Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
19 Jul

Choosing Chicken: A Primal Purchasing Guide

Poultry: a Primal staple that complements any kind of fare any time of day (nothing like chicken hash for breakfast!). There’s more to poultry than chicken of course (more on that another time), but make no mistake: chickens these days aren’t created equal. Breeding, feeding and other poultry farming standards result in animals that scarcely resemble each other, let alone taste the same. To the Primal point, however: when it comes to judging a chicken’s nutritional profile, a little info can go a long way. Today’s item of business: choosing the best Primal chicken for the money.

As I’ve said many a time before, modern agricultural practices result in food that bears little resemblance to Grok’s dietary staples. Not only is it helpful to know the raising condition of the chicken you’ll eat (stress doesn’t make for tasty poultry), but the feed these birds receive in large part determines the nutritional profile (as well as toxins and other unsavory bits) they’ll offer. At issue in the last few years is the widespread use of arsenic in chicken feed, which can both promote growth and help prevent disease. This arsenic additive, although not the most toxic form we associate with poisoning, nonetheless shows up in the poultry meat (PDF) and the people who eat chicken products. Despite the less toxic form, no one is arguing that is good for people.

The controversy surrounding feed doesn’t end there. For example, there’s the issue of animal byproducts. Ground up animal parts, bone meal, and the floor droppings of animal pens make it into the feed used by many an industrial farm. Even under the best conditions, chickens like most livestock are fed grains and soybeans. Is this really the best we can do? Is it worth paying good money for? What is the full range of options when it comes to a healthy chicken dinner? Let’s take a look.


Yes, those baffling tags which leave you wondering whether you’re being sold a bill of goods. Answer: sometimes yes and sometimes no. Here’s a quick and dirty primer on what they mean (and don’t mean)….


I’ll start with probably the most useless label in the bunch. There’s a huge brouhaha about this one now going on in the political arena, especially in California. The gist of the label is this: no artificial colors, flavors, or other ingredients, no preservatives and “minimal processing.” Pretty much anything in the meat aisle that’s left unflavored would qualify. At the center of the political controversy, poultry can still be pumped up with a salt solution and still bear the “all natural” label.

Free Range

Important note: this isn’t the same as pastured. Essentially, this label indicates that the birds weren’t raised in cages. The rest is a question mark. They likely had limited access to the outdoors, and they might have still lived in crammed conditions common to industrial poultry farms. According to USDA rules, free range denotes a mere five minutes of open air access per day, which could mean a small gate was open to a paved lot. The “option” is what fills the letter of the USDA law here. Unless you know your farmer and his/her raising methods, I’d say this label is pretty meaningless.

100% Vegetarian Diet

The idea here isn’t a vegetarian chicken. (Chickens aren’t natural vegetarians, since they forage on bugs when left to their own devices.) This label shows that they didn’t have access to pasture, but it does indicate that the birds were fed grains and possibly grasses. The important part is that their feed didn’t contain animal byproducts, which can mean ground up animal parts and feces. (What they get into while crammed in those industrial shelters is another story….)


Although you’d think this would be just for the feed, guess again. Chicken houses – especially large industrial farming structures – are subject to the infestation of all kinds of pesky critters like lice and rodents. As a result, repeated doses of insecticides are part and parcel of most poultry birds’ existence.

Raised without antibiotics/No antibiotics administered/Antibiotic-free

Their birds, the company promises, didn’t receive antibiotics at any time. Farms asserting this claim are supposed to remove sick animals from the herd and refrain from selling them under this label. You may also see “Raised Without the Routine Use of Antibiotics,” which means antibiotics could have been given for treatment of illness but not for preventative measures.

Raised without added hormones/No hormones administered/No added hormones

Given that U.S. law prohibits the use of growth hormones in poultry birds, consider this another useless label.

Pastured or Pasture-Raised

This is the label I suggest looking for, but don’t be surprised if the search presents a challenge. Pastured suggests that the birds lived on pasture and got some of their food from the pasture environment. For poultry, this usually means that the bird get about 20% of its food from pasture source (grass, seeds and bugs) and 80% from grain/grasses feed mixes (corn, oats, soybeans alfalfa, clover, etc.). Ask your farmer what he/she uses for feed. Chickens, unlike cows, don’t have the digestive ability to live on pure grass, but the inclusion of fresh pasture sources in their diet naturally boosts the nutritional content (vitamins and omega-3s) of the poultry.


