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Thread: FINALLY! An excellent recent study of diet, fitness, weight loss & muscles page

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    Betorq's Avatar
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    FINALLY! An excellent recent study of diet, fitness, weight loss & muscles

    Primal Fuel
    Wayne L. Westcott: Beyond diet and exercise | pennlive.com

    Aug. 21, 2012, 1:36 a.m. EDT
    The Record Herald

    Modern society has many benefits, but a pervasive consequence of sedentary lifestyles is the serious acceleration of degenerative processes associated with aging.
    Adults who do not perform resistance exercise lose 3 to 8 percent of their muscle tissue every decade. Muscle loss leads to metabolic slowdown, which is largely responsible for an average fat gain of more than 15 pounds per decade.

    Most experts recommend diet and exercise as the best approach for addressing the obesity epidemic, but this has not proven very effective, especially for permanent weight loss. The major problem with diet programs is that most dieters do not eat enough calories to attain desirable levels of physical activity and to maintain a normal metabolic rate. The result is a relatively rapid loss of body weight, but 25 to 50 percent of the weight loss comes from muscle tissue. This obviously exacerbates the initial issue of too little muscle, and eventually leads to full weight regain in more than 90 percent of dieters.
    The major problem with exercise is that less than 5 percent of American adults meet the minimum standard of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (equivalent to a relatively slow walk) on a regular basis (five days per week). Those who do exercise typically perform aerobic activity that enhances cardiovascular fitness but does not reverse or prevent muscle loss. Very few men and women perform effective resistance exercise, which is essential for rebuilding muscle and increasing resting metabolism.

    As you may recall from previous Keeping Fit columns, we teamed up with Boston Medical Center’s Dr. Caroline Apovian, arguably the premier medical doctor/nutrition expert in the nation, to study the combined effects of her exceptionally well-designed diet plan with our well-researched exercise program.
    Apovian’s nutrition plan provided a moderate amount of daily calories to avoid muscle loss and metabolic decline, as well as to ensure enough energy for beneficial physical activity. Her diet emphasized a relatively high protein intake to facilitate muscle development, as well as unlimited fruits and vegetables to supply high levels of essential nutrients without high calorie counts.

    Our physical activity program combined the most productive resistance exercises with the most effective aerobic training to optimize muscle development, energy utilization and cardiovascular fitness. Based on our research study with the Air Force, we interspersed the resistance exercises with the aerobic activities. Our program participants performed three strength exercises for the leg muscles (one set each) followed by 5 minutes of recumbent cycling, then three strength exercises for the upper body muscles (one set each) followed by 5 minutes of recumbent cycling, then three strength exercise for the midsection/trunk muscles (one set each) followed by 5 minutes of recumbent cycling. For additional benefit, the 5-minute cycling sessions were performed in an interval training format, with 20 seconds of higher effort exercise alternated with 20 seconds of lower effort.

    More than 120 men and women completed the three-month exercise and nutrition study, and we recently analyzed the research data. The participants who performed the exercise program and followed the diet plan experienced much better results than those who did only the exercise program. Compared to the exercise-only group, the exercise and diet group achieved significantly greater reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, fat weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
    A third group of study participants did not want to lose weight but did want to rebuild muscle. This group did not reduce their daily calorie consumption, but they did increase their daily protein intake according to Apovian’s formula. This group attained significantly greater increases in lean (muscle) weight than the exercise-only group, while maintaining their body weight due to an equivalent decrease in fat weight.

    This fall, we will conduct a similar study in our Exercise Science/Fitness Research Center at Quincy College. If you would like to learn more about this program, attend my presentation at 5:30 p.m. Wednesday, Aug. 29, at Quincy College’s new location (Room 019, President’s Place, 1250 Hancock St., Quincy). There is no charge or obligation, but call my office (617-984-1716) for seating purposes.

