Jen- Potassium citrate seems to be the most benign prescription to prevent stone buildup (depending on the chemical composition of the stones). I learned not to mess around with them the hard way. A couple of years ago, I got fed up waiting for lithotripsy, and drank massive quantities of lemon juice. The pain went away, and I thought that had resolved -or dissolved- the problem. Months later, routine urinalysis showed a big decline in kidney function; the docs followed up with an xray that showed the left ureter was completely blocked by a massive (almond-sized) stone. Lithotripsy cleared it up, and I recovered 95% of what I'd lost in kidney function. My conclusion was that lemon juice does not dissolve stones, though it will prevent them from forming.
Anecdotal evidence is that a correct low-carb diet will retrain the kidneys to not make stones. But this is one area where I'd do everything the doctor says.