Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
29 Nov

Flatulence: Foes and Fixes

Farting is universally hilarious. Across every culture, every religion, every language, the issuance of gas from a person’s posterior will – once the wrinkled noses have smoothed out – evoke laughter from just about everyone in earshot. I won’t try to explain why it’s so dang funny, especially when we can turn to Louis C.K. for his masterful thesis on the matter. C.K arrives at three factors: it comes out of your butt, it smells like poop, and it makes a trumpet noise. Taken separately, these things range from gross to inconsequential. After all, plenty of things sound like trumpets. Trumpets, for one. But together, they form a symphony of comedy that’s greater than the constituent parts.

But when they’re issuing out of your body uncontrollably on a regular basis, farts can be a touchy subject. I won’t name any names, but more than a few readers have written in over the past few months with questions about farting spouses, children, and even pets. These readers often admit that flatulence has comedic merit, but just as incessant quoting of Borat after the movie came out quickly got old, farting all the time is annoying. And it might even be the sign of something wrong with your diet.

So, while the pet angle may be beyond the scope of today’s post, I’m going to offer some insight into human flatulence. I’ll deal with both the causes and the potential solutions, mostly at once (because the problems and solutions are intertwined).

First, what is it?

Flatulence is the expunging of intestinal gas, which is either endogenous or exogenous. Exogenous intestinal gas comes from the outside; it is literally swallowed, usually when a person eats too fast, drinks too fast (or drinks bubbly drinks like sodas or sparkling water), or chews gum too vociferously. Exogenous flatulence isn’t too much of a problem, because it usually doesn’t smell and it isn’t caused by eating the wrong foods. It’s actually normal to have exogenous flatulence. If it’s excessive and causing you problems, simple behavior modification can fix this one pretty quickly. Chew and drink more slowly and carefully, avoid smoking, and try to avoid excessive gasping. Stressful situations can exacerbate this, too – think breathing in deeply and rubbing your temples because something just went wrong, and then do it fifty times a day and you get a picture of how you might be swallowing more air than you intend. You want to breathe your air, not ingest it.

Endogenous intestinal gas is a different beast, and it’s the one we’re going to focus on today. It comes from bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates. More specifically, it comes from fermentation of carbohydrates that we improperly or incompletely digest in the small intestine. These leftover bits make it to the colon/large intestine, and that’s where the magic happens.

To address this, first things first, pay attention to FODMAPs, or fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. FODMAPs are carbohydrates that some people can’t totally digest in the small intestine. If that’s the case, when they hit the colon, the flora there break it down and ferment it, thus producing large amounts of endogenous intestinal gases like methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide, bloating, and other complications. FODMAPs can include healthy, totally Primal foods, but they also include decidedly unPrimal stuff, too. If you’re farting a lot, your first step should be to understand FODMAPs, because they are likely suspects. Let’s go through the various categories, highlighted in Jamie’s excellent piece from last year:

  • Oligosaccharides include things like fructans (fructose with a single glucose molecule attached) and galactans (fructose with a molecule of galactose attached). Sources of fructans are wheat, onions, artichokes, jicama, jerusalem artichokes, chicory root, onions, garlic, and leeks. Inulin, a prebiotic fiber I’ve written about before and which can have numerous health benefits, is a fructan. Galactans are found in legumes (beans, lentils, etc), Brussels sprouts, and broccoli (hence the lovely term “broccoli fart” and the product called “Beano,” which I always found to be a disgusting name).
  • The most common disaccharide is lactose, or milk sugar. Anyone who’s tried GOMAD (Gallon of Milk a Day) while being lactose intolerant (or been within a mile of someone who fits that description) understands what foul gases improperly digested lactose can produce. If there’s one thing I’m thankful for, it’s that Mark Rippetoe endogenously produces lactase. Better choices include hard, long-fermented cheeses and raw dairy, proponents of which claim it contains lactase for easier digestion. I’m not sure about that one myself, as a lactose-intolerant buddy of mine once sampled some raw milk at a Santa Monica’s farmers’ market at the vendor’s urging and suffered (we both did, albeit I did so indirectly) familiar side effects. Your mileage may vary, though. Sucrose is another disaccharide, so avoid it (which you probably already were).
  • Monosaccharides refer primarily to fructose. That means avoiding HFCS, obviously, but even “healthier” choices like honey, and dried fruit like dates and raisins. Eat low fructose fruits like berries.
  • Polyols are sugar alcohols. Xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, pretty much any -ol. Naturally occuring polyols can also be found in certain fruits, like blackberries, stone fruits, pears, and watermelon.