    Wayne L. Westcott, Ph.D., teaches exercise science at Quincy (Mass.) College. He has written 24 books on physical fitness.
    "Science is not belief but the will to find out." ~ Anonymous
    "Culture of the mind must be subservient to the heart." ~ Gandhi
    "The flogging will continue until morale improves." ~ Unknown


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    Ferti's Avatar
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    Just a town over from me, maybe I'll attend. Thanks

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    Quote Originally Posted by Betorq View Post
    Wayne L. Westcott: Beyond diet and exercise | pennlive.com

    Aug. 21, 2012, 1:36 a.m. EDT
    The Record Herald

    Modern society has many benefits, but a pervasive consequence of sedentary lifestyles is the serious acceleration of degenerative processes associated with aging.
    Adults who do not perform resistance exercise lose 3 to 8 percent of their muscle tissue every decade. Muscle loss leads to metabolic slowdown, which is largely responsible for an average fat gain of more than 15 pounds per decade.

    Most experts recommend diet and exercise as the best approach for addressing the obesity epidemic, but this has not proven very effective, especially for permanent weight loss. The major problem with diet programs is that most dieters do not eat enough calories to attain desirable levels of physical activity and to maintain a normal metabolic rate. The result is a relatively rapid loss of body weight, but 25 to 50 percent of the weight loss comes from muscle tissue. This obviously exacerbates the initial issue of too little muscle, and eventually leads to full weight regain in more than 90 percent of dieters.
    The major problem with exercise is that less than 5 percent of American adults meet the minimum standard of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (equivalent to a relatively slow walk) on a regular basis (five days per week). Those who do exercise typically perform aerobic activity that enhances cardiovascular fitness but does not reverse or prevent muscle loss. Very few men and women perform effective resistance exercise, which is essential for rebuilding muscle and increasing resting metabolism.

    As you may recall from previous Keeping Fit columns, we teamed up with Boston Medical Center’s Dr. Caroline Apovian, arguably the premier medical doctor/nutrition expert in the nation, to study the combined effects of her exceptionally well-designed diet plan with our well-researched exercise program.
    Apovian’s nutrition plan provided a moderate amount of daily calories to avoid muscle loss and metabolic decline, as well as to ensure enough energy for beneficial physical activity. Her diet emphasized a relatively high protein intake to facilitate muscle development, as well as unlimited fruits and vegetables to supply high levels of essential nutrients without high calorie counts.

    Our physical activity program combined the most productive resistance exercises with the most effective aerobic training to optimize muscle development, energy utilization and cardiovascular fitness. Based on our research study with the Air Force, we interspersed the resistance exercises with the aerobic activities. Our program participants performed three strength exercises for the leg muscles (one set each) followed by 5 minutes of recumbent cycling, then three strength exercises for the upper body muscles (one set each) followed by 5 minutes of recumbent cycling, then three strength exercise for the midsection/trunk muscles (one set each) followed by 5 minutes of recumbent cycling. For additional benefit, the 5-minute cycling sessions were performed in an interval training format, with 20 seconds of higher effort exercise alternated with 20 seconds of lower effort.

    More than 120 men and women completed the three-month exercise and nutrition study, and we recently analyzed the research data. The participants who performed the exercise program and followed the diet plan experienced much better results than those who did only the exercise program. Compared to the exercise-only group, the exercise and diet group achieved significantly greater reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, fat weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
    A third group of study participants did not want to lose weight but did want to rebuild muscle. This group did not reduce their daily calorie consumption, but they did increase their daily protein intake according to Apovian’s formula. This group attained significantly greater increases in lean (muscle) weight than the exercise-only group, while maintaining their body weight due to an equivalent decrease in fat weight.

    This fall, we will conduct a similar study in our Exercise Science/Fitness Research Center at Quincy College. If you would like to learn more about this program, attend my presentation at 5:30 p.m. Wednesday, Aug. 29, at Quincy College’s new location (Room 019, President’s Place, 1250 Hancock St., Quincy). There is no charge or obligation, but call my office (617-984-1716) for seating purposes.

    Wayne L. Westcott, Ph.D., teaches exercise science at Quincy (Mass.) College. He has written 24 books on physical fitness.
    What was considered a "moderate amount of daily calories"?

