Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
7 Mar

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards, or What Really Motivates You to Be Healthy

Put a steak on that end of that stick and then maybe...When you look back and think about your health journey (or your life in general), what have been the motivations that got you where you are today? Has it been a competitive spirit? An incessant curiosity? An individual sense of purpose? An ambitious drive? Inherent in these questions are the broader trends of initiative. Do you tend to seek out external challenges, validations, feedback to push yourself, or are you more often buoyed by personal inspiration? What impels you the most: the outcome or the pursuit? For many people, it’s a combination of both, and their answers depend on the activities in question. Nonetheless, knowing what most effectively motivates us in a particular endeavor can change the game in substantial ways.

We’ve all heard of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations at some point. Although some experts don’t support the dichotomized differentiation, the framework offers a usable guide for examining what we’re driven by in our health efforts.

Extrinsic motivation looks generally outward – to obtaining a specific “reward” (e.g. recognition, award, money, or other concrete benefit), participating in competition, or contributing to a team endeavor. On the flip side, extrinsic motivation also encompasses our interest in dodging an unwanted external consequence. In short, it’s about working to achieve (or avoid) an external outcome of sorts.

Intrinsic motivation, on the other hand, plays off of our internal interests and values. We do what we do not because we’re interested in what we perceive to be a beneficial outcome or reward but because we’re invested in the process itself. For example, we want to train not because we care much about where we finish in a race but because we just love the release of working out – of seeing our usual path, of enjoying how we feel during and after a run.

When it comes to the usual comparison, let’s face it. Sometimes extrinsic motivation gets a bad rap. Extrinsic motivations are often categorized as shallow or unenlightened compared to intrinsic interests. For example, we might be made to feel guilty for working to look good naked, so to speak, but vanity can have its time and place. I think the effectiveness of extrinsic motivation, however, suggests we’re simply human – that we’re a social species capable of learning from one another and responsive to our circumstances. After all, we evolved within an environment of constant reward-penalty feedback.

Intrinsic motivation can fuel our creativity and sense of inner purpose, but it doesn’t negate or diminish the legitimate significance of an extrinsic view. As critical and enriching as intrinsic motivation can be, for example, when excessively imbalanced, it can be isolating for some people. Likewise, many of us eventually come up against a wall when pure interest in the pursuit (e.g. fitness) doesn’t push us to farther distances or new dimensions the way looking outward can. Extrinsic motivation needn’t be just about unbridled materialism or fierce rivalry. It can just as likely put us in meaningful collaboration with one another or give us important perspective on the value or relative accomplishment of our efforts. Sometimes, it can give us a needed change of pace. The fact is competition is fun when it’s fair, and there’s nothing wrong with enjoying a reward or recognition.

When we recognize that human truth and basic effectiveness can be found in both intrinsic and extrinsic incentive, we open ourselves to larger realms of possibility. The question becomes this: how do we harness the benefits of both to optimally foster our motivation for healthy and happy living? I hope you’ll add your thoughts, but here are a few to consider.

Cultivating Intrinsic Motivation

Create a Vision Board

Intrinsic motivation, I think, has a lot to do with personal clarity. What vision do you have for developing your health (or self)? What does thriving look like to you? Use everything from quotes to visuals as you hone your vision.

Keep a Personal Journal

Use the journal to examine what activities you find positive and fulfilling (e.g. a new yoga class, developing your strength with a new resistance training commitment). Get in touch with the subtle personal effects of the changes and progress you’re making. Write about how an activity or new health choice feels for you – what it does to your mood, your sleep, your energy, your confidence. Envision how you’ll go deeper into each goal and continually check in with yourself.

Applying Extrinsic Motivation

Identify Desired Incentives

Again, putting our natural inclination toward extrinsic motivation to work means understanding what kinds of external factors drive us the most. Do you appreciate recognition or enjoy looking good? Some of us might relish competition, while it has others running for the hills.

Seek Out Challenges and Collaboration

Participate in activities like semi-competitive team sports or seasonal gym “challenges” that offer you just enough pressure to push yourself to new gains, enjoy group contribution, and enjoy the opportunity for recognition. Start a photo journal that showcases the positive changes you’re making in your physical shape as well as overall health.

Use Personal Devices or Online Tools for Virtual Challenge

Everything from PaleoTrack to a Fitbit can help you track your progress and enjoy meeting goals, but take advantage of other tools that impose unpleasant results (e.g. lose money you put up front) if you don’t meet a particular goal or that offer a virtual rallying as you work toward an objective.