For a complete and handy table of FODMAPs friendly and unfriendly foods, check out the bottom of this post.

So, yeah, right off the bat, avoid FODMAPs. Do this for a week or two and see if your farting subsides. If it does, try reintroducing small amounts of select FODMAPs. Pick a category and start there. Eat a few slices of jicama, some Brussels sprouts, or some onion. Be systematic about it and limit yourself to a single food from a single FODMAP category at a time.

Keep a detailed food journal for a month and keep tabs on your digestive symptoms. If you fart, mark when, where, and what you just ate. You can even note the severity of the flatulence, including odor, volume, and number of laughs received (partly kidding here). Over time, you should be able to note correlations between certain foods and the severity and incidence of your flatulence.

Eat simple meals. Instead of having crazy curries and stews all the time with dozens of ingredients, stick to meat and vegetable. Note the singular “vegetable” and don’t eat broccoli, brussel sprouts, and cabbage in the same meal. Give your gut a chance to get its bearings and you’ll have a clearer picture of what’s causing the gas.

Add some digestive enzymes. Robb Wolf is a big proponent of NOW Foods brand digestive enzymes, and I’d definitely trust his judgment. Remember, a lot of flatulence is caused by bacterial fermentation of undigested food. If you lack the right digestive enzymes, more food bits will make it to the colon for fermentation. According to Robb, you want to take the enzymes shortly before the meal. Start with five or six capsules and stop when you start feeling warmth in your belly – that means it’s working.

Chew your food thoroughly. The more you chew, the greater the surface area of the food and the better you digest it. The better you digest your food, the less food will make it through to your colon. This will also help with exogenous gas flatulence.

Add some probiotics or fermented foods. Note, though, that you’ll want to limit FODMAPs before adding probiotics, as otherwise you’ll just be providing more fuel for the fire.

Limit prebiotic supplements for now. Until you get a handle on things, you don’t want to introduce more FODMAPs. I know that when I was doing daily extensive testing of Primal Fuel, including changing the ratios of prebiotic inulin to achieve the perfect texture, I had some mild flatulence at first (TMI?). A bit of flatulence from prebiotics is completely normal, especially early on, but if it gets worse or doesn’t improve, it’s probably worth watching.

All in all, some mild flatulence is nothing to worry about. It may hurt your social health, but it’s not a medical condition. Severe, continuous flatulence, however, accompanied by painful bloating? Yeah, you need to fix that. Try these fixes, pay attention to potentially offensive foods listed, and keep that food journal. It’s all fun and games and cups o’ cheese (NSFW) until you get bacterial overgrowth (from feeding the colonic flora) and, possibly, Crohn’s disease. So get a handle on it.

Of course, if you can’t, you might consider pursuing a career as a flatulist. Saint Augustine himself had nothing but high praise for the men who possessed such “command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at will, so as to produce the effect of singing.” Whatever your spiritual inclination (or non-inclination), I think we can all appreciate a religious man who admires professional fart artists.

Take care, folks, and happy digesting. If you’ve had success or failure with defeating flatulence, let us know in the comment section. I’m always all ears for more input from you guys, and I know we have plenty of readers who could use assistance from someone who’s been there.

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. Can anybody tell me how long after eating a meal that particular food might begin to cause flatulence

    harry wrote on August 4th, 2012
  2. If my broccoli or cauliflower is anything less than thoroughly cooked I cannot eat it without getting BAD gas!! Even if it’s slightly crunchy I will be farting for hours. Cooking it until mushy seems to do the trick, but I wonder how much nutrition is left by then… :(

    Anders Emil wrote on September 7th, 2012
    • Have you tried blending it after steaming it instead?