  4. #4
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    Good stuff Betorq. Maybe I am just missing it, but I would like to know how many days per week they performed this exercise routine. Also, it doesn't specify if they are doing the body groups on the same or seperate days. Anyone picking that up from the article or seen additional info elsewhere?

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    Seems kind of vague....will they be publishing the data in full somewhere?

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    It seems like the conclusion is that eating smart and exercising smart is better for you than only doing one, or neither...

    ...?

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    Betorq's Avatar
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    All these queries & observations made here are valid. But imo its still FAR superior than most of the junk studies passing as science...
    "Science is not belief but the will to find out." ~ Anonymous
    "Culture of the mind must be subservient to the heart." ~ Gandhi
    "The flogging will continue until morale improves." ~ Unknown


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    Quote Originally Posted by Betorq View Post
    The major problem with diet programs is that most dieters do not eat enough calories to attain desirable levels of physical activity and to maintain a normal metabolic rate. The result is a relatively rapid loss of body weight, but 25 to 50 percent of the weight loss comes from muscle tissue. This obviously exacerbates the initial issue of too little muscle, and eventually leads to full weight regain in more than 90 percent of dieters.
    Quoted for emphasis - and to give people a chance to read it one more time. No exercise combined with a calorie deficit leads to a significant loss of lean body mass.

    A rhetorical question: When was the last time you did any sort of resistance training? Yeah, that's what I thought.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Betorq View Post
    The result is a relatively rapid loss of body weight, but 25 to 50 percent of the weight loss comes from muscle tissue. This obviously exacerbates the initial issue of too little muscle, and eventually leads to full weight regain in more than 90 percent of dieters.
    I don't understand why when the body was designed to store fat for a time of famine, why would it not use the fat in time of famine. Why would it use muscle also if there is plenty of fat? Would it make a difference if you were fat-adapted prior to the majority of the weight loss?

    I mostly ask because I havent really been doing alot of exercise of late. Well I did start back on Sunday, but my first 15 pounds were by making minor changes (and starting to cook at home) Then another 5lb mostly cutting sweet tea. Then from about January to Mid March, I was fairly chronic cardio (another 25 pounds) About an hour most days. But I was hungry all the time and found primal and went low carb and quit exercising. (thought I wouldn't have energy and never got back to it) Another 5lbs lost by watching diet (carbs). Then by May, I was very active for hours every day in my yard. (another 10lbs) But since about July, it's just too hot outside except for watering about 2 hours each morning (another 5lbs) Bringing me to my point of, I dont know how you know when you have lost muscle, but I don't feel like it. My legs are way more solid. My calves are def. more solid. My arms/shoulders are looking way better with some muscle tone. So I am seeing the muscle now for one thing, but I feel just as strong or stronger. But I also think things like lugging a garden hose around for a couple hours is doing more than I thought when I thought I was just "watering for a couple of hours"

    As far as weight re-gain, I think a chunk of it is understanding nutrition. I lost weight about 20 years ago, 50 pounds and this was after 3 kids but I was at the gym for hours every day, and I hated cardio so I was mostly on the weights. I regained mostly AFTER my 4th child was born. I was still buying low fat and fat free, but I didnt understand nutrition. Certainly never thought about a carb before. They seemed harmless. Then came lots of fast food and never cooking at home. Not sleeping well at all, lots of stress. So at least for me, it was part ignorance and then when you gain weight, everything else escalates and compounds - like lack of confidence, lack of desire, sleep apnea, even more stress, and even though the answers have been on the internet for the last decade or two, just no motivation to search for it. Now I can't believe it took me this long. Well for the last 5 or 6 years, I would go to the doctor every year for answers - why am I getting so fat, but they didnt have any. Or maybe I just didnt hear. I think for some, they just have to get to the point where they are ready and some find their way sooner than others.

    Anyways..... it is all fascinating. I just dont understand why the body wants to eat itself, if it still has fat here and there.
    65lbs gone and counting!!

    Fat 2 Fit - One Woman's Journey

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kharnath View Post
    When was the last time you did any sort of resistance training? Yeah, that's what I thought.
    Monday. And back again today.

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