Marks Daily Apple
Serving up health and fitness insights (daily, of course) with a side of irreverence.
2 Jan

Are You Eating These Important Supplemental Foods?

eggyolksToday I’d like to talk about supplementation. No, not vitamins. While I obviously believe supplements of the pill, tablet and powder form variety can play a role in a healthy, modern Primal lifestyle, that’s not what I have in mind today. Instead, I’d like to take a look at supplemental foods – multivitamins provided in whole food form by mother nature (often aided and abetted by cooks, cheesemakers, farmers, ranchers, shepherds, and the like). In my estimation, there are a few absolutely essential supplemental foods that we should be eating.

Most of you are probably eating a few of these foods regularly, and some may be eating most of them, but I’d wager that none of you are eating all of them on a regular basis. Check the list, see what you’re missing, and adjust accordingly.

Egg yolks

Egg yolks are number one in my book. The way they blend effortlessly with other foods and even enrich them, and (if you get a really pastured one) provide unparalleled taste and mouthfeel when eaten straight out of the shell can’t be praised enough. The vitamin A, choline, folate, selenium, iodine, and omega-3 (again, if you get pastured) are rather nice, too. Eat egg yolks every day, just don’t smoke ‘em. Yes, that was a double reference to both the egg yolk/cigarette study and Dr. Dre.

Liver

Since every animal comes with but a single liver, it’s tough to get more than a few ounces if you’re sharing with everyone else in the group. Good thing liver is the most nutrient-dense food on the planet, so nutrient-dense that eating more than a half pound to a pound a week is probably overkill and will net you an excessive amount of certain nutrients.

Seaweed

Seaweed is green vegetation that’s been marinating in mineral-dense seawater for its entire life, and when you eat seaweed, you get the best source of iodine, plus magnesium, manganese, iron, and tons of other trace minerals that you might be (probably are) missing out on. Some of the healthiest traditional cultures consider seaweed a staple food, and essentially every group of coastal people utilized sea vegetables in their diets. Sprinkle kelp or dulse flakes on food, make broth using dried kombu, eat seaweed salad when you go out to eat sushi, roll up avocado and meat in nori wraps – the possibilites are many and delicious.

Turmeric

You might have read my old post on turmeric, thought, “Huh, interesting,” gone out for Indian that night, and never thought about it again. That’s a mistake, in my opinion, because turmeric is delicious and a true health food. It and its primary bioactive component – curcumin – have been shown to be anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid peroxidative, blood lipid-improving, and anti-carcinogenic in human studies. Contrary to popular belief, turmeric doesn’t just go with Indian food. I often sprinkle it liberally on my eggs, meat, and vegetables, and I even make a tea out of it. So no, you have no excuse not to use more turmeric more often. Add black pepper to increase the benefits.

Bone broth

It can feel like a chore to make, but it’s really not. Get bones, cover with water, heat, strain. It only seems like a big job. Once you get going, though, it’s easy enough. Make it a routine, to make it even easier and ensure that you have bone broth on hand at all times. Just be sure to clean those pots right away; dried, obliterated skeletal matrices are tough to scrub off of stainless steel pots. As for the benefits, bone broth is a good source of minerals and gelatin. If you’ve been pounding the muscle meat, balancing the amino acid methionine out with some glycine from gelatin is advised, since methionine metabolism depletes glycine. Gelatin also improves joint pain and sleep quality. I hate the former and love the latter, so I make and drink bone broth.

Bone marrow

Bone marrow is an interesting one. It’s plainly obvious why humans and their ancestors have been seeking it out for millions of years – it’s fatty, calorie-dense, and delicious – but its nutritional value beyond macronutrients is a bit more murky. In a previous post on bone marrow, I tried to divine the specifics and came to the shaky conclusion that since marrow is actively involved in bone and connective formation and resorption, we can effectively think of it as an organ and thus assume it to be nutrient-dense. I think that still holds. No, there are no studies or nutritional databases to confirm this, but I’m going to go out on a limb and propose we consider bone marrow to be an important supplemental food.

