Oh, my! This is exactly how I found MDA -- I read Good Calories, Bad Calories and started immediately, then searched for a week or so until I found Mark's blog. I'm also 5'4" and started at 185 lbs.
The book doesn't address recovery time; I expect that it varies from person to person. I don't have any good answers or suggestions with respect to barefoot/vibrams, but I'm tempted to suggest that you wait until you have less pain before walking barefoot. The primal diet certainly helps with inflammation (you might have to experiment with dairy and nightshades to see if removing them improves the plantar fasciitis. People are so very varied!).
I've been high-dosing carbs all my life, and in my case the weight started coming off immediately, but other things have fixed themselves more slowly (energy levels, head aches, sleep, digestion -- it took a few months rather than weeks). Now, 10 months later, my hormones are still slightly out of whack. I got my period back within weeks of cutting out grains/sugar after several years without it, but the cycle is not yet consistent.