Just thought I would offer the FDA's and USDA's list of requirements for food-- What is exactly considered "natural", "organic", "fresh", etc. Below are a few good ones. The website is dense and full of information of anything and everything you're buying from a grocery store in the US.
Food Labeling Guide
What food must be labeled as an "imitation"?
Answer: Generally a new food that resembles a traditional food and is a substitute for the traditional food must be labeled as an imitation if the new food contains less protein or a lesser amount of any essential vitamin or mineral
What is meant by the requirement to list ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight?
Answer: Listing ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight means that the ingredient that weighs the most is listed first, and the ingredient that weighs the least is listed last (see illustration for question 3 below).
21 CFR 101.4(a)
Should the common or usual name always be used for ingredients?
Answer: Always list the common or usual name for ingredients unless there is a regulation that provides for a different term. For instance, use the term “sugar” instead of the scientific name “sucrose.”
“INGREDIENTS: Apples, Sugar, Water, and Spices”
See also section 4 question 3. 21 CFR 101.4(a) this one is interesting to me because I bought a redbull zero today, which in the nutrition facts says 0 sugar, but in the ingredients list shows sucrose...
When may a "high" or a "good source" claim be made?
Answer: A "good source" claim may be made when a food contains 10-19% of the RDI or DRV (both declared on the label as the % Daily Value (%DV)). A "high" claim may be made when a food contains at least 20% of the DV. 21 CFR 101.54(b)-(c)
May a food that is normally low in or free of a nutrient bear a "Low" or "Free" claim if it has an appropriate disclaimer (e.g., fat free broccoli)?
Answer: No. Only foods that have been specially processed, altered, formulated, or reformulated so as to lower the amount of nutrient in the food, remove the nutrient from the food, or not include the nutrient in the food may bear such a claim (e.g., "low sodium potato chips"). Other foods may only make a statement that refers to all foods of that type (e.g., "corn oil, a sodium-free food" or "broccoli, a fat-free food"). 21 CFR 101.13(e)(1)-(2)
What is an appropriate reference food for a food bearing a "Light" claim?
Answer: The reference food must be a food or group of foods that are representative of the same type as the food bearing the claim. For example, a chocolate ice cream would use as its reference food other chocolate ice creams. 21 CFR 101.13(j)(1)(i)(B)
The nutrient value for fat or calories in a reference food that is used as a basis for a "light" claim may be determined in several ways. It may be a value in a representative, valid data base; an average value determined from the top three national (or regional) brands of the food, a market basket norm; or where its nutrient value is representative of the food type, a market leader. 21 CFR 101.13(j)(1)(ii)(A)
The nutrient value used as a basis for a 'light' claim should be similar to that calculated by averaging the nutrient values of many of the foods of the type. It should not be the value of a single food or group of foods at the high end of the range of nutrient values for the food. When compared to an appropriate reference food, a "light" food should be a food that the consumer would generally recognize as a food that is improved in its nutrient value compared to other average products of its type. 21 CFR 101.13(j)(1)(ii)(A)
Also, the USDA...
Guidelines for claiming "certified organic"
Using the Claim "Certified Organic By..." on Meat and Poultry Product Labeling
Food Labeling fact sheet... water added, define "fresh", additives, etc...
Food Labeling Fact Sheets