Shellfish

Over a year ago, I told you guys to start eating shellfish. Did you? Well, consider this another notification that shellfish, particularly oysters and mussels, should be a regular part of your diet. Why oysters? Just four medium sized Pacific oysters supply a smattering of B-vitamins (including over 1000% of daily B12), 1200 IU of vitamin A, a third of daily folate, almost 7 mg of vitamin E, 3 mg copper, 280% of daily selenium, and 33 mg zinc. That comes with 18 g protein, 4 g fat, 1.5 g omega-3, 0.1 g omega-6, and 9 grams of carbohydrates. Why mussels? They’re also rich in B-vitamins, selenium, zinc, and protein, but also come with good amounts of magnesium and manganese. Other shellfish are also good, but probably not as important as oysters and mussels.

Aged cheese

Gouda and pecorino romano are ideal choices. Gouda is the cheese with the highest vitamin K2 content, and the longer the cheese is aged (fermented), the more K2 it picks up. Pecorino romano, by definition, must come from raw sheep’s milk grazed on lush grasses, and it must be made the traditional way – from animal rennet. The result is a salty, sharp cheese with bite, CLA, and the ability to “cause favourable biochemical changes of atherosclerotic markers.”

Natto

I know, I know. It’s soy, a legume with significant levels of phytoestrogens, phytic acid, and trypsin inhibitors. It’s got a gross, slimy texture that may be outdone only by its interesting taste. It’s soy. By most accounts, people following a Primal lifestyle shouldn’t have anything to do with it. If you asked me a couple years ago, I may have said that. But natto is a special kind of soy. It’s fermented using a particular strain of bacterium called Bacillus subtilis natto. When steamed soybeans are inoculated with b. subtilis, they are transformed from a basic legume with few redeeming qualities into a powerful supplemental food imbued with high levels of vitamin K2, a nutrient important in bone mineralization, cancer prevention, and protection from heart disease. If you’re into those sorts of things, natto is the single best source of vitamin K2.

Tiny whole fish with heads and guts

Anytime you can eat the entire animal, you should. Heck, if they were able to genetically engineer bite-sized cows, I’d be all over that (assuming they were grass-fed, of course). Until then, tiny fish with heads and guts will do the trick. I’m talking sardines. I’m talking anchovies. I’m talking smelt. I’m talking any of the fish running between a half inch and six inches long. Any longer and the guts will begin to stand out in your mouth. But if you keep to that sweet spot, you’ll get the brains, the glands (all of them), the organs, the bones, the fermenting algae, krill, and assorted sundry microscopic marine goodies tiny fish like to eat, in addition to the omega-3s and protein, without adverse flavors. Oh, and because they’re tiny and low on the food chain, tiny fish will be largely free of the heavy metals other, larger fish tend to accumulate.

Red palm oil

For the PBer who fears almonds and other nuts and seeds for the omega-6 content, vitamin E is scarce in the diet. Some would argue that vitamin E is only there to prevent oxidation of omega-6 present in foods, and there’s something to that. But still: dietary, full-spectrum vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, and red palm oil is the richest source of the full-spectrum variety. It’s also a good source of CoQ10, another powerful nutrient. Oh, and it tastes good (once you get used to the unique flavor). Go for African palm oil instead of Southeast Asian, because the former isn’t produced on the backs of dead orangutans.

Brazil nuts

Selenium, selenium, selenium. This essential little mineral is woefully absent from most people’s diets, and it’s a shame: selenium is vital for thyroid hormone production, the manufacture of endogenous antioxidants, and sex hormone production. Brazil nuts are the best source of selenium. Many of the previously listed foods are going to get you plenty of selenium, but brazil nuts are nice to keep around for those days when you haven’t been eating your lamb kidneys, mussels, and anchovies. Just pop two or three brazil nuts and you’ll have more than a day’s worth heading straight to your gastrointestinal tract. Easy peasy. Go for the ones in their shells if you can, since those are going to be fresher than the shelled nuts.

Speaking of brazil nuts, I’ve always wondered whether to capitalize the “b” or not. Any thoughts?

Purple/blue foods (sweet potatoes, berries, vegetables)

As I’ve said before, bright colors in plants often indicate the presence of potent polyphenols – bioactive compounds found in plants. No bioactive color has been more studied and lauded than the blue/purple anthocyanins, which are linked to anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can pretty much be found in any blue or purple fruit, vegetable, or tuber. So, Okinawan sweet potatoes are great sources. Blueberries, raspberries, currants, purple grapes, and blackberries are great. Red lettuce, radicchio, and purple cabbage, cauliflower, kale, tomatoes, and carrots are also rich with anthocyanins. If it’s purple or blue and edible, it’s probably worth eating.