Heritage breeds are hard to come by and pricey when you do. Nonetheless, if you’re up for the adventure and want to support the agricultural diversity movement, you’ll likely enjoy a healthy, richer tasting bird raised in a pastured, small farm environment. Check out these resources for more info on heritage chickens and other heritage poultry varieties.


This is a label truly worth its salt. To use this label, the farm must meet USDA standards and be officially certified through the USDA. Here’s what the label promises in a nutshell: (for the birds themselves) 100% organic feed, no animal byproducts, no hormones, no antibiotics, outdoor access, no irradiation, no pesticides (for the feed), no synthetic fertilizers, no sewage sludge (yes, folks, you read that right), no synthetic pesticides, and no GMO. Farmers who are in the process of converting to fully organic practices can use the term “transitional.”

Beyond Organic

Jumping through the hoops for organic certification/recertification is no small (or cheap) venture. As a result, some farmers have chosen to run their farms with fully organic practices – oftentimes stricter yet than organic – but without USDA certification. Instead, they chose to go by individual relationships with consumers and businesses and by their reputation in the region. Other farmers associated with the label purposefully relinquished their certification to protest the shifting “culture” of the organic label as large industry-owned farms make up an increasing percentage of USDA organic certifications.

Primal Choices

Here’s how I’d prioritize the options.

  1. Pastured – It’s harder to come by and pricier than organic, but the poultry offers more nutritionally through extra nutrients like vitamin E, folic acid and B-12 as well as more omega-3s. Even though pastured chicken might not be labeled antibiotic-free, it’s likely the farm doesn’t use medication. It’s extra work to pasture birds, which indicates a greater commitment on the farmer’s part. Plus, the chickens are less likely to need antibiotics when they live on a natural diet with plenty of space.
  2. Organic – Although pastured chicken provides nutritional extras, organic poultry at least ensures that you’re not getting a dose of pesticides, arsenic, and antibiotics with your dinner.
  3. 100% Vegetarian Feed – If a chicken isn’t pastured, the non-vegetarian part of the feed is likely animal by-products. Need I say more?
  4. Antibiotic-Free – This one’s probably self-explanatory.
  5. Free Range – Sure, free range can mean a lot of things, but it at least suggests there was some opportunity for movement and a slightly healthier/more humane living environment. It’s a tough call but probably better than fully conventional. This is a case where it’s especially helpful to know the farmer/company and the particulars of their practice.
  6. Conventional – Regardless of where you live, you should be able to find poultry that ensures vegetarian feed. Personally, I’d suggest staying away from chicken that can’t promise that much. That said, as with other meats, if conventional is all you can afford or have access to it’s better than no meat at all. Just eat the leaner cuts, since toxins concentrate in fat.

Purchasing Sources

As for purchasing sources, know that your regular grocer might not be the best way to go. Even if the store carries pastured and/or organic chicken, you could pay a premium and not get the freshest poultry out of the deal. Still, if you prefer a traditional grocery store for convenience or are limited to this kind of source, be sure to let the management know you regularly purchase the “specialty” (i.e. lower turnover) product and offer to buy it frozen and/or in bulk. You might nab yourself a decent discount. I’d also recommend buying whole birds as well, since they stay fresher longer and are generally a better deal anyway.

Rest assured that there are plenty of other purchasing options in all parts of the country. Local co-ops, farmers’ markets and CSAs are all great places to look for reasonably priced pastured and/or organic chicken. Go in with a friend or family member to buy in bulk and save even more. Although some pastured/organic poultry farms don’t organize their own chicken shares, they sometimes partner with larger CSA farms in the area and advertise their poultry deals through those memberships and websites. It’s worth a call around. Be sure to check out resources like, and the American Grassfed Association for pastured/organic farms in your area as well as farms that ship direct.

Finally, you can always join the growing “backyard chicken movement” and raise your own. Hats off to anyone who does!

On that note, folks, I’ll turn it over to you. How do you pick your poultry? Have you found a farm you’ve come to depend on? Do you have mail order sources you’ve used and would recommend to others in the MDA group? Thanks for your ideas and insights, and have a great week!

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. For years I’ve eaten the low-price chicken due to its economical suitability for my modest pocket (I’m a uni-arch student) believing that it was good for me since it (on the papper at least) is such a nutritios, high fat/protein – low carb source of calories. Oh was I mistaken, I’ve had a notably much harder time dropping weight whilst ingesting large quantities of this estrogen packed (anti)food. Ever since I learnt that chickens are commonly fed pro-inflammatory, richly phytoestrogenic foods such as soybeans, other legumes and grains I’ve started contact each producer personally, and believe me, ALL are fed soybeans to various extent (30-50% of the chickens total daily caloric intake comes from it) sadly.