Now, what say you, readers? Where do you find the motivation to push yourself toward new health endeavors or into deeper, more challenging terrain?

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation

View Results

Loading ... Loading ...

I hope you’ll take the poll and offer your insights into the sources and strategies of motivation. Thanks for reading, everyone.

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. I think, like Mark said, its important to strike a balance. Ironically, in the past I tended to be extrinsically motivated yet possessed an internal locus of control. Translation: I would freak out about the number on my paper or test and beat myself up if it wasn’t where I wanted it, because that number was under my, and only my, control. Lately, and I think this in large part has to do with a more primal lens in every dimension of my life, I’ve tried to reverse it a bit. I haven’t stopped working hard in school (or in my health goals, of course). However, I’ve tried to focus more on LEARNING and growing healthier rather than a grade point average or a number on the scale. Also, I’ve tried to accept that not everything can be placed under my control. I can only do my best, and further anxiety about “results” will not produce any greater benefits! While grades and external health benefits (i.e. a new sexy body, that I love!) still keep me motivated, I think a big part of growing up and maturing this past year especially (I’m 21) has been figuring out what is important in my life TO ME, without looking at external factors all of the time! This post is especially timely as I’m trying to figure out what the h*** I want to do with my life in a year once I graduate college . . .

    rachel ann wrote on March 8th, 2013
  2. A lot of the examples mentioned as extrinsic motivation, are actually categorized as introjected regulation… One of the inbetween categories. Check out Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan) for more details. As a motivation researcher, all forms play a necessary part in behavior…. I’m not sure which articles people have read claiming otherwise. It is generally accepted that intrinsic motivation is higher correlated with long term maintenance of health behaviors than extrinsic though.

    Caitlin wrote on March 9th, 2013
  3. I don’t know why, but I get most motivated when I buy new supplements. Just the other day I bought 4 of them. Pre-workout product, post-workout, during workout and a gainer. Now I am hitting the gym almost everyday.

    Adam wrote on March 10th, 2013
  4. I am in the category of “don’t really buy the dichotomy”, or at least “not sure how to really perceive the difference”.

    Being from Europe (more precisely from France), I may not feel the same pride of being intrinsically motivated that I perceive as typical among American (wrong perception?). The more intrinsically motivated you are, the more a winner you are supposed to be in life, a potential entrepreneur…

    Individual competitiveness is a bit less highlighted in european societies (maybe especially in France)… I think. So there is maybe less of a social pressure to appear as a gifted winner in life.

    So, coming from this background and seing the overwhelming majority of reported intrinsically motifivated people on this board (and all those being self-evaluated), I can’t help wondering if the very feeling of being intrinsicaly motivated couldn’t be itself an external motivator. Just wondering…

    Guillaume Ponce wrote on March 11th, 2013
  5. Great share, I really enjoyed reading it.

    Elaine @ Fitness Wear wrote on March 12th, 2013
  6. I find the motivation swings back and forth between intrinsic and extrinsic, depending on the day, my mood, etc. I wonder if there is a way to keep things on track once they are begun? Certainly the vision board, journal, etc. are fine ideas, if used routinely. However, there are days when it just isn’t there. What are some techniques to “jump start” the motivation fire on those slow days?

    Thomas Hill wrote on March 19th, 2013
  7. After watching the brilliant documentary, ‘Happy’, I realized that my extrinsic values (although I wasn’t necessarily living just extrinsic values) were skewed and my perception of it was unbalanced.

    I am trying to value intrinsic values much more which is what this website to me has always been about – the focus of being positive, valuing small communities of friends and family, doing things you want to do rather than what you think society expects you to do.

    I am not saying looks and feeling confidence in appearance, career isn’t important but I am trying to get away from that a bit more and focusing hard on how to build better relationships with ‘my tribe’ – my mother (sounds cheesy but I have started giving her a hug for the first time after 30+ years etc), my friends, my lady and so on…

    I am enjoying being myself again and really being the best me for the people nearest me, rather than the rest of the world.

    Andy wrote on March 23rd, 2013

Leave a Reply

If you'd like to add an avatar to all of your comments click here!

© 2016 Mark's Daily Apple

Subscribe to the Newsletter and Get a Free Copy
of Mark Sisson's Fitness eBook and more!