Fermented food

Since modern medicine is steadily unearthing new connections between the gut microbiome and a host of health and disease states, we know we should pay attention to our gut flora. I can’t tell you to go eat dirt and stamp around barefooted in parasite-ridden water (even though both may theoretically have their benefits), but I can tell you to eat a mix of fermented foods. You’ve got your yogurts, your kefirs, your sauerkrauts, your kimchis, your (aforementioned) nattos, your beet kvasses, your kombuchas. Benefits include more numerous and more bioavailable nutrients, new nutrients, new genetic material for your gut flora to acquire, and membership into a tens of thousands of years-old fermented food appreciation Meetup group with billions of members from every culture that came before us. In other words, gut flora is important, everyone who’s anyone regularly ate fermented food, and you should too.

So, how’d you do? Does this look familiar to you? Are you eating these foods, or are you missing out? Let me know in the comment section, and be sure to mention any foods I might have missed. Thanks and have a great day!

You want comments? We got comments:

Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. Liver and seaweed have inexplicably fallen out of the equation in recent months. Lots of eggs, spices and bone broth though.

    Got a new (actually, quite old) book on cooking with offal for Christmas, so this is a good time to get liver and other goodies back into the mix

    Alex wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  2. Mark – You have raised a huge following of people scared to death to eat a potato!

    Your Intro in the new PHD book makes it look like you understand the need for starch, but your peeps are not getting the message.

    There are so many benefits to eating up to a pound of potatao, rice, plantain, etc… that CANNOT be met with low carb/no starch Primal Blueprint.

    Resistant Starch, found in massive quantity in cooked and cooled rice/potato should be reason enough.

    Please, please in 2013, help the masses understand that starch is not an evil carb. Potatoes should be on everyone’s plate–every day! You endorsed Jaminet’s vision on this–now back it up!

    Tim wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • I agree, although I don’t think potatoes should necessarily be “on everyone’s plate-every day,” as you suggest.

      *Some* people do much better with starches in their diet; others don’t. It’s true that this community tends to be hung up on the ‘no-starch’ thing, but it’s important to not let the pendulum swing too far in the other direction. We need to keep in mind that everyone is going to have different optimal diets.

      Alyssa Luck wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • For me personally, adding “starch ” in the form of potatoes, rice, etc. is the beginning of the end. It triggers way too many cravings, drags me down energy wise, and just generally derails me. I seem fine with a little sweet potato or winter squash, but that’s about it.

      Rene R wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • “Potatoes should be on everyone’s plate–every day! You endorsed Jaminet’s vision on this–now back it up!”

      Spoken like a potato farmer or true carb addict. ;) Seriously, an occasional potato won’t kill and it would be certainly the carb of choice for those crazy enough to be doing endurance athletics.

      But if you have a choice, choosing to eat a potato every single day means you’re *not* eating some other nutrient dense food. Liver, flesh, bone broth, and vegetables are all much better ways to consume the same calories.

      Amy wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Potatoes are a member of the nightshade family and can cause issues for some people. One potato and my joints are swollen the next day. They may be a poor choice for people with autoimmune issues.

      Jill wrote on January 23rd, 2013
  3. Thanks for the good info!!!
    I want to tell you how I used to take turmeric….
    1/4 tsp of turmeric +hot boil water+
    a few drops of lemon or lime juice and a little bit of sugar!!!
    I take it every morning on a empty stomach:))) Love it and recomend it!!!

    Liliya wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  4. I could use some help with making bone broth. Ive read that you can mix your bones and that some people add chicken feet. Does anybody know do you have to do anything with them or just toss the whole thing in?

    Denise wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • I’ve heard that some people peel the chicken feet, but I just toss them in the crock pot – add onion, garlic, raw apple cider vinegar, salt, peppercorns and enough water to cover. I usually let mine go for 24 hours. I do have to say that it is a little creepy to look through the glass lid and see little “hands”, but the broth made with feet is incredible and so full of gelatin that it barely even jiggles when it’s cooled. Can’t always find chicken feet, so I will save bones until I have a bag full.

      Beth wrote on January 2nd, 2013
      • Thanks for the info, I work next to an asian market, chicken feet are cheap! Our university also raises grass fed animals, need to get in there to see if they have bone!

        Denise wrote on January 2nd, 2013
        • Make sure you use enough water or you’ll end up with more of a chicken demi-glace than a stock.