    So unless you know the source for the chickens upbringing personally, I don’t recommend anyone to ever eat chicken again. The same unfortunately goes for pork as well. Here in Europe soybeans have become really popular as a livestock staple-food since it makes the animals gain weight mainly in the form of fat and water ridiculously fast, which makes the producers earn money faster since they wont have to pay for as much food for the animals before it’s slaughter ready.


    With sincere regards from Sweden / V.

    Viktor wrote on July 23rd, 2010
    • Yes, it’s the same here. Even the organic Farmers at the Farmer’s Market here feed the chicken soybeans.
      And when I told them they asked me ” What’s wrong with soybeans?” They had NO clue and thought all this time their chicken are healthy.

      I now found a farmer who’s actually informed and raises his chicken soy free, the chicken looks completely different from soy-fed chicken.

      He lets his chicken just wander around after the cows to get the bugs out of the dung and catch flies, etc…
      It costs him nothing to raise chicken.

      suvetar wrote on July 23rd, 2010
  2. Great source for pastured chickens:

    And lots of other great products.

    randalland wrote on July 23rd, 2010
  3. Thankfully we are starting to have more farmer’s markets here in Alaska, however they usually only go on in the short summers…….

    sara rottman wrote on July 23rd, 2010
  4. is a website/blog by Shannon Hayes, one of the best sustainable farmers I know. She is also the author of three grand books: THE GRASSFED GOURMET, THE FARMER AND THE GRILL, and RADICAL HOMEMAKERS. She has a great article on pasture-raised chickens on her website!

    Joellyn wrote on July 24th, 2010
  5. I am fearful of visiting the local chicken ranch due to the chance of a chicken stampede with my being unable to escape.

    Death by stampeding chickens, pummeled and crushed under their trampling feet would be a horrid death.

    Obbop wrote on November 18th, 2011
  6. We just ordered organic, pastured, soy-free chicken online from Tropical Traditions. They are also given coco-feed (coconut). I’ll let everyone know how they turned out once they arrive.

    Midge Markey wrote on January 11th, 2012
    • I am wondering how you found the soy-free chicken from Tropical Traditions. I have been eating Bell and Evans air chilled thinking I was doing the right thing and then find they are fed soy…

      Penn wrote on November 13th, 2012
  7. Great weblog here! Also your web site loads up fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate hyperlink in your host? I desire my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol

    máy in canon wrote on September 5th, 2012
  8. I have to agree, the ‘free range’ label really does not tell anything about the living conditions of the chickens. I used to believe the farmers were honest, however after watching some videos and reading some articles, that has totally changed for me

    Valene wrote on November 12th, 2012
  9. Thank you! I’ve been looking for a comprehensive post on buying chicken. We have a great grass-fed beef/pork source, but haven’t been able to find pastured poultry. Now I will be more informed at the grocery store!

    Hannah wrote on December 28th, 2012
  10. Thank you for the info in this article. Some of it is not relevant to me in Australia but I’ve found a supplier at the monthly Sydney farmers market that provides free-range chickens and hand-reared ducks that actually have some flavour … the flavour of chicken that I recall from when I was young and eating chicken was a treat.

    Alison wrote on August 6th, 2013
  11. Mark, there’s a lot more discussion in the comments about soy/no soy than in your article. You listed it as one of the sub-par items in the intro to your piece, but then it’s included in the 20% feed of the pasture-raised animals which you say is your primary choice. Since the chickens need protein, and the pastured-poultry farmers don’t dare do the animal-byproduct thing, so roasted soybeans have to be the “next best”, right?

    My family owns/operates a pastured poultry farm in the suburbs of Washington, DC, and we’re finding people are huge fans (mistakenly) of the “vegetarian-fed” and “free-range” labels, etc. It’s heartbreaking to see the half-way educated!

    So what’s your stance on the whole soy thing?

    Bethany wrote on July 31st, 2014
  12. Thank you for the breakdown. I located a farm nearby that has pastured chicken. It is quite expensive, and the farmer use chicken feed that contains soy and corn. What are your thoughts on that? I can’t seem to find a farmer that doesn’t use one or both and its left me not eating chicken at all.

    Kim wrote on October 14th, 2015

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