Here is where to start:
Primal Blueprint 101 | Mark's Daily Apple
One or two essential reads? Here is what's currently the best two to start with:
Amazon.com: The Primal Blueprint: Reprogram your genes for effortless weight loss, vibrant health, and boundless energy (Primal Blueprint Series) (9780982207789): Mark Sisson: Books
Amazon.com: The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet (9780982565841): Robb Wolf, Loren Cordain Ph.D.: Books
Calorie/protein intake? For the protein intake see the formulae Mark gives in Primal Blueprint 101 (first link above).
His standard recommendation is 0.7 g of protein for every pound of lean body mass. You can work out lean body mass roughly with a calculator, such as this one:
Diet Calculator, Body Fat Calculator
If you're doing very demanding activities Mark suggests upping that to 1 g per every pound of lean body mass.
As for calories, don't worry too much: that should tend to sort itself out on a paleo/primal diet. You just "eat to satiety". If you're hungry you eat a little more; if you're not, don't force it down to meet an abstract number.
You're an athlete? Your needs might be different from those of the average person. Possibly add this book, too:
Amazon.com: The Paleo Diet for Athletes: A Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance (9781594860898): Loren Cordain, Joe Friel: Books