      Erik wrote on December 16th, 2015
  3. If I am sensitive to FODMAPS (for example cabbage) and I decided to make a kimchi and fermented the cabbage, will it still contain the galactans and give me symptoms or does the fermentation process Allow for the vegetables to be better digested without producing gas?

    Chrissy wrote on February 8th, 2013
  4. I don’t really like this post as it trivialises the issue. I was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption and since changing my diet my health has improved markedly.

    Previous diets which were low in wheat, dairy, sugar and food colours and additives did nothing to improve my condition.

    After eliminating FODMAPS from my diet – particularly honey and onion many of my health completes have completely disappeared.

    The problem with continuing to ingest these foods when you have an intolerance is not the farting – that’s the least of my problems! Constant diarrhea and constipation means that you are not absorbing the nutrients from your food instead you’re just spitting them out as your digestion system isn’t working properly. So you end up getting very malnourished despite how healthy you eat. For me this meant severe allergies, constant sinus infections, monthly candida infections, rashes, contant headaches, extreme fatigue, allergies to just about everything and severe anxiety.

    After reading your blog I’m eager to increase my fat intake (and change the fats that I eat) and decrease my grain intake even further. Despite this, my avoidance of onion and honey has made far more of a difference that anything else I’ve ever changed in regards to diet. So a highly recommend that if people suspect that they may have an intolerance to fructose then to get themselves tested right away. It is a very simple cheap and obvasive test which is worth having if your experiencing any kind of gastrointestinals symptoms. My diagnosis has changed my life.

    Joey Thomas wrote on March 3rd, 2013
  5. Two words: raw onions.

    Skowler wrote on April 8th, 2013
  6. So what happens if after eating clean and primal for a long time and then finally not even starchy veggies or any legumes for a month, having been fart free— you suddenly have terrible gas and burbling in your intestines?

    Smaartin wrote on April 15th, 2013
    • Smaartin – I was just looking for an answer to that question myself. I have been eating Primal/Paleo for about a year and a half. Initially, I lost 15 lbs and almost all of my digestive issues went away. I recently decided to do a full month of strict Paleo (no dairy/alcohol/dark chocolate) and I am one week in. Yesterday I woke up bloated and by the end of the day I looked like I was 5 months pregnant – Ack! In reviewing everything I have eaten over the last 3 days, and comparing to the FODMAP list in this article, I believe the offender is jicama… Not something I eat regularly, so I wouldn’t have picked it out of a line-up if I hadn’t been paying close attention. I suggest you try eliminating all FODMAP foods and the introducing them very gradually to see what does it to you. Good luck!

      EmpressE wrote on July 12th, 2013
  7. This is an excellent article. Very well written

    lynn wrote on June 16th, 2013
  8. I also must react on bananas. I’ve been having thought if it’s an interaction with serotinergic drug but it may as well be fiber or maybe that “serotonin” in itself. I don’t think orange causes this. I’ve had a gall-bladder removal as my father and he just blames it for his flatulence. My issues went away when either removing milk or avoiding grain. I tend to do both. Overall avoiding carbs form everything except vegetables has been helpful for reducing weight. I thought it was possibly taken all drugs into account. There’s some advice on the internet regarding bananas and fiber. One could supposely tame the stomach by gradually increasing fiber however I rather just stay away from them. I had to pass my laundry-time again due to this foul smell.

    nitram wrote on September 5th, 2013
  9. Bananas…maybe THAT’s what it is for me. Since going primal I have been farting all day, every day. It is RIDICULOUS. I eat at least 2 bananas per day and have been doing a lot of pumpkin banana creations for my carbs after a workout. Excited to cut them out and see if it helps!

    Jen wrote on November 19th, 2013
    • Yea, bananas will totally do that to you. They can have a lot of resistant starch (if they’re still slightly green) in them that go straight to your colon for fermentation. It’s a good thing though, and the farting does subside over time.

