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24 Sep

A Visual Guide to Antioxidants (Fridge-Friendly!)

aaaaaAntioxidants serve as a powerful first line of defense against oxidative damage from aging, stress, and inflammation. Moreover, antioxidants appear to contain cancer-fighting properties and to support the immune system (among many other benefits). The ones included in this graphic are considered some of the most important. Though many, many foods contain these valuable antioxidants, we’ve listed a few of the most potent and popular choices for each class of antioxidants.

- Antioxidants can be broken into two general categories: antioxidant nutrients (including phytonutrients) and antioxidant enzymes. Vitamins, minerals and the various -noids detailed below are in the first category.

Flavonoids (also called bioflavonoids) are pigment compounds and are polyphenolic. They are present in most flowering plants and number in the thousands. They are commonly grouped under anthocyanidins, proanthocyanins, and phenolics. The coolest fact about flavonoid antioxidants: they offer a double-punch because they improve vitamin C’s antioxidant capabilities!

Carotenoids are fat-soluble. (Beta carotene is the most studied, but there are 600+ carotenoids we know about so far. Other popular ones include lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene.) Carotenoids are not interchangeable with vitamin A, nor is vitamin A an antioxidant! This is a common misconception. Beta carotene can convert to vitamin A in the body, of course.

– The antioxidant enzymes are superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). SOD: Cruciferous vegetables are a must! CAT: Get enough iron from beef, tofu, mushrooms and sturdy greens to ensure proper catalase production. GPx: Selenium activates this enzyme, so get plenty of eggs, chicken, and fresh garlic in your diet!

This list of antioxidants is certainly not comprehensive, as there are thousands of phytonutrients currently being studied and more are discovered every year. Bottom line: the more you get, the better! A combination of prudent supplementation and plentiful, colorful vegetables is your smartest bet.

Sources 1, 2, 3

Further Reading:

10 Easy Ways to Boost Your Serotonin

16 Ultimate Super Foods

Flickr Photo Buddies (CC license): nuts, tomato, kale, egg, veggies

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Imagine you’re George Clooney. Take a moment to admire your grooming and wit. Okay, now imagine someone walks up to you and asks, “What’s your name?” You say, “I’m George Clooney.” Or maybe you say, “I’m the Clooninator!” You don’t say “I’m George of George Clooney Sells Movies Blog” and you certainly don’t say, “I’m Clooney Weight Loss Plan”. So while spam is technically meat, it ain’t anywhere near Primal. Please nickname yourself something your friends would call you.

  1. PS – Though I left it out of the post (too many to cover) I recommend ensuring you get plenty of CoQ10 as well. I personally take the Master Formula as it has the most potent, comprehensive antioxidant profile for the value.

    Sara wrote on September 24th, 2007
  2. Interesting article here

    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-03/osu-sfn030507.php

    about a study that showed flavonoids are not directly antioxidant, but are still beneficial through a different mecahnism:

    “If you measure the activity of flavonoids in a test tube, they are indeed strong antioxidants,” Frei said. “Based on laboratory tests of their ability to scavenge free radicals, it appears they have 3-5 times more antioxidant capacity than vitamins C or E. But with flavonoids in particular, what goes on in a test tube is not what’s happening in the human body.”

    Chris wrote on September 25th, 2007
  3. That is interesting, Chris, and thanks for the link.

    Sara wrote on September 25th, 2007
  4. From Mark’s excellent argument against raw foodism:
    “Fact: You cannot be deficient in enzymes (unless you have a rare genetic condition). You don’t need enzymes from food. Your body has its own digestive enzymes or builds specific enzymes within cells to catalyze biochemical reactions. No amount of living or dead food is going to change that. Don’t fall for enzyme therapy, “curative” enzyme supplements (unless they are digestive enzymes), and diets that focus on enzymes. Some of those juicer infomercials focus on “enzyme benefits” and they drive me nuts (I’ve ranted about this, of course).”

    I’m confused here. It seems that Mark is arguing that enzymes don’t have a nutritive benefit. To me, the enzymes they speak of in juicer infomercials would be antioxidant enzymes – ones derived from juicing vegetables. Without getting into why you shouldn’t juice and rather just eat the vegetable, and following the rest of his argument, shouldn’t the exception he makes for enzyme supplements be for antioxidant enzymes rather than digestve ones?

    chris wrote on September 25th, 2007
  5. Chris,

    Wow. Good stuff. Sometimes we are so close to this we forget how confusing it can be. CoQ10 is a “co-enzyme”. It is vital to human functioning. In fact, it probably should have been given “vitamin” status when they were naming all the vitamins. Many vitamins (and CoQ10)are considered co-enzymes in that they are involved in the operations or manufacturing of actual enzymes (but they are NOT enzymes themselves). Co-enzymes are co-factors upon which some of the larger, more complex enzymes depend to accomplish their tasks. Those larger enzymes are the ones I suggest you can’t consume in food and hope that they will have an affect on your health, because the acid in your stomach will break them down before they reach the bloodstream.

    Mark Sisson wrote on September 25th, 2007
  6. Mark and team:

    I’m curious about glutathione . . . I read Art de Vany’s blog and he talks about taking a glutathione supplement along with your Damage Control. I’m using DC now. Any plans to include glutathione in it? Or should I add on an additional glutathione supplement?

    Thanks

    Drew

    Drew wrote on December 13th, 2007
  7. Why does the Wiki Say this:

    “…there is evidence that some types of vegetables, and fruits in general, protect against a number of cancers.[133] These observations suggested the idea that antioxidants might help prevent these conditions. However, this hypothesis has now been tested in many clinical trials and does not seem to be true, since antioxidant supplements have no clear effect on the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.”

    While everyone agrees that eating these foods can prevent “Cancers” its just the whole “free radical / antioxidant” connection to specific health gains, etc is on shakey ground.

    When I have these discussion with friends they always tell me I am more prone to gamma rays than having free radicals in my body. Comments?

    Daniel Merk wrote on July 24th, 2009
  8. Oh my goodness! a tremendous article dude. Thank you However I am experiencing challenge with ur rss . Don’t know why Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting equivalent rss problem? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

    ugg corte ingles wrote on February 13th, 2012

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