Effects on Humans: Bromine is corrosive to the eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract in humans.
Eye contact can result in severe, painful, and destructive burns of the eyes [Sinig 1985; AIHA 19781. Brief contact of
the skin with liquid bromine causes vesicles and pustules, and prolonged contact leads to deep, painful burns that
ulcerate and are slow to heal [Sittig 1985; Clayton and Clayton 19811. Repeated contact of the skin with bromine
in liquid or vapor form may cause dermatitis and halogenacne [Rom 1983; Deichmann and Gerarde 19691. Inhalation
of airborne concentrations below 1 ppm causes tearing of the eyes; exposure to 4 ppm can be tolerated for only 30 to
60 min, 10 ppm induces respiratory damage and is considered immediately dangerous to life or health; and 30 ppm
would cause death in a short time [Clayton and Clayton 1981; NIOSH 1987b; NLM 19921. Acute nonlethal exposures can
also induce coughing, nosebleed, feelings of oppression, dizziness, headache, and delayed onset of abdominal pain
and measles-like dermal eruptions [NLM 19921. Pulmonary edema may occur after several hours, and high concentrations
can cause death from corrosive bums of the lung [Parmeggiani 1983; Sittig 19851. The inhalation LCb in humans is 1,000 ppm NOSH 19911. The lowest lethal oral dose is estimated to be 14 mgFg [NIOSH 19911. Ingestion of the liquid produces corrosive tissue burns, mouth and esophageal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, shock (hypotension, tachycardia, cyanosis), headache, dizziness, delirium, collapse, and stupor. Death can result from glottic or pulmonary edema or aspiration pneumonia. Survivors can develop esophageal and ~ l o r i c stenoses [NLM 19921. Regular exposure to 0.3 to 0.6 ppm for 1 year has induced headache, heart-area chest pain, irritability, anorexia, joint pain, and dyspepsia. Continued exposure for 5 to 6 years can cause loss of corneal reflexes, pharyngitis, vegetative disorders, thyroid hyperplasia and dysfunction, cardiovascular disorders (myocardial degeneration and hypotension), digestive tract secretory disorders, and inhibition of leucopoiesis and
leucocytosis [NLM 19921.
Signs and symptoms of exposure
1. Acute exposure: Acute. exposure to bromine can cause irritation or corrosion of contacted tissues, tearing, corneal
clouding, dizziness, headache, pulmonary edema, dyspnea, nosebleeds, coughing, bronchopneumonia, central nervous
system disturbances, abdominal pain, diarrhea, altered conditioned reflexes, delirium, collapse, and death. Survivors of
ingestion incidents can develop esophageal and pyloric stenoses.
2. Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to bromine can cause contact irritation, slow healing, painful acne-like skin
eruptions, headache, heart pain, irritability, anorexia, joint pain, dyspepsia, loss of corneal reflexes, pharyngitis, vegetative
disorders, thyroid dysfunction, and cardiovascular and a digestive disorders.
Toxic effects of bromine in humans at Iodine Supplementation Support by VWT Team (MessageID: 1967047)
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