          Paleo Bon Rurgundy wrote on January 3rd, 2013
    • I use pig “feet” to pump up the gelatin. Inexpensive and easier for me to find at the grocery store.

      I toss everything in the pressure cooker for 4-5 hours, works like a champ. When its done even the beef marrow bones are soft enough to cut through with a butter knife.

      MN_John wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Bone broth is fairly simple to make once you get the hang of it. I make it routinely these days. Check out my gelatinous recipe for slow cooker bone broth.

      Chika wrote on January 7th, 2013
  5. I love eggs, Brazil nuts (yes, I use a capital B) and sardines from the can. I also love crab – any thoughts on the value of that? One of my favourite teas is a 3 ginger tea, Organic ginger, galangal & golden turmeric, very warming! Thank you for this post, as someone just starting out on my Primal journey, it’s good to find out the range of products you can eat.

    Beth wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  6. Just wash the feet and toss them in.

    Cathi wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  7. Wild Planet sardines are by far my favorite brand. They are at whole foods and cheaper on amazon with a subscription. Packed in 100% EVOO and BPA free cans. Be careful! Some brands say “packed in olive oil” on label but ingredients also include canola or cottonseed oil. Still trying to find smoked mussels in olive oil!

    Brian Wilson wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Oh yeah, smoked mussels, fantastic. Really satisfying. Does this sound sarcastic? I don’t mean it to… : )

      Madama Butterfry wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  8. Liver, yay!! It is a personal goal of mine to eat liver at least once a week because of it’s rich nutrient content. Check out my delicious recipe for Sauteed Chicken Liver & Onions.

    Chika wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  9. Today will be my first time making bone broth! Can’t wait to try it and so glad to see it on this list. I must say, I’m not the greatest with eating a lot of these things. *whomp*whomp*

    Carrie wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  10. Love this post Mark. Its really amazing how much better I feel when I eat things like livers, fermented foods, etc.

    Max Ungar wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  11. Tips for those of us who can’t stand the texture of oysters/mussels? They are one of the few seafoods I would be comfortable purchasing/eating (due to their relatively stable populations) but ugh, the texture!!!

    Steph wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Haha! Just posted my comment saying the exact same thing! I’ve never tried them, but the texture always looked iffy to me…

      Alyssa Luck wrote on January 2nd, 2013
      • Having just come from a San Francisco trip… oysters are the best fresh out of the ocean. As for texture, they aren’t as bad as the texture of liver (IMO). So, if you can handle the liver, you can likely handle the oyster ;-)

        Kat wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  12. Eggs stirred into kefir and left to ferment should be healthy.

    Animanarchy wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  13. Haha! picturing bite-sized cows … canned in a delish gelatinous beef broth, just peel back the lid and dig in.

    Leslie wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  14. I think I’m doing pretty well overall, based on this list! I mix seaweed flakes about half and half with Redmond RealSalt in my salt shaker, so I think I’m getting decent amounts of seaweed. I just ate marrow for the first time about a week ago, and was amazed at the taste! It was in a pumpkin custard, and I didn’t taste it plain, but I was surprised at how fatty and white and creamy it looked. For some reason, I was expecting a meatier substance.

    I’m not a huge fan of liver, but I do okay putting it in other things with ground meat. I just wish I could buy in ground, instead of having to puree it in my food processor.

    But the shellfish, natto, and tiny fish…hm. I’ll have to start incorporating anchovies into sauces and things like others above suggested, because I simply cannot do sardines. I’m not in any hurry to try natto since it’s soy, but I’m hoping I get adequate K2 from fermented cod liver oil. I’ll have to figure out how to like shellfish, though. I had a bad experience with scallops, and have never tried oysters or mussels. Anyone have recipe suggestions for someone who has a hard time with weird textures?? (:

    Alyssa Luck wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • I feel bad for people who weren’t exposed to shellfish at a young age. I can’t imagine trying raw oysters or steamed mussels for the first time as an adult – I can see how it would be intimidating or off-putting because of the appearance and texture. For oysters, they may not be worth trying unless you live or visit coastal areas regularly. There is almost nothing better than a fresh raw oyster straight from the ocean with a little lemon juice. Go with small ones at first (like Kumamotos) before tackling the larger varieties like Apalachicolas. Some people who don’t like to eat them raw still enjoy them cooked in stews or in oysters Rockafeller, but I think cooking them magnifies the fishiness and dimishes the fresh ocean-y flavor.
      Mussels in Asian dishes like a Thai curry may be a good way to start out. When eating mussels in the shell, make sure closed before cooking and open once they are cooked.