      Alexander Hardy wrote on November 21st, 2013
  10. I was about to write to Mark and ask him if decreased ( or almost no ) farting would be a nice “side effect” of going Paleo. Well, I followed his advice and did a search before posting the question and found this. Since going Paleo my partner and I have virtually stopped farting.
    We actually didn’t think of this until a few days ago when I mentioned the lack of “gas” recently!
    But slip and have a pizza ( long time ago ) and it is all back within hours.
    I can eat any vegetable and 8 eggs in the morning and nothing. Literally NOTHING. No gas. no discomfort. nada.
    Psoriasis gone. Farting Gone. Sleep – amazing. Energy levels – fantastic.
    I try desperately to get my family and friends to do this and unfortunately most of them think that they will drop dead after two rashes of bacon :-(
    i managed to get my mum on this – weight loss within weeks ( she’s been dieting since i was 10 ) and her heart burn is gone. for the first time in 20 years , without pills….i havent asked her about farting though. :-)

    jake wrote on February 10th, 2014
  11. I have been reading a lot about paleo and primal recently, and I have been trying to gradually reduce grains and add a lot more veggies. But flatulence is really an issue for me. I noticed it becoming really bad after I had my first child a little over a year ago. I can’t imagine why it would become worse after childbirth or if it could have something to do with nursing, but ever since I had my boy, any veggies seem to bring on really bad gas. And not just broccoli, or onions, or those common ones, but nearly any vegetable. I love salads but the aftermath is unappealing to say the least. I also have food allergies since I took several bouts of antibiotics right after another in my teens. And I have struggled in the past with IBS, from living in India and Mexico, and probably related to the allergies/leaky gut syndrome, too, I suppose. I just feel kind of at a loss because I want to really give primal a try, but all vegetables seem to give me such discomfort, bloating, and gas… I do probiotics, but I’m also raising my son alone right now so there’s not a lot of extra cash for supplements. Has anyone had a similar experience or have any advice/ideas for me?

    Andrea wrote on April 3rd, 2014
    • I’ve got exactly the same thing going on.. on one side, I want to go paleo/primal but I have severe digestion problems and gas.. almost all vegetables give me horrible bloating and flatulence. Having a pizza or chicken with rice is far better for me right now than having a nice and healthy salad :/
      Also to the topic… resistant starch, and thus butyrate, is supposed to have great benefits on the colon. But I got problems with the FODMAP foods already. Is it better to get all that resistant starch and soluble fibre to heal my gut or to eliminate it (and actually never healing it).

      Mike wrote on July 22nd, 2014
  12. Digestive enzymes are the key to sorting out flatulence for a lot of people, our diets need more enzymes than most particularly as we consume high amounts of fat and protein

    Dan Wallace wrote on August 3rd, 2015
    • Dan,

      My experience has been different. I have been primal for about a month (except for beer at night and honey in morning coffee). I notice that I don’t need digestive enzymes if I skip the honey. And skipping the beer and any other kind of alcohol (full teetotalism) as well as the honey and everything is fine. Haven’t taken digestive enzymes in over a month, and no problemo!

      grisly atoms wrote on November 2nd, 2015
  13. Has anyone else noticed tempeh as a problem? I bought some and ate it a few consecutive days when I was flip-flopping between vegan and paleo. It gave me THE most deadly gas I’ve ever experienced in my life. All day long for a couple days after eating the tempeh. No digestive pains but the farts were the kind that smell so strong that they immediately smack you in the face. I couldn’t keep eating the stuff because of that. My whole family would yell in disgust and laugh. It was awful/funny.

    TF wrote on January 5th, 2016
  14. I’ve noticed that some cooked and cooled (leftover) vegetables give me horrible gas. Eating them raw, or just out of the pan is fine, but eating them the next day – watch out! This is true for Brussels sprouts and zucchini. Is this related to resistant starch?

    Stanley lemons wrote on April 17th, 2016

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