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2 More Common Nutrient Deficiencies (and What to Do About Them)
Posted By Mark Sisson On April 26, 2012 @ 8:00 am In Diet,Nutrition | 109 Comments
In our rush to ditch processed, boxed, packaged, refined foods, we run the risk of missing out on several key nutrients that they come fortified with, courtesy of food producers (what would we do without them?!) who recognize that the people who live off their nutrient-free food products need some actual nutrition amidst the sugar  and the crunch. In case you don’t know what I mean, swing through the cereal aisle of a grocery store sometime and check out the nutrition facts for a few products. A single serving of something like Frosted Flakes is fortified with most of the B-vitamins, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, and folic acid, often the full RDI. Well, it turns out these nutrients are attainable through actual food. No, really. So instead of relying on Frosted Flakes for our iron, or Wheaties for our zinc we can eat real food. But sometimes the real foods that contain the nutrients we need aren’t the ones we think to eat, and this can become a problem.
That said, let’s look at a couple more nutrients (I covered five last week ) that I suspect people may be missing out on.
Manganese. How many of you have scanned this word and assumed it was magnesium, perhaps misspelled? I know I have, but I also know that it’s one of those trace minerals that regulates dozens of enzymatic reactions in the body, and that it’s really important. It’s also a primary constituent of one of our favorite endogenous antioxidants, manganese superoxide dismutase, which is active in our mitochondria .
Shoot for 2-5 mg per day or so.
Choline is the precursor for acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved with memory; it’s an integral component of two important phospholipids; and the liver uses it to process fats and package lipids. The real authority on choline is Chris Masterjohn of the Daily Lipid  blog. In fact, I’ll refer to his series of choline posts from time to time, because they do a far better job of explaining than abstracts from PubMed.
550 mg for men and 425 mg for women, bare minimum. Pregnant, soon-to-be-pregnant, and breastfeeding women should increase their intake considerably, as low choline intake is associated with neural tube defects . Ah, heck, I bet everyone could do with a little more choline in their diets, especially if you’re not scared of dietary fat.
Let me reiterate something about all these nutrient deficiencies : I’m not talking about acute deficiencies, for the most part. You’re not going to end up in the ER with a deathly case of hypokalemia (potassium deficiency). You probably won’t get scurvy from a lack of vitamin C, even while crossing the Atlantic on a crusty galleon, nor will you develop goiter because you’re living on foods grown in completely iodine-deficient soils. And yet milder, somehow more pernicious deficiencies of these nutrients are a real possibility, even among Primal eaters. These are the symptoms that “everyone has,” that are “just part of getting old.” Bad lipids, fatty liver, fibromyalgia , constipation, general fatigue throughout the day – these are the new normal. But because you’re clued in to the state of your body, and you’re not just going through the motions and accepting the “fact” that you’re going to feel like crap most of the time and it’s all out of your control, you notice when things are off. When you notice something’s off, you explore the literature for clues and nutrient interactions and potential deficiencies. And you’ll often find them.
You’re not alone. Plenty of people on the Standard American Diet are deficient in many or all of these nutrients; they just don’t know it, and they never know to test for it. If they’re lucky, they find out they have fatty liver, but their doctor never mentions choline. Their kids might have asthma, but they hear nary a peep about manganese. They’re put on thyroid medication immediately, without exploring iodine and selenium supplementation. They’re developing osteoporosis, and the only nutritional intervention the doctor considers is calcium, before turning to the drugs. There’s no mention of other trace minerals.
Though it may force you out of your comfort zone, the heightened awareness of nutrients and their roles in health and disease is ultimately a good thing. Embrace it.
Well, that about wraps it up. If I’ve made an egregious omissions from this short series of posts, be sure to let me know in the comment section. Thanks for reading!
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 covered five last week: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/5-common-nutrient-deficiencies-and-what-to-do-about-them/
 mitochondria: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/managing-your-mitochondria-nutrients-and-supplements/
 associated with childhood asthma: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16391832
 similar relationship between dietary manganese intake and asthma: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2111195/
 Bone mineral density: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/calcium-supplements-goitrogenic-foods-high-mufa-seed-oils-and-jogging/
 calcium: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/calcium-for-women/
 Manganese also plays a small but important role in skeletal health: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8409100
 A macrobiotic diet that left his serum manganese levels entirely undetectable: http://www.fortmyersbeachtalk.com/page/content.detail/id/500825.html?nav=5048
 PDF: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=manganese%20and%20calcium%20absorption%20and%20balance%20in%20young%20women%20fed%20diets%20with%20varying%20amounts%20of%20manganese%20and%20calcium&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fddr.nal.usda.gov%2Fbitstream%2F10113%2F49344%2F1%2FIND44578781.pdf&ei=TdeVT8mwJqeUiALfn6jECg&usg=AFQjCNFTCBAstkvMCT5DuebqJFvlJeuN4A&sig2=Sx2STWdKNybaPx0rs0o_0g
 beef: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/the-differences-between-grass-fed-beef-and-grain-fed-beef/
 berries: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/best-fruit-choices/
 shellfish: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/types-of-shellfish/
 avoid all nuts all the time because of omega-6: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/nuts-omega-6-fats/#axzz1sw6lgvxa
 manganese can reduce the absorption of dietary iron: http://www.ajcn.org/content/54/1/152.abstract
 meat: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/will-eating-red-meat-kill-you/
 walnuts: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/walnut-oil/#axzz1sw8GF8zJ
 mac nuts: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/macadamia-oil/
 Daily Lipid: http://blog.cholesterol-and-health.com/
 choline deficiency is majorly responsible for fatty liver: http://blog.cholesterol-and-health.com/2010/11/sweet-truth-about-liver-and-egg-yolks.html
 very low-density lipoprotein synthesis in the liver is disrupted: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3904950
 lipid panel: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/how-to-interpret-cholesterol-test-results/
 often caused by a choline deficiency: http://www.mendeley.com/research/methioninecholine-deficient-dietary-model-steatohepatitis-not-exhibit-insulin-resistance/
 PDF: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=choline%20deficiency%20in%20mice%20and%20humans%20is%20associated%20with%20increased%20plasma%20homocysteine%20concentration%20after%20a%20methionine%20load&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCwQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ajcn.org%2Fcontent%2F81%2F2%2F440.full.pdf&ei=gjaWT7-RL4iLiAKBmIXjCQ&usg=AFQjCNGxvgs1YFBHRAdXzY136JiEE5JBlg&sig2=0MVB6AZ7eMAaIq2VHDQe2Q
 One study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11190987
 cholesterol: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/cholesterol/
 offal: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/organ-meats/
 Liver and other offal bits: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/tails-tendons-and-tripe-a-guide-to-discovering-the-odd-bits/
 eating liver: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/6-sneaky-ways-to-work-offal-into-your-diet/
 beef cube steak: http://www.livestrong.com/article/524573-nutrition-in-ground-beef-and-cube-steak/
 associated with neural tube defects: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19593156
 fibromyalgia: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/fibromyalgia-pharmaceutical-companies-promotion-marketing/
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