      Mark A wrote on January 2nd, 2013
      • Hmm…I’m not sure I could handle eating something that is still alive! I still need to work on getting over the ‘ick’ factor of some foods! But I can imagine the primal feeling you get scooping up and downing a fresh oyster straight from the ocean, so I might have to make that a goal of mine (:

        Alyssa Luck wrote on January 2nd, 2013
        • Yeah, I don’t eat them because of fear of their walking up and down my “digestive track.”
          I’ll skip this one. Give me eggs and cheeses (and natto) any time.

          anna wrote on January 3rd, 2013
        • “I prefer my oysters fried-
          That way I know my oyster’s died. ”

          -Roy Blount

          Actually I love oysters & all shellfish pretty much any way I can get ‘em. But I also love sardines, anchovies, sushi, seafood in general. Much more than meat, actually, as I can digest them better.

          paleo-curious wrote on January 3rd, 2013
  15. “selenium is vital for thyroid hormone production”

    Not quite – it’s actually critical in the production of the *enzyme* that converts existing thyroid hormone T4 into the “active” thyroid hormone T3.

    Also, too much selenium can actually suppress T3 and cause hypothyroid, or can worsen hypothyroid.

    kiki wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  16. Hoorah, starting reading this post as I was ploughing through my breakfast of sardines on paleo pumpkin bread with butter and spinach leaves on the side.
    I love a bit of sardine in the morning!

    Madeleine wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  17. Sardines are good for you–except when they jump into those little metal cans, and you cut yourself opening them (which I’ve done twice [I have cerebral palsy])!!!

    Allen wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • You can also increase your chances of cutting yourself on a can (and spicing the contents of the can with flakes of it) by opening it with the can openers they sell at Giant Tiger.
      A mutilated can of tomatoes elicited so much bleeding from my hand that I walked to the hospital to get some bandaids. The triage nurse tried to make me think I needed antibiotics. She asked me if I knew I could die from tetanus. I told her I eat dirt to support my gut bacteria and consequently am not worried about disease.
      That hospital seems to have recently started fluoridating the water heavily based on how it tastes, though the regular town water isn’t fluoridated. It doesn’t quench thirst well either.

      Animanarchy wrote on January 2nd, 2013
      • I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again, I’m so glad you’re back.

        Madama Butterfry wrote on January 3rd, 2013
        • Me too. I admit I missed this place so much that in my recent stay in custody I was writing down potential comments.
          I’m thinking of making a new primal-themed video too, possibly a guide to anarchy, especially preparation (so it would be kind of a training video emphasizing guerrilla warfare type skills). In my teens I spent lots of time reading old textfiles from the 80s about mischief and mayhem. I didn’t do much of it but the love is still there.

          Animanarchy wrote on January 3rd, 2013
        • +1!!!!!!!!

          Jen wrote on January 3rd, 2013
        • I echo that sentiment.

          Paleo Bon Rurgundy wrote on January 3rd, 2013
        • @Animanarchy

          Let me guess. The Encyclopedia of Destruction? The good ole days of BBSs.

          Paleo Bon Rurgundy wrote on January 3rd, 2013
        • Mister Burgandy, I had to make my reply here because the website would not let me make it below in the applicable spaces. I haven’t heard of the Enclycopediea of Destruction. Nor have I read the infamous Anarchist Cookbook. I scholared with textfiles.com. I’ll need to get in shape before embarking on this cinematographic masterpiece however, so I’m not sure when it will be competed or if, depending on my condition and situation. I figured maybe the library or my old high school tech teacher would let me lend a camera.

          Animanarchy wrote on January 7th, 2013
  18. i just cant get myself to eat any seafood. no matter how hard i try. one day it might happen.

    jessica wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  19. This is a good guide. Obviously, if one has leaky gut, a lot this has to be avoided for awhile. I’ve always steered away from shellfish because of the bottom feeder business and the fear of eating excess toxins. Do you have recommendations for selecting shellfish and preparing it?

    Rachel wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • My body has unequivocally ruled out shellfish and bottom/filter feeders. (That’s a bit redundant as most shellfish are filter feeders.) Carnivorous fish yes, those that pick up random crud from the ocean, no. :( There are other ways to get the same nutrients, including very boring supplementation.

      Amy wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  20. GOOD STUFF as always, although some of us may never get to these kinds of foods all the time every day…..I wish we could…all the sudden, chopped liver doesn’t sound so bad after all =)

    Kevin Lin wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  21. Natto may be deemed the single best source of vitamin K-2 by science but is it really? What synergistic factors are provided by mother nature along with natto? Magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, maganese, and omega- 3s. That is pretty good but your best sources of K-2 are raw fermented dairy from organic cows grazing on spring or fall fast growing organic pastures, originally choosen for their rich mineral content (think alluvial floodplain organic farm), and maintained by a smart farmer who rotates various types of animals on pasture (cows, goats, sheep, chickens), and makes sure that a variety of grasses native to the the bioregion make up the pasture grasses. What do you get besides vitamin K-2 and the factors presnt in natto) when you ferment raw buttermilk and/or raw milk from these cows? All of the maximum synergistic components for its utilization and absorption: adding to those factors provided by natto – Vitamin D plus loads of probiotics. And if the farm is local (within 100 miles) you get the benefits of the healthy adaptations of the microbiological community within the fermentation – refered to as “transfer factors”- something not understood by science very well. Healthy cultures around the world have proven the health benefits of fermented dairy under similar conditions to those described above. Almost all small farmers raised their animals under those types of conditions because it worked, and practically no off-farm inputs were required – they couldn’t afford them. This is the way Russian and Poland supplies 85% of the food for their nations – from small farmers like that. They have already gotten past the collapse of industrial agriculture. Learn about the small farmers close to you who are doing things right – it pays off for your health.

    David Marino wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  22. Shellfish? Seriously? The last I heard, Elohim forbade the eating of shellfish. So did I take your advice over Elohim’s to eat unclean food? NOT A CHANCE!

    Karen wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  23. I add turmeric to fruit smoothies sometimes. It doesn’t have much flavour, and you don’t need a lot of it to get the benefits. Or throw it into soups or stews, especially if you’re using spices like curry or cumin. Turmeric is in most commercial curry powders, but not all. If you buy curry powder or garam masala without turmeric, you cna add your own to the dish.

    JoAnn wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • That’s a really good idea -lots of turmeric really eases those little aches and pains, but I forget to use it in my cooking. Will try this!

      Rene R wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  24. With respect to bone marrow and broth — I have been making my own bone broths for several months and usually let it simmer for 24 hours. After that time I generally find that the marrow from the beef bones has dissolved into the broth. I assume I am getting the full nutrients from the marrow in my broth. Does anyone know if this it true, or is there a benefit (other than yumminess) to eating the marrow? I’ve never actually tried marrow, but wouldn’t be adverse to roasting a few bones before making broth from them on the next batch. Thanks!

    Tricia C wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Hi Tricia C, when I can get my hands on grass-fed marrow bones sawn into troughs and rounds, I sprinkle salt on the middle bits and roast them for half an hour. In this time they soften completely, with a crisp, umami shell that.. I have to keep swallowing… is so delicious, satisfying, a full hit of deep sustenance you literally feel the enamel on your teeth grow back, your spine straighten and strengthen, nails harden, mind clear.
      Then chuck the bones in broth and carry on.

      Madama Butterfry wrote on January 3rd, 2013
  25. Great post, as usual, thank you, Mark!
    And it’s good to know that I take most part of what you say on a weekly basis!
    Another way to eat whole animals (organs) for those who are not used to it is in stews.
    Here there’s an old recipe for a rabbit stew with all the organs, even the brain and the eyes but without seeing them:
    Note: you can use the translator on the top right, as my web is in Spanish
    http://spartangourmet.blogspot.com.es/2011/02/conejo-guisado-al-vino-tinto.html

    Nacho Rubio wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  26. Hi all. I’m confused. I joined the primal road a couple of months ago and have read everywhere that dairy is out. Why are cheese and yogurt on the list. Love them both by gave them up in my effort to be paleo.

    Mmgoodin wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  27. Turmeric is a daily addition to my power primal smoothie. As are Brazil nuts and macadamia. Have not quite stretched to putting fish in the blender yet!

    Steve wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Here’s a way to put some fish in your blender (or food processor, more accurately). Before giving up bread, my husband and I made this sandwich from Mark Bittman all the time. Now we just spread it on lettuce and/or celery instead of serving as an open-face sandwich:
      Tuna-Anchovy Sandwich
      Mash oil-packed tuna with some anchovies, garlic, & lemon juice. Fold in some pitted black olives, halved cherry tomatoes, and chopped basil, parsley & other fresh herbs available in garden. Spread on veggie of choice!

      defrog wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  28. The list is a little overwhelming as I am just starting primal. I’m super happy that the list was created. As I become accustomed to this new way of life I will try to find ways to incorporate these super foods.

    bamabelle wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  29. Bite-sized grass fed cows? Hilarious! And then I thought….they sell little bite-sized frozen mice (called pinkies)at pet food stores, to feed snakes, etc. Not sure they’re grass-fed, Mark, but an unusual and whole source of protein……

    fitmom wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  30. I so wish I can get on board with eating fish guts, raw egg yokes and liver.

    Carla wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • I agree about the fish guts and liver…but raw egg yolks are the bomb! You can easily avoid any squeamishness by putting them in a smoothie, or using them to make mayo, or making hollandaise sauce…you can really mix egg yolks into anything and not know they’re there.

      Alyssa Luck wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Try making a smoothie and pop a raw egg in. You won’t taste it but you get all the benefits! :-)

      Sharon Butler wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • With the little fishies like anchovies you don’t know you’re eating the guts. Or ground up in home made salad dressing. Egg yokes are GREAT in smoothies, home made ice cream, or even home made bars! And I normally don’t like liver, but I LOVE pate. Try just a little on celery or a paleo cracker and work your way up.

      MN_John wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  31. On a trip to Venezuela I earned a reputation the I would eat anything that didn’t eat me first.
    Where do you buy “whole” sardines and anchovies?
    Also, I make my own saurkraut and pickled peppers using brine, then drink the left-over juice, for added probiotics.

    Fred Timm wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  32. Awesome list, thank you Mark!!

    mars wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  33. Great article- thanks! I have a question… If you are aiming for low carb high fat how many sweet potatoes and fruit should you be eating? Or are the fruits you mention here lower in sugar and thus better to eat a lot of? Ditto the sweet potato.

    Alida wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  34. I need beef liver recipes!!!! The wonderful farmer I get my grass fed beef from gave me about 25 pounds of beef liver. I have a hard time eating it, however, and am looking for good recipes for hiding the taste – pates, or anything else that hide the flavor (liver and onions isn’t enough), is helpful.

    Any suggestions?

    DuncaN wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Fondue?

      Hilda wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • Liver and bacon, at a ratio of 1:627?

      Jeff wrote on January 2nd, 2013
    • I soak beef liver in a bit of lemon juice overnight before cooking. That seems to improve the flavor and texture. I like a pate made with sauteed beef liver, mushrooms, onions, a couple of cloves of garlic, a piece or two of bacon, sauteed in lard or butter or coconut oil. Cook and blend. Yum.

      Susan wrote on January 3rd, 2013
    • How do you eat 25lbs of liver? One bite at a time:

      Liver Vitamins:
      While still frozen, cut up some liver in small, easy to swallow pieces and use it as a daily vitamin. (Swallow it still frozen).

      Paleo Bon Rurgundy wrote on January 3rd, 2013
  35. Have you tried Wildbrine sauerkraut or kimchi? SO bomb and raw cultured

    Alex wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  36. Great know that most of the things on the list is part of my regular diet. Cheese no. Sardines or anchovies are great mashed with hard boiled egg and curry along with a hit of turmeric, makes for an interesting curry egg, on corn crisp bread.

    Jo Sheppard wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  37. Thanks Mark. I went out today and bought some seaweed salad — delicious!

    Cas wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  38. Great post! Yup, capitalize Brazil in Brazil nuts. ;-) But be sure to let everyone know to get rid of those anti nutrients by soaking then drying them plus they taste even better done the WAPF way. They are a lot easier to digest done that way also.

    Mikki wrote on January 2nd, 2013
  39. I’d just add a note of caution about seaweed and shellfish for 4 reasons–mercury (recognized for some time now), Corexit and oil pollution from the Macondo spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the antibiotics given farm-raised fish, and ongoing radiation from Fukishima. I think it’s now vital to know where your fish and shellfish is coming from.

    Andrew wrote on January 2nd, 2013

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