absurd to be afraid of this factor that's present in cacao beans. One of the cool facts about chocolate in it's unheated state is that the oxalic acid is harmless since only cooked oxalic acid combines with calcium to form oxalates that can accumulate in the body!

    Finally, many people are afraid of becoming addicted to this superfood. Despite all the raw cacao benefits in this article showing that this is perhaps the best thing to be "addicted" too, people still attack the health benefits of chocolate. You can become addicted to any type of food especially if it tastes good and makes you feel good! With the exception of physically addictive substances (like heroine or cigarettes), addiction is an entirely mental condition and needs to be addressed by temporarily abstaining from the food or thing that you're addicted too and then addressing the underlying emotional issues causing the attachment to that food or activity. Vilifying and claiming the activity is toxic is not addressing the issue and will lead a person with an addictive personality to some other food or activity to take its place. The health benefits of chocolate are outstanding and any addiction to it is the fault of the individual and not the chemicals within the cacao beans themselves.

    Sources:


    ~"Superfoods" by David Wolfe (North Atlantic Books, 2009)
    ~Health Benefits of Chocolate Unique to Dark Chocolate
    ~Jeanne Calment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    ~BBC NEWS | Americas | World's 'oldest dog' dies at 21
    ~Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function... [Am J Hypertens. 2005] - PubMed - NCBI
    Last edited by Betorq; 09-25-2012 at 03:18 AM.
    "Science is not belief but the will to find out." ~ Anonymous
    "Culture of the mind must be subservient to the heart." ~ Gandhi
    "The flogging will continue until morale improves." ~ Unknown


  8. #8
    Artbuc's Avatar
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    20 grams of nibs every morning on my shredded coconut and 2 squares of Lindt 90%. On some of my wild and crazy days, i will have a second serving of shredded coconut & nibs for dinner dessert and/or 2 more squares of Lindt 90. I am in a weight maintenance mode and must severely restrict carbs to control BG, so I need to find calories and I love my chocolate.

  9. #9
    Jac's Avatar
    Jac
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    I started reading, but then my brain exploded from all the information . I eat it sometimes, but it can trigger cravings if I overdo it. Now I have no idea whether that's an OK thing to do or not - but I won't feed it to the dogs
    Started Feb 18 2011

    Journalling here

    "There's a difference between knowing the path, and walking the path" - Morpheus

  10. #10
    Darz's Avatar
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    I eat raw cacao by the spoonful